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INTERNATIONAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

RAND-COMBE, LA, a t. of France, in the dep. of Gard, 31 m. n.w. of Nîmes, with I which it is connected by railway. Its inhabitants are largely engaged in mining

coal, lead, copper, and iron. The town contains glass works. Pop. of commune, 91, 13,141.

GRAND COUTUMIER OF NORMANDY is a collection of the ancient laws of Normandy, and is said to have been compiled in the third year of Henry III. It contains the laws and customs which were in use in England during the reigns of Henry II., Richard I., and John, and such also as were in force in Normandy after the separation of that duchy from England. The islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, and Sark are still governed by the coutumier of Normandy. See NORMANDY, CUSTOMARY LAW OF.

GRAND DAYS were those days in every term solemnly kept in the inns of court and chancery-piz , in Easter term, Ascension-day ; in Trinity term, St. John the Baptist's day ; in Michaelmas term, All Saints' day (and of late, All Souls' day); and in Hilary term, the festival of the Purification of our Lady, commonly called Candlemas-day ; and these are dies non juridici, no days in court.-Cowel.

GRANDEE'S (Span. grandes), the name by which the most highly privileged class of the nobility of the kingdom of Castile has been known since the 13th century. To them the crown had granted the right of bearing a banner, and of gathering mercenaries around it on their own account. The members of the royal family were as such included amongst the grandees. The honors of the grandees were hereditary ; they held lands from the crown on the tenure of military service, being bound to produce a certain number of lances, each lance being represented by a knight with four or five men atarms. The grandees were exempted from taxation, and could not be summoned before any civil or criminal judge without a special warrant from the king. They were entitled to leave the kingdom, and even to enter the service of a foreign prince at war with Castile without incurring the penalties of treason. Besides these privileges, which were common to them with the rest of the higher nobility, the grandees possessed several which were peculiar to themselves, or which they shared only with the so-called “Titulados"—the counts and dukes. Of these must especially be mentioned the right in all public transactions of being covered in the presence of the king. The king addressed a grandee as mi primo, my cousin-german;" whereas any other member of the higher nobility he called only mi pariente, “my relative.” In the national assemblies, the grandees sat immediately after the prelates and before the title nobility (titulados). They had free entrance into the palace, and into the private chambers of the monarch; and on the occasion of religious solemnities, they had their place in the chapel royal next to the altar. Their wives shared their dignities, the queen rising from her seat to greet them. Under Ferdinand and Isabella, cardinal Ximenes succeeded in breaking the power of the feudal nobility so completely, that by the end of the 15th c. the privileges both of the grandees and of the rest of the higher nobility were almost wholly abolished. Ferdinand's successor, Charles V., who considered it still necessary to bind to his party some of the pobles, and to reward others for the important services which they had rendered him, contrived out of an independent feudal nobility to construct a dependent court nobility. Gradually three classes of grandees arose out of this merely nominal pobility. It was the privilege of the first class to be commanded by the monarch to be covered before they had begun to address him. All grandees had the title Ercellency, and sentries were bound to present arms to them. By the revolution and under the government of Joseph Bonaparte, the dignities and privileges of the grandees were entirely abolished; but they were partially restored at the subsequent restoration.

GRAND FORKS, a co. in eastern N. Dakota, on the Red River of the North, formed in 1873; crossed by the Northern Pacific and Great Northern railroads; surface largely level; 1404 sq. m.; pop. '90, 18,357. Co. seat, Grand Forks.

GRAND PORKS, city and co. seat of Grand Forks co., N. D.; on the Red River of the North and the Great Northern and the Northern Pacific railroads; 25 miles n.w. of Crookston. It contains the university of North Dakota, St. Bernard's academy (R. C.), high school, Northwestern college of commerce, Grand Forks college (normal), and several national banks, and has flour and lumber mills, large agricultural and lumbering interests, and daily and weekly newspapers. Pop. '90, 4979.

GRAND HAVEN, city and co. seat of Ottawa co., Mich.; on lake Michigan, at the mouth of the Grand river, and the Detroit, Grand Haven, and Milwaukee, and the Chicago and West Michigan railroads; 110 miles n.e. of Chicago. It was a trading-post in 1825, was laid out in 1836, and was chartered as a city in 1865. The city has a deep harbor, steamboat communication with the principal lake ports, and a valuable trade in lumber, leather, flour, and other commodities. Water is supplied by a private and a city plant, on the Holly system, and there are steam street railroads, gas, and electric lights, Akeley institute, public library, national bank, churches of the leading denominations, and several newspapers. The principal industries are plate glass silvering and beveling, flower and celery cultivation, and the manufacture of engines, refrigerators, leather, furniture, brass novelties, matches, pails, and tubs. Pop. '90, 5023.

GRAND ISLE, the n.w. co. of Vermont, bordering on Canada, and on Lake Champlain, intersected by the Central Vermont railroad; 80 sq. m.; pop. '90, 3843. Within the territory are several small islands in the lake. Co. seat, North Hero.

GRANDISON, Sir CHARLES, the hero of Richardson's novel, The History of Sör Charles Grandison, in which he is represented as a man of the most admirable sort, uniting in his character the virtues of a sincere and earnest Christian with the qualities of a perfect English gentleman. Sir Charles Grandison is occasionally cited to typify a class of persons endowed with superlative gifts by nature and uniformly favored by fortune.

GRAND JURY is the assembly of good and sufficient men, summoned by order of the sheriff to attend every sessions of the peace, and every commission of oyer and terminer and general jail delivery in England, for the purpose of inquiring into the charges for offenses, and of returning to the court their delivery thereon. The institution of the grand jury dates back to the earliest period of English history, having been in use among the Saxons. By a law of Ethelred it is enacted, “Exeant seniores duodecim thani, et præfectus cum eis, et jurent super sanctuarium quod eis in manus datur, quod nolint ullum innocentem accusare, nec aliquem noxium cælare.”-Wilkins, Leges. Ang. Sax. 117. From this enactment, it appears that the number of the grand jury was originally twelve; but we learn from Bracton that, in the time of Henry III., it was the practice to return four knights for every hundred, who elected twelve other knights, or else twelve liberos et legales homines, to take part with them in the inquest. Towards the latter part of the reign of Edward III., in addition to the inquest for the hundred, the sheriff was required to return a panel of knights for the whole county. This jury was called le graunde inquest, and made inquiry for the county, while the jury for the hundred inquired for its own district only. After the establishment of the graundo inquest, the practice of summoning a jury of the hundred gradually went out of use; but until 6 Geo. IV. c. 50, it was deemed necessary that some of the grand jury should be summoned for every hundred. In the present day, the grand jury must consist of not less than twelve, or more than twenty-three members. A grand jury is summoned for every assize, and for the quarter-sessions in counties and burghs. See JURY TRIAL. After having the oath administered, and receiving a charge from the judge, they retire to their room, and the various indictments, which are called bills, are laid before them. The duty of the grand jury is simply to inquire whether there is sufficient prima facie evidence to require a trial. For this purpose, they may require the same evidence, written and parol, as may be necessary to support the indictment at the trial. But in practice, having ascertained that the crown has a sufficient prima facie case, they return a true bill, the prisoner's evidence being reserved for the trial. Witnesses are sworn on their examination before the grand jury by an officer appointed by the court. When the jury have come to a conclusion, the clerk indorses on the indictment a true bill in case the jury, or a majority of twelve, are satisfied that the case is sufficiently strong. In case they are not satisfied, the indictment is indorsed not a true bill. The foreman, accompanied by one or more of the jurors, then carries the indictments into court, and presents them to the clerk, who states to the court the nature of the charge and the indorsement of the jury.

In this country the G. J. is also summoned by a sheriff whose function it is, upop such evidence as the attorney of the state muy present, to determine whether persons accused of crime shall be indicted and tried therefor, and to inquire into such other matters as inay be confided to them by the court, or come to their knowledge. They do not examine witnesses for the defense, for it is not their duty to find a verdict, but only to decide if there is prima facie evidence of guilt, such as to warrant a trial. In all essential particulars this institution in the United States is the same as it is in England, but upon minor points, there are in practice some differences. The number of men required to constitute a grand jury is not the same in every state, but varies from 12 to 23. The court may in its discretion select the foreman or allow the jurymen to do so. The foreman first, and then the other members of the jury, take the following oath: “You do swear (or affirm) that you will diligently inquire, and true presentment make, of all such articles, matters and things as shall be given you in charge, or other. wise come to your knowledge, touching the present service; the commonwealth's counsel, your fellows, and your own, you shall keep secret; you shall present no one for envy, hatred, or malice; nor shall you leave any one unpresented for fear, favor, affection, hope of reward or gain; but shall present all things truly, as they come to your knowl. edge according to the best of your understanding." Having been sworn and received a charge from the court explanatory of their duties, they retire to their room. The fore. man presides, and it is usual to appoint one of the members as secretary, to keep a record for their own exclusive use. Bills of indictment against offenders are then laid before them by the state's attorney, and on the backs of the same are written the names of the witnesses by whose testimony they are supported. The witnesses are examined under oath, and if their testimony is deemed sufficient in any case to establish a fair probability of guilt, the foreman writes on the back of the indictment, “ A true bill," signs his name and affixes the date. If the evidence is not sufficient, he writes on the back of the indictment the words “Not a true bill," or other words meaning the same thing. To find a true bill 12 of the jury must concur. Witnesses misbehaving themselves must be reported to the court, which may commit them for contempt if the offense is suficiently grave. The jury must attend until discharged by the court.

GRAND LAKE, sometimes called Schoodic lake, in Maine, on the border of New Brunswick, the greater part in Washington co, Its waters pass into St. Croix river.

GRAND MANAN, or MENAN, an island in the Atlantic off the Maine coast, belong. ing to New Brunswick and embraced in Charlotte co.; pop. abt. 3000. It is about 20 by 5 m., with abundance of timber, and excellent facilities for ship building. Fishing is one of the leading occupations of the inhabitants.

GRAND MASTER (Lat. magnus magister; Ger. Hochmeister), the title of the head of the military orders, the hospitallers, the templars, and the Teutonic knights; see these articles. The title originally borne by the superior of the hospitallers was simply “master” (magister); but in 1268 Hugh de Reval took that by which they are since known-grand master, magnus magister. In the Teutonic order, the title “master," with different modifications, was applied to the several superiors of the order in the various countries. Thus, the superior of Germany was styled teutsch-meister, German master.” The superior of Livonia was called heer-meister, “military master.” In all these orders the office of grand master was held for life. The name was also used in the Dominican order.

GRAND MONADNOCK, a mountain in Cheshire co., N. H., rising 3186 feet. It is an tsolated peak, and a conspicuous landmark, offering from the top a wide and pia turesque view.

GRANDMONTAINS, or ORDER OF GRAMMONT, a religious order, founded toward the close of the eleventh century by St. Stephen of Thiers, who, after receiving his education in Italy, returned to France and became a rigorous and solitary ascetic. He remained for a long time in a lonely retreat in the glen of Muret, a short distance east of Limoges, but as the fame of his piety spread, his retreat attracted many visitors, and finally a community was formed whose mode of life was characterized by the most severe rules of fasting, silence, and the mortification of the flesh. Before the rule of the order had been reduced to writing, it was obliged to change its abode to Grammont or Grandmont, several miles further to the east, and from this locality it took its name. The severity of the discipline was relaxed by Innocent IV. and Clement V. in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. There was a brief period during which the order flourished, but it did not win for itself a permanent and strong position, and during the Revolution it was broken up. The founder, Stephen of Thiers was canonized by Clement III. in 1189. The rule of the order was first printed in the seventeenth century. Its annals were published at Troyes in 1662.

GRAND OLD HAN, & popular name for the Right Hon. William E. Gladstone (q.v.).

GRAND PENSIONARY. Formerly the syndic of each of the important towns of Holland was termed a pensionary, and the state-secretary for the province of Holland, a grand pensionary. Until the time of Olden Barneveldi (q.v.), the grand pensioner was also advocate-general for the same province. He had no vote in the assembly of the states, and could only bring forward the subjects of discussion. He, however, collected the votes, wrote the decrees, read the letters addressed to the states, conducted negotia. tions with foreign ambassadors and ministers, and took charge of the revenues of the province, of its rights and privileges, and whatever else pertained to its welfare. He was a perpetual member of the states-general of the United Netherlands, and thus, as first magistrate of the first of the united provinces, he acquired immense influence over all Holland, and may be considered premier of the Dutch parliament. The grand pensionary held his office for five years, but was in most cases re-elected. The office was abolished in 1795, after the conquest of Holland by the French revolutionists.

GRAND-PIERRE, JEAN HENRI, D.D., 1799-1874 ; b. Switzerland, educated in Neufchatel and Tübingen; became pastor at Bâle and was an intimate friend of Vinet. In 1827 he went to Paris and was president and professor of languages in the theological seminary, and was soon recognized as one of the most eloquent of pulpit orators. His last 20 years were passed as pastor of l'Oratoire, the greatest of Protestant churches in the French capital. After Monod's death he was leader of the orthodox branch of the Reformed church. Louis Philippe granted him letters of naturalization, and Louis Napoleon made him a member of the legion of honor. In 1838 he was granted the degree of doctor of divinity by the college of New Jersey. He visited the United States twice, and in 1850 published A Glance at America. With his family he endured the siege of Paris (in the Franco-German war) and the horrors of the commune. Among his works are Christian Doctrine; Christian Life; Unity and Variety; Sorrow and ConsolaHon; Guide to Faith; Essay on the Pentateuch; Souvenirs of an Old Pastor, etc.

Grango.

GRAND PRÉ, & village in Nova Scotia, in Kings co., on the basin of Minas, reached by the Windsor and Annapolis railroad, 15 m. from Windsor ; pop. about 300. It is notable chiefly as the central scene in Longfellow's pastoral poem Eoangeline.

GRAND PRIX, the name of a horse race at Longchamps, established by Napoleon III., at which a prize of 20,000 francs is awarded to the winner. The race is open to threeyear-olds. It has been a popular course since 1859.

GRAND PRIX DE ROME, a prize awarded by the Academy of Fine Arts in Paris, for the most successful production in painting, music, engraving, sculpture or architecture. The successful candidate in the examination, which is held once in four years, receives, a pension from the government and is sent to study in Rome.

GRAND RIVER, Colorado, rises in Grand co., having some of its sources in Middle park, and flowing's.w. into Utah, unites with Green river to form the Colorado. Its length is about 350 m.; its chief tributaries, the Gunnison and the Dolores. In Middle park it runs through a deep cañon.

GRAND RAPIDS, city and co. seat of Kent co., Mich.; on both sides of the Grand river, and on the Chicago, and West Michigan, the Michigan Central, the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, and several other railroads; 30 m. e. of lake Michigan, 60 m. n.w. of Lansing. The city was the site of an Indian village in 1700, was settled in 1833, and was chartered as a city in 1850. It is in an agricultural, fruit growing, and gypsum region, has a large trade in pine and hardwood lumber, and is noted for its manufactures, especially of domestic and school furniture. A fall in the river provides excellent water power, and in 1890 there were 869 manufacturing establishments, which had $15,945,947 capital, 13,282 employees, and an output valued at $19,851,181. The manufactures with the largest values of output were furniture, $5,638,916, flour and grist mill products, lumber products from logs and bolts, and planing mill products. The city is the seat of Protestant Episcopal and Roman Catholic bishoprics, and has over 80 churches, more than 30 public and 20 private schools, several convents, public library; several national, state, and savings banks; public parks, improved water-works, many miles of asphalt paving, electric lights and street railroads; and numerous daily, weekly, and monthly periodicals. Among the public and charitable institutions are the Michigan soldiers' home, City home, Women's home and hospital, St. Mark's hospital, home and hospital of the Union Benevolent Association, St. John's orphan asylum, home of the Holland union benevolent association, Emerson home, Invalids' home, and home for the aged. Pop. '90, 60,278, since largely increased by annexation of suburbs.

GRAND RIVER, Michigan, the Indian Washtenong, rises in Jackson co., in the s.e. part of the state, and after a westerly course enters lake Michigan at Grand Haven. Its length is 280 m. It is navigable for steamboats to Grand Rapids, and for small boats for 50 m. above that city.

GRAND SE'RGEANTY (magna serjeantia, or magnum servitium, great service), was the most honorable of the ancient feudal tenures. According to Lyttleton, tenure by grand sergeanty is where a man holds his lands or tenements of our sovereign lord the king by such services as he ought to do in his proper person to the king, as to carry the banner of the king, or his lance, or to lead his army, or to be his marshal, or to carry his sword before him at his coronation, or his carver, or his butler, or to be one of his chamberlains of the receipt of his exchequer, or to do other like services. This tenure must have been held of the king. Where lands were held of a subject, on condition of performance of services identical with those which were rendered to the king, the tenure was not grand sergeanty, but knight's service. Thus, lands on the Scottish border held of the king by cornage-i.e., on condition of winding a horn to give notice when the Scots had crossed the border-were held in grand sergeanty; but lands held of a subject for the same service were held in knight's service. Tenants holding by grand sergeanty were free from escuage, which usually appertained to knight's service, and in general could only be called upon to perform their services infra quatuor maria, within the kingdom. The services in grand sergeanty were to be performed by the tenant in person, where he was able to do so. The office of attendance on the sovereign's person was esteemed so honorable, that no one below the dignity of a knight could perform it. Hence, where lands held by grand sergeanty were in the possession of a citi. zen, he was permitted to perform his service by deputy. This tenure by grand sergeanty was by 12 Charles II. c. 24, in common with other military tenures, reduced to common bocage (q.v.); except so far as regards the honorary services, which continue to be observed to this day. Thus, the duke of Wellington holds of the crown his estate of Strathtieldsaye on condition of presenting to the sovereign a flag bearing the national colors on each succeeding anniversary of the battle of Waterloo. The manor of Woodstock, with the demesne, in which is situated Blenheim park, is held by the duke of Marlborough by grand sergeanty, on condition of presenting to the queen and her heirs, at the castle of Windsor, a standard of France, on Aug. 13, yearly, being the anniversary of the day on which the battle of Hochstädt was fought near the village of Blenheim, on the banks of the Danube. The tenure of grand sergeantry was observed throughout the continent of Europe. “The freeborn Franks,” says Mr. Hallam, Middle Ages,“ saw

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