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essary to notice the variety and desultory character of many other symbols, taken from the elements-thunder and lightning, hail and tornado, tempests and volcanoes, from a great city, from a sealed book, from the harvest, and the vintage, a supper, and a great battle, and the like. Nor is it necessary to detail the rules which different commentators have laid down, by which to determine the import of a symbol, in any of its particular uses; some excellent remarks on which subject may be found in Johnson's introduction to his Exposition of the book of Revelations, and Mr. Faber's Calendar of Sacred Prophecy, and other works of kindred character. Enough has been brought into view to give some general idea of the nature and structure of symbolical language, and to show that while things, either simple or compounded, are made the representatives of ideas, such language, nevertheless, as distinctly and definitely as alphabetical, directs us to LITERAL MATTERS OF FACT, REAL OBJECTS AND EVENTS, matters of visible observation in this world, HISTORICALLY TO BE VERIFIED.

4. There is yet what may be called a fourth style of language in which prophecy has been sometimes delivered, viz. that of TYPES.

TYPES are often confounded with symbols, because they bear a very strong resemblance to them, being visible signs, figures, actions, persons, rites, or institutions, representing something intended to be made known. There are, however, one or two essential points of difference. A type was understood to represent something future, just as a copy does the original, and in this sense, the word is generally used in contradistinction from antetype, which denotes the original or thing itself.* In this sense Paulf says

* See Warburton's Div. Leg., vol. ii. pp. 646,647. Rom. 5. 14.

Adam was a type of Christ. Isaac, too, as required by God to be sacrificed, and as offered by Abraham, * was a type of Christ, by which Paul says Abraham received some clearer views as to the love and providences of God in sacrificing the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, the Messiah. The paschal lamb was a type of redemption by Jesus Christ. The brazen serpent was a type of the cross of Christ as the means of salvation. The Levitical priesthood, and, indeed, the whole tabernacle and its furniture, with its various ordinances and worldly sanctuary, were typest of Christ, the great High-priest of our profession, officiating, as He now does, in a greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, the original or ante. type which the tabernacle, suited to a migrating state in the wilderness, and the temple afterwards adapted to a more permanent state, were designed to represent.

Another difference between types and symbols is, that the import and use of the latter grew naturally out of the poverty of language, whereas the former depend, originally and entirely, upon the appointment of God, or the fact that He designedly employed them as a means of instruction. This, idea is of great importance in the study and interpretation of the Scriptures; for it will administer, in THE FIRST PLACE, a necessary

check to those who are disposed to give loose to their imaginations, and interpret everything historical and ceremonial, under the Old Testament, as typical of something under the New—and, in THE SECOND PLACE, supply the proper guide and limitations as to what is called the secondary, occult, or double sense of prophecy. We are not authorized to say this action or the other, this person, event, cere

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monial, or the other, was typical, unless we learn, from the Sacred Scriptures, directly or indirectly, that God so intended it to be. Nor are we to take it up as a general principle, and employ it for the interpretation of all prophecy, that because some predictions have been unquestionably delivered intentionally with a double reference, therefore we must seek a double meaning-first a literal, and then a spiritual—in all.

These remarks will be better understood from a brief view of the nature and origin of types. One of the most ancient, simple, and natural modes of communicating men's conceptions to each other, is by expressive actions. It is equally applicable to civil and religious matters. There is reason to believe that the very first revelation God ever made to man, of the fact and scheme of redemption through Jesus Christ, was made in this way. From the historical account given by Moses in the 3d chapter of Genesis, of the pronouncing of the curse on the human race, it would appear that God, Adam, Eve, and the serpent,

, , were all present. Whatever may have been the original form or character of the serpent, which there is reason, from the very words of the curse pronounced on it, to believe was different from what it is now, one thing is certain, that it was but the innocent visible instrument, employed and actuated by an invisible and malignant spirit for the seduction of the “Mother of us all.”

One design of the pronunciation of the curse was, to teach our first parents the existence and presence of a malignant, invisible being, * hostile to their happiness; and also that, notwithstanding his temporary

; triumph over them, he should nevertheless be overcome, and there be escape for men from under his do

* See Hengstenburg's Christology, v. i. p. 26 41.

minion. God can change at will, without violating any moral obligation or impeaching his benevolence, the form and functions of any mere animal devoid of a rational soul; especially should this be done for the purpose of illustrating or giving a lively exhibition of important moral truth. Presuming, as we may justly, that the serpent instantly, on the pronouncing of the curse, changed its form, and, falling prostrate on the earth, began to creep abjectly and disgustingly on its belly, there could not have been given to our first parents a more significant illustration, and pledge of the ultimate fulfilment of the prediction, that “the seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head.” And if, as is most likely, the special dislike of mankind to the serpent, where the light of revelation is had, was the result of these historical recollections, we have, in these very feelings, a perpetuated proof of God's veracity and faithfulness in the fulfilment of his promise, to destroy the dominion of Satan, and to establish a lasting enmity between him and the seed of the

While the whole was veritable matter of history, obvious to the eye, it became a very appropriate and significant type of other things, as literally and truly to occur. Such typical actions were afterwards very common-examples of which we have in the sig. nificant or typical actions of the prophets Ezekiel, Jeremiah, Hosea, Isaiah, and others: such as the car. rying out of the household stuff ;* the portraying of Jerusalem on a tilet and laying siege to it; the burying of a linen girdle ;f the lying on the side so many days; the marring of the vessel on the potter's wheel;ll the breaking of the potter's vessel ;I the marriage of


* Ezek. 12. 1-11. $ Ezek. 4. 4-6.

† Ezek. 4. 1-3.
|| Jer. 18. 1-10.

| Jer. 13. 1-15. 1 Jer. 19. 1-15.

whoredoms, and birth and names of the prophets' children.* Whatever


be the truth and force of these remarks, as to the typical actions of God when he first pronounced the curse, it is certain, that very soon after the fall of our first parents, God ordained the rite of sacrifice, which afterwards was adopted into the Levitical ritual, and was, as we learn, from the beginning, a type of the sacrifice of the woman's seedthe atonement of Jesus Christ for the redemption of the world.t

The passover, a rite divinely instituted to commemorate the deliverance of Israel from Egypt, was also a type of redemption from sin, and death, and hell, by the sacrifice of Christ, our passover or paschal lamb without spot and blemish, who was offered for us. We need not notice further examples. Suffice it to say, that the priesthood of Melchizedek and of Aaron the high priest, and the essential ordinances of the Mosaic ritual, were all divinely appointed types or foreshadowing resemblances and copies of the great original, Jesus Christ. For it was not only actions that were made typical, but also persons. Thus, Isaac offered for sacrifice by his father Abraham, Israel collectively called and delivered out of Egypt, Moses as a prophet and mediator, David as a conqueror, and Solomon as a peaceful and glorious king, and others, were employed by God, and in his providence placed in circumstances, to foreshadow or represent some attributes and features in the character and work of Jesus Christ. The one was the type of the other, but both were equally veritable persons, and real actors in

* Hos. 1. 2. 3.
† See Delancy's Revelation Examined, v. i. Diss. 8.
# Warburton's Divine Legation, v. ii. p. 499.

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