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"Ne'er to let it bind again

"The chain that will be broke from then."

(Tremendous applause, which continued for some time after the speaker had sat down.)

"that they took an erroneous view of "the subject, if they imagined that "their monopoly could any longer be "allowed to stand on the same "foundation as that on which it "rested in 1818. These measures "had, in his opinion, prepared the 2d. "That, in the opinion of this way for a safe alteration in the Corn-" meeting, the alarming distress in Laws, under such regulations, with the neighbouring districts cannot respect to duty, as would secure, at" be effectually remedied without a a moderate, reasonable, and steady" change in those laws which forbid price, a sufficient supply of that" the importation of foreign corn "first article of consumption; and " until corn of home growth shall "thus revive that which was the only "have attained a price which it is "legitimate foundation of power, and" impossible for the people of this source of wealth-namely, compara-country to pay; which laws, there"tive case and comfort to the labour-"fore amount to an exclusion of that "ing classes." To the necessary and corn, and which exclusion operates beneficent purpose thus announced, it" to the injury of the manufacturing is our duty to give all the support in" classes, and of the nation at large, our power, especially as the general" in the four following ways:-First, support of the country is necessary "In enhancing prodigiously the to enable the Ministers to encounter, 66 prices of the prime necessaries of with any chance of success, the al-"life. Second, In shutting out from most overwhelming authority of the British markets all those foreignlanded interest. In the discharge "ers, of various rations, whose need of the duty of contributing our sup-" of the goods which we make, is port, we are now called upon to ex- "surpassed only by our need of the press strongly and decisively an opi-corn which they offer in exchange. nion in favour of the measure. We " Third, In making it the interest are called upon to do this by all the" of those nations to encourage, by motives that would induce us to avert" all possible means, the progress of ruin from ourselves-by all the spirit "native manufactures; thus not and energy with which we would re- "only depriving us of the trade of pel, what the Corn-Laws are, an open supplying their wants, but raising and flagrant aggression on our rights-" them up against us into the most by all the pride and patriotism which" dangerous rivals in the trade of interest us in perpetuating and ex- "supplying the wants of those other tending the prosperity of our coun- "countries, the markets of which try-by all the wishes we entertain" are equally open to all. And, to preserve with foreign states those Fourthly, In introducing the spirit relations of peace and friendship "and practice of hazardous speculawhich shed blessings upon all; and "tions into the formerly steady and for the continuance of which, a free" regular business of all persons concorn trade would be an additional,"cerned in raising or selling the probably the most powerful, security;" products of the land, making the by all these motives and feelings are prosperity, even of the farmer, we now called upon to exert our- "and the supply of the fruits of the selves to break down the present odious" earth, to depend, not upon the inand destructive system; to establish"dustry of man, nor in the bounty the trade in corn on a just and solid" of the seasons, but upon a system basis; and that accomplished, by the" of averages, managed with so much same motives and feelings, shall we "falsehood and fraud as to produce be required hereafter so to resist all" the most deceptive and injurious subsequent interference, as "results.".


MR. MARK PHILLIPS seconded this Resolution, and expressed his conviction of its propriety, in a neat speech.


to show the ability of the country to fulfil its obligations, it was assumed that 3. 15s. per head, or 161. 7s. 6d. for each family, was the rate of contribution to the Revenue. They might MR. PRENTICE, in moving the be told this was a small sum or mere Third Resolution, said, that after the trifle-a thing not worth naming; picture of the state of the people in but we know, (said Mr. Prentice), the this town and its neighbourhood, distressing effects which result from which had been drawn by Mr. Potter withdrawing from the people so large with so much ability and feeling, and a portion of the produce of their hoas they all knew, unhappily, with so nest industry; and knowing it, it is much truth, and with the conviction proper and becoming in us as men, on their minds that the distress having, we trust, our hearts in the which he had described was not right place, to stand forward and delikely to be of short duration, it mand that what is wrung from a misewould be doing their duty only in rable and impoverished people, shall not part, and that not the most impor- be expended with wasteful extravatant part, if they stopped short with gance-(Applause.) He would not the expression of their opinions as to enter into any detail as to the varithe injurious operation of the Corn- ous items in which a reduction of exLaws. The Resolution which they penditure might be effected. had so unequivocally approved of, would not travel over the disgusting would go. forth as a decided expres- list of placemen, and sinecurists, and sion of the feeling which prevailed pensioners, who shared amongst them in this part of the country; but he so large a portion of the public money. trusted it would go forth, accompa- He had seen, in the reception of the nied also with as unequivocal and as honest cotton-spinners' remarks, that unanimous an expression of their such a detail would exhaust their pa opinion, as to the injurious effect of tience. He would not waste their inordinate taxation. (Applause.) time in exposing the wretched soAfter the strong and forcible manner phistry, that the national dignity was in which Mr. Shuttleworth had supported and upheld by the greatshown the weight of the burden im-ness of the amount expended on the posed by the Corn-Laws, he feared show and trappings of royalty; for he should not easily, by any means every man who had a particle of reaof his, lead them to look on other son or common sense must know it burdens as more intolerable; but he was not from the brilliancy and granwould be assisted by their own expe-deur of its court and its palaces, nor rience of the sufferings to which from the splendid equipages of its heavy taxation exposed them; and he ambassadors, but from power, and should be enabled, by Mr. S.'s calcula-power under just direction, that a tions, to show the proportion between country was respected and feared→ the pressure of the corn tax and the (Hear, hear!) He would not enter Government taxes. That gentleman into such details or arguments, but had stated that thirty-eight millions would briefly say, that if Mr. Hume's was the probable amount of that tax, recommendation was attended to, to which would be 38s. for every indivi- abandon the now palpable juggle of dual man, woman, and child, of our the Sinking Fund, and to exercise an population, or 71. or el. for each fa- ordinary degree of economy in the na mily. This was a great, a grievous tional expenditure, Ministers might retax, and such they all felt it. But lieve the country of taxes to the amount the Government taxes were still of ten millions a year. The possibi more grievous, still more intolerable; lity of great retrenchment was proved for, in a calculation made expressly by the fact that, at former periods of

our history, when the country was a revenue several times as great as not much less great and powerful" the whole revenue of England, is than it now is, a century ago, the" expended in the maintenance, apwhole expenditure was four millions."parently designed to be perpetual, He chose this period for illustration," of an immense standing army; in because it was after the introduction" support of what the Ministers of the funding system, that pernicious" themselves have denominated the system, which enabled a King and a "Dead Weight;' in the payment people to play at the game of war, "of greatly disproportioned salaries and shift the burden on posterity.-" to the officers of state; in supply(Hear, hear.) At that period, when" ing, by pensions and sinecures, the they had no National Debt to pay, the" means of extravagance to great whole expenditure was not more than" numbers of individuals and famia fourteenth part of the present ex- "lies to whom the public never was penditure. Now, he would ask, was "indebted for any the smallest porthere any thing in the present cir-"tion of service; and in various cumstances of the country to justify "other charges, for which the most an expenditure fourteen times larger prosperous condition any country than the expenditure in the reign of " ever knew could furnish no excuse, George the First? Coming to a late" and which, in this country, after period-a period subsequent to that" the exhaustion of a twenty-five war against our colonies, in which" years' war, are as unjustifiable in we expended a sum, the interest of" their principle as they are oppreswhich is larger than the revenue of sive and destructive in their efthat now great and flourishing repub-"fects." lic, even with the accession of debt so occasioned, the expenditure 34 years ago was not more than onefourth of what it is now. "But it seems," said he, "the machinery of State is the only machinery that has not received simplification and improvement; and while science and art have combined to lower the cost of every thing else, the cost of Government hus daily become greater and greater.

"Sd. That while ascribing so many evils to the operation of the "Corn-Laws, this meeting cannot "refrain, at a time like the present, "from declaring their belief that "much of the evil under which the "whole British people suffers, is to "be traced to the enormous account "of the taxes levied in this king"dom; an account which, to its 66 present extent, this meeting is "strongly of opinion, is unneces26 sary for the purpose of a govern"ment anxious only to promote the "public welfare, seeing that besides "the great sums applied in discharge "of the interest of the National Debt,

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This Resolution was seconded by Mr. CROFT.

MR. HARVEY, in moving the fourth Resolution, said, the great cruelty and injustice of the CornLaws has already been shown, and the prices that in consequence of these laws you are compelled to pay; it has also been shown that we are so oppressed with taxes as to be less able to pay for dear bread. Respecting the important Resolutions on these subjects, it is, therefore, unnecessary for me to say any thing. I shall confine myself to the laws appertaining to the paper-system-laws more injurious in their consequences than either the Corn-Laws, or the taxes, or any other laws I know of. Up to 1797 the Bank of England, and other banks, were compelled to pay their notes in cash; but the Bank of England, at that period unable to pay its notes in gold, got Pitt and his Parliament to pass a law to protect it against its creditors. After this period the paper was pushed out, and in consequence, through

the whole of the war, the price of In 1825 paper was pushed out to the corn got up from 4s. 6d. to 18s. or greatest extent; corn got up to 69s., 20s. per bushel. In this law there while in France it was 30s., and in was a clause to compel the Bank to Holland 24s. By this you will soo pay in specie six months after peace. what the paper system has done to Peace came, but no return to cash- make you eat dearer bread than the payments, and law after law was Corn-Laws or the taxes could. It has passed to protect the Bank, until the ruined the merchants and manufacyear 1819, when a Bill was passed, turers, so that they are no longer unanimously, called Peel's Bill, to able to give employment to the laprevent the Bank of England and bourer, and of course the labourer is other banks from issuing any notes suffering hunger and nakedness. We under 51. after May, 1823. During may pray for a repeal of the Cornthe period from 1819 to 1822, corn Laws-we may pray for a repeal of and almost every article of produce the taxes; but my firm conviction is, declined in price, because the bankers that we shall have neither a repeal of had to draw in their notes against the Corn-Laws, nor any material rethe day of cash payments, and pro- duction of taxation, until we get a reduce had to meet this reduced quan- formed Parliament. (Great applause.) tity of money. The Ministers and 4th. "That the enormous pressure Landlords saw plainly that there" of the Corn-Laws and the Taxes would be no rents.-(Laughter,) and therefore they preferred to enact another law to enable the bankers to issue their notes to 1825. From 1822, the time when all descriptions «tion of the measure for causing a of produce were as low, or lower

has been aggravated to an incal"culable extent by the arbitrary changes that have been made in the value of money by the opera

return to cash payments: the ab

than at any period for many years❝stract wisdom and necessity of such before, the price of every article measure, however injurious in its after the passing of the Small Note« immediate consequences, this meetBill, began to rise in price, because ing does not in the least dispute; the banks were pushing out their but which measure being unaccompaper again. (A person from the "panied with any remission of taxes, crowd cried out, That is the doctrine or any alteration in the. Cornof Cobbett.) Yes, it is the doctrine of Laws, has had the effect of lowerCobbett, and I am proud to declareing (in many cases to less than one that any information I possess on the half) the prices of all descriptions paper system I derive from him. I" of produce and of goods, except have read him for years, and I pub-those which the Corn-Laws and licly acknowledge my obligations to him. I say almost every article began to rise in price from 1822, but it will be sufficient to show how corn was affected. In 1822 corn in Eng-« land was 43s. per quarter, while in France it was 31s., in Holland 28s. In 1823 corn in England was 51s. (for at that time paper was coming out); in France it was 36s., and in Holland 31s. In 1824 corn in England was 62s. They have no alteration in France of the currency, therefore corn remained stationary, or nearly so; indeed it was lower, for I find it to be $2s., and in. Holland 25s.

the taxes have unnaturally kept up; and of lessening, in like proportion, the income, the profits, and the "wages of every man not dependent on the land and taxes."

MR. BURGESS, in seconding this Resolution, stated that, eighteen months ago, there were eighteen calico-printers in Cannon-street-not merely nominal printers, but persons having works of their own, and now there were only eight left, the others having stopped payment.

MR. HOLBROOKE regretted it

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had not fallen to abler hands to move "adoption of those great measures the fifth Resolution. Little need be" which, and which only, can, in the said in favour of petitioning George" opinion of this meeting, prevent the Fourth, for he was the father of his suffering and loyal people from the people. He felt surprised that " being hurried into the perils and such a measure should require such" the crimes of some awful convul a recommendation, and that any "sion, and which only can restore person should oppose a petition so permanent prosperity to all parts important and interesting. He al-" of His Majesty's dominions." luded to some expressions of Mr. Lilly, and successfully combated his arguments and opinions relative to the cause of the present distress. After an appropriate address, which we lament our limits will not allow us to give, he concluded by moving the fifth and last Resolution, which was seconded by Mr. Fielding.

5th. "That for all these manifold "and aggravated evils, this meeting "is firmly of opinion, no adequate "and lasting remedy can be applied,

except by a repeal (as prompt and "effectual as may be consistent with

the regard which is due to those interests which have been created "by the present artificial system, and "which depend upon it) of every "law which enhances the price of "bread, and obstructs the manufac

The Meeting, after giving three tremendous rounds of applause, and a vote of thanks to the Chairman, dispersed.


To his Most Gracious Majesty, George the Fourth, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. &c. &c. The Address and Petition of the Ley-payers of Manchester, at a Meeting held at the Manor Court-House, this seventeenth day of August, 1826, pursuant to public advertisement for that purpose,

Most humbly sheweth,

turing and commercial prosperity That your petitioners deem the "of the nation; and also by an im- time to have arrived when it is their "mediate abolition of taxes, to an duty to lay before your Majesty a "amount which this meeting does statement of the distressed and "not presume to specify, but which, alarming condition of a great portion "to produce the desired results, of your Majesty's subjects; of the "must be so great as to put an end causes by which your petitioners to all government expenditure be-deem that condition to have been "yond that which shall be suited to produced; and of those remedies, "the altered value of money, and the timely application of which ap"directly conducive to the freedom pears absolutely necessary to prevent, "and greatness of the kingdom; in England, consequences as disasthat therefore an address and peti-trous as any that ever befel a civil❝tion from this meeting be presented ized country. "to His Majesty, most earnestly and "respectfully stating those views "which this meeting has taken of "the causes and remedies of the "dreadful condition to which these "districts are reduced, and most "humbly beseeching him, that he "will be graciously pleased to as"semble the Parliament forthwith, "and to recommend the immediate

In discharge, therefore, of this their duty, your petitioners beg leave to state to your Majesty, that this town of Manchester, and the great manufacturing districts, of which it is the centre and the mart, are now suffering under the pressure of distress, which is wholly unexampled in its duration and extent; that this distress has already brought to insol.

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