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"But they [the Boroughmongers] have now an enemy to deal with, "whom they will never subdue: that is, the DEBT, which, of course, is
our true friend. The wars against America and France, the chief "object of both of which was to prevent a reform of parliament, could not "be carried on without loans, or without giving up the offices, pensions,
sinecures, grants and other emoluments; and (mark well) to be able to "retain these was the object in preventing reform. Yet, it was impossible "to raise money enough in taxes to continue these emoluments and to "carry on the wars too. Hence the Debt, the Funds, the Paper-money, "and those rivals of the Borough Gentlemen, the Fundholders. This is a serious business for the high-blooded order; for either they must give "up their emoluments and their estates into the bargain, or the Fundholders "must go unpaid, in part at least: This is the real state of the thing at "this moment. The Borough System approaches its crisis. Have "patience, my worthy countrymen; only a little patience, and you will 86 see that these borrowers and these lenders will, at last, do like most "other borrowers and lenders; that is to say, come to an open quarrel, "after having long cursed each other in their hearts. THAT WILL BE THE DAY FOR THE PEOPLE; and, in' anxious expectation of that day, I remain most, sincerely your friend, WM. COBBETT."-Register, dated Long Island, 4th July, 1817, Vol. 32. p. 704.
SIR JAMES GRAHAM, BART.,
On his Pamphlet, entitled "CORN AND CURRENCY;" which Pamphlet is addressed to the "LAND-OWNERS," and which Pamphlet contains a proposition for (in fact) robbing the whole Nation, and the Fundholders in particular, for the purpose of upholding the Aristocracy and the Established Clergy.
Burghclere, 22d August, 1826. AFTER again observing, that I use the word " Sir," as applied to you, merely for form's sake; after repeating that I call you "Sir," saving my right to call you what I please besides; after
this, I proceed, as I proposed, at the close of my last Letter, to take a view of THE MEANS, which you point out to the LANDOWNERS for what you call preserving their estates and " upholding their rank and dignity." X
Printed and Published by WILLIAM COBBETT, No. 183, Fleet-street. [ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL.J
These means consist of a dou-and more profligate than ever beble-handed robbery; that is, a fore came from the pen of man. tax on bread and a reduction of "The course, therefore, to be the fundholder's interest, and both" adopted by them the Landat one and the same time! We "owners] is to consent to a revihave heard of, and we have wit-"sion of the Corn-Laws, to connessed, a great deal of Aristocra-" sent to free importation with a tical insolence before now; but," moderate protecting duty [15s. never, I verily believe, have we, a quarter for wheat, as stated until this day, heard of insolence" in page 96] but to force also at equal to this. Saucy, impudent, "the same time a revision of all proud, inflated, empty, conceited" other monopolies, and to carry coxcombs enough have we seen a reduction of taxes to a very amongst the "high-blooded " folks; "large amount.-The sinkingbut, it remained for the descendant" fund of five millions annually of the "Earls of Monteith " and " is, in the first place, available; of "John with the bright sword"" and then, inasmuch as I have to be guilty of insolence at once" proved, that Mr. Peel's Bill, in so disgusting and so provoking, as" full operation, will be a bonus to make the stomach heave at you, "to the annuitant of more than while the foot instinctively moves" 30 per cent., I strenuously and upwards towards that part of your" boldly contend, both for the body best calculated to receive its "equity and the necessity of imblows; and, I'm the greatest posing a direct tax to a conrogue that ever lived, if I do not "siderable amount on all annuifeel the toes of my right foot itch" ties charged on land, or payable while I write. What! tax the" from the Exchequer.” bread of us all, and reduce the The ordinary reader will interest of the debt too! Where scarcely believe his eyes when he is the honest hand, which, at the sees this; but when he once gets bare sound of the words, does not well acquainted with the descendstretch itself out to get hold of a ants of the "Earls of Monteith"; broom-stick or a cowkin! If your when once he gets amongst these pamphlet could be read in an a little while, and has heard them age or two hence, the readers for a reasonable space bragging would certainly believe, that there about "John with a bright sword," were, in your time, no hedge- there is very little in this way that rows, or coppices, to grow sticks, will surprise him. The above and that people had no use of must, however, be understood by their fists or feet. What! tax the reader. It means, that "all our bread and reduce the interest annuitics charged on land” are to of the debt too; and do this be reduced, at the same time that avowedly, for the purpose of pre- the interest on the national debt serving the dignity of the Aris-is reduced; that is to say, all renttocracy and the Clergy! How-charges, all allowances, all marever, let us now take your own riage-settlements, all jointures, words, lest the public should suppose, as it well might, that I have misrepresented you. Your proposition is, then, in the following words. Horrid words they are;
and all mortgages! Here is a pretty piece of robbery; for, observe, rents are not to be reduced; leases are to be binding upon the poor tenant; and, all debts
give any reason for the impossibility, except that such an adjustment would not permit the landowners to rob the rest of the community. Why is it impossible to
due to landlords, whether of com- ·|“ stipulated.”—So that this would mon contract, bond, note or bill, be something as nearly allied as are all to be paid in full. To il-possible to highway robbery. You lustrate this monstrous piece of say, "an equitable adjustment of Aristocratical infamy, suppose "contracts must be admitted to be Sir GRIPE JOLTERHEAD to be a" impossible." Must it, indeed? land-owner; suppose Farmer It would puzzle you, I believe, to Stump, who is a warm fellow, to rent a farm of Sir Gripe; suppose Stump's lease to bind him for ten years to come to give 5007, a-year for his farm; suppose him to have a mortgage on Sir Gripe's estate reduce the rent stipulated for of to the amount of ten thousand the lease of a farm, any more pounds, at five per cent. interest, than it is impossible to reduce the which interest would, of course, interest on a mortgage on that amount to 500/. a-year. Now this would take from STUMP, 500/. a-year, and would give him 500l. a-year; but, what would be his situation if your infamous proposition were adopted? Why, you would take thirty per-cent. out of his interest on the mortgage, and you would still make him pay the full nominal amount of his rent! So that he would still have to pay 5001. a-year, and receive only 350/.! Monstrous iniquity!
same farm? Why not reduce the leases of tithes, as well as reduce the mortgages on tithes? And why, pray, are not annuities, which are payable by insuranceoffices, or payable out of any trade, or mercantile establishment; why are not these annuities to be reduced as well as annuities payable out of lands? But, above all things, tell me, thou son of the bright sword, why annuities payable out of rent are to be reduced, and why the rent itself is to remain unreduced!
But, it may be said, that STUMP, in his capacity of mortgagee, may take in his mortgage. This cannot In short, the injustice is too be the case with the owner of the monstrous to be dwelt upon with rent-charge, the settlement, the patience. All this monstrous injointure, and the like; and, as if justice is to be committed, for your impudence were to have no what? Why, in order to preserve bounds, you propose to take care, the Aristocracy and the Clergy; that even the mortgagee shall not and this is, as far as I can see, all foreclose, and get out of the land- the reason that you have for your owner's clutches. You say: "It proposition. Speaking of the "would not be impossible to de- French in the reign of Louis the "vise a special remedy for this Fourteenth, you say, "There was "difficulty; since, even without" scarcely a proprietor of land who any legislative interference, the "did not see his patrimony melt "Lord Chancellor, during the" away, without possessing the "war, in the exercise of a sound slightest means of prevention."discretion, frequently granted "This is the present fate of the "to the mortgager a greater" Land-owners of this country; "length of time for the repayment" they are striving in vain against "of the principal than the contract" engagements which they cannot
"meet. Creditors in general re- twenty years you kept one half of "ceive an undue proportion of the country in a state of incessant "earnings; and a sure, but de- conflict; your measures gave rise "structive revolution, is in pro- to insurrections, rebellions, im"gress, by which, if it be not ar-prisonments, transportings, hang"rested, the ancient aristocracy ings and quarterings innumerable; "of these realms must ultimately for those twenty-two years, you "be sacrificed to creditors and rendered miserable every human "annuitants." What! Sacrificed, being in this country, yourselves do you say! Sacrificed to" an-excepted; and NOW: now, just nuitants"! Oh! no: you should God! after all your boasts about not talk at this rate; you, an old victory; after all your bragging Pittite, who talks with such rever- about having crushed the reence of Pitt and his crew: you formers; after all your two-andshould not say sacrificed to an- twenty years of war to prevent nuitants: you should say, sacri-revolution, as you called it; after ficed to our excellent friends, our all this, you tell us, that there is dear good friends, our brother now" a DESTRUCTIVE REloyalists, who lent us their money VOLUTION in progress"! Is to pay Hanoverians and Hessians there, indeed! It may be destrucand others with, in order for us tive to you, son of the "bright to keep down the "jacobins and sword"; it may be destructive, also, -levellers,"AND TO PREVENT to insolent and infamous boroughA REFORM OF THE PAR-mongers; but the people of EngLIAMENT. This it was that the land will take care that it shall debt was contracted for. This is not be destructive to them. what you borrowed the money God, thou art just! always for; and now, with that aristocra-just; but never so conspicuously tical ingratitude which is prover- just as in this case. It is notorious bial, you call your kind friends that the Whig Lords, and, in "annuilants;" and you represent the payment of your debts as a sacrifice. You represent the paying of your debts, "AS A DESTRUCTIVE REVOLUTION"!
Here is retributive justice! Let the Unitarians and the Quakers, with Carlile at their head, now deny that there is a God, if they can. For years and years and years, you, the Land-owners and the Clergy of this kingdom were urging on war; were causing rivers of blood to be shed; were causing millions of human beings to perish by the sword, or by the consequences of the sword; were tearing children from parents, husbands and fathers from wives and from children; for two-and
short, that the whole of the aristocracy and the clergy, who hated Pitt, joined him for the purpose of carrying on a war against the French, because the French had put down the ancient aristocracy of France; and because they apprehended a similar revolution in England, unless they could put down the revolution in France. Revolution was the thing which they said they wanted to prevent. When they were asked for reform, they said in so many words, that there could be no reform without a revolution. Revolution was the thing to be prevented. For this we were called upon to bleed and to pay; and when we thought the payment a little too much, OLD GEORGE ROSE (with two hundred
thousand pounds of our money in or, at least, putting down a great his pocket), told us that we ought deal lower than it now is. The picto think ourselves happy to have ture you draw of the thing is quite any thing at all left; for that a ludicrous, when one reflects on the revolution would have taken it all reality. Let us see this picture. away; and that, in short, the Let us see what an amiable demoney that we gave to prevent scription of persons you have the revolution, was a sort of sal-made these landlords to be. vage for what we had left; seeing Speaking of one of these heroes, that revolution had, as it were, al- one of these revolution-haters, ready taken possession of the one of these jubilee-keepers, whole of it; but one thing, above you proceed thus; What, then, all others, is a notorious fact, and is the alternative which presents openly avowed at the time, that" itself to him? Either be the war was begun and carried on," must drag out a degraded exand all to preserve the Aristocracy"istence on his paternal estate, and the Church, and to prevent a "exercising no more the hospitareform of the Parliament! This "lity of his ancestors, but gleanis a notorious fact. It is notorious" ing from his tenantry their earnthat the money was borrowed to "ings or their savings, himself the carry on the war with: it is noto-" hated steward of the annuitant rious that the loans created an- "and mortgagee; or, unlike the nuitants; and now you tell us that" country gentleman of England those loans, those very loans, those "in an happier day, he must very debts, which were contracted" leave his native home, become to keep up the Aristocracy and to" a wanderer abroad, or a jobber, enable it to trample on the peo- "a share-dealer, a placeman in ple; you now tell us, that those "the metropolis. He may sell very debts are causing a revolu-" his estate indeed. This would tion, destructive to the ancient Aris-" be considered only as a transfer tocracy, and calculated to put "of property; but what agony of them under the feet of those of mind does that word convey? whom they borrowed the money!" The snapping of a chain, linked In other words, that the Jews and perhaps by centuries; the dejobbers, and all the money-lend- "struction of the dearest local aters, whom the Aristocracy che-tachments, the dissolution of the rished and caressed, in order to "earliest friendships, the violaget from them the means of pre- "tion of the purest feelings of venting reform; that to these Jews, "the heart. Politicians and phijobbers and money-lenders "the"losophers may talk coldly of ancient Aristocracy of these realms" the transfer of old family must ultimately be sacrificed!"" estates, of throwing immense These are your own words, and if" tracts of the inferior soil out of they contain a true prediction (as "cultivation, of burying for ever I really believe they do), was there" the immense capital expended ever a more striking instance of" on it, and of the transfusion of the just judgments of God! "an agricultural into a manufac
You seem to think, that it would "turing population; but let them be a great pity to pull down this" remember the ties which must Aristocracy. I think, on the con-" be broken, the villages which must trary, that it wants pulling down; ["be deserted, the gardens to be