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The Liturgy itself is to be found in Pamelius, Liturgicon
Eccles. Lat.' tom. i, as well as being published independently.
Dr. Neale has also an Essay upon it in his Essays on Litur-
giology,' containing much minute information.

This Liturgy
an offshoot

Writers are at variance on the question to which of the

man stock.

from the Ro- Western Families this Liturgy belongs. We venture to think that a reference to the Comparative Table (above, p. xxix), and the Liturgy itself as printed below, will shew that its points of similarity with the Roman are numerous and characteristic, while its differences are comparatively few, and some of them easily explicable; and that on the other hand its coincidences with the Gallican are few and unimportant: that, in short, there is no feature in it which is inconsistent with the hypothesis that it is a parallel and independent development of the early Latin Roman Liturgy, which has again been affected by the influence of the Roman See, and been gradually assimilated in certain points to the later Roman Liturgy.

Its successive parts, though in almost every case corresponding to something similar in the Roman Liturgy, generally have a peculiar name. The Canon is nearly the same; so nearly, and yet with differences of such a kind, that it cannot have been the Gregorian Canon intentionally adopted, or it would surely have been still more verbally identical. But we have already noticed an example of the old Ambrosian Canon, (p. lxxiii) representing an earlier type than the Gregorian. The position of the Lord's Prayer is, we know historically, that of the Roman Liturgy before the alteration of S. Gregory. The Ambrosian is very rich in Prefaces, so was once the Roman. The Lection from the Old Testament preceding the Epistle and Gospel of the Ambrosian is not unknown in the Roman, while in the position of the 'Pax' and of the 'Great Intercession' it agrees with the Roman precisely; and these are characteristic points of difference between the Roman and Hispano-Gallican families.

There are traces of some Greek influence in the 'Oratio super sindonem ;' in the proclamation of silence by the Deacon before the Epistle; in the form of the Words of Institution and

Comparison of it with the Roman.

Traces of
Greek influ-


the paragraph that immediately follows them, viz. Mandans quoque,' etc. (p. 334); and in the Litanies which are said on Sundays in Lent, and which almost exactly resemble the Ectené of the ordinary Greek office. It is further said by Dr. Neale that some of the lesser Hymns (Transitories and others) are translations of Greek Hymns.


The insertion of a Washing of the hands in the middle of the Peculiar Canon, and the omission of an oblation after Consecration, which seem to characterize the earliest monuments of this Liturgy', are points peculiar to Milan.

Roman influ

Originally used throughout the diocese of Milan, this Liturgy Subject to is a living rite, being still used, though not exclusively, in the ence. Cathedral Church. Efforts have been made, here as elsewhere, to substitute the Roman Liturgy, but not with entire success. A comparison however of the documents, written and printed, of various dates, shews that there has been a gradual process of assimilation to the Roman going on the whole time.

1 See Muratori, 'Lit. Rom. Vet.' tom. i. col. 133.

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THE student, who wishes to see the full extent of Liturgical Literature, cannot do better than study the Liturgical Catalogue of C. J. Stewart, 11 King William Street, West Strand, London. The following list is not intended to be exhaustive, but only to point out to a beginner where he may turn for information.

1. Generally illustrative Works.

Assemanus, Jos. Aloys. Codex Liturgicus Ecclesiae universae. 13 vols. 4to.

Palmer, W. Origines Liturgicae. 2 vols. 8vo. Eng. (The Introductory Essay on the Primitive Liturgies is very valuable.)

Bingham, Jos. Antiquities of the Christian Church. 9 vols. 8vo. [or 2 vols. imp. 8vo. Bohn.] Eng. (Books xiii. xiv. xv. are concerned with the antient Liturgy.)

Neale, J. M. Introduction to the History of the Holy Eastern Church. 2 vols. 8vo. Eng. (A vast storehouse of information on the Ecclesiology and Liturgiology of the Oriental Churches.) Neale, J. M. Essays on Liturgiology and Church History. I vol. 8vo. Eng.

Scudamore, W. E. Notitia Eucharistica. I vol. 8vo. Eng. (The arrangement of this book follows that of our English office for Holy Communion, which it is intended to illustrate : but it contains a vast mass of notices on every possible subject therewith connected.)

Dictionary of Christian Antiquities (Dr. W. Smith and Prof. Cheetham). Eng. (The Liturgical articles are very useful.)

Bunsen, Chevalier. Analecta Ante-Nicaena. 3 vols. 8vo. Eng. (The third volume includes the Liturgical documents,

and is a highly suggestive book, but one whose conclusions need to be closely scrutinized.)

Daniel. Codex Liturgicus. 4 vols. 8vo. Lat. (Vol. i. contains the Western Liturgies, and vol. iv. the Eastern Liturgies, both with much illustrative matter.)

Le Brun, P. Explication des Prières et des Cérémonies de la Messe, etc. 4 vols. 8vo. Fr. (Vol. i. is on the Roman Mass; vols. ii. and iii. contain Dissertations on the other antient Liturgies, Eastern and Western; vol. iv. discusses the Liturgies of the various Reformed bodies, and several Liturgical topics.)

Guéranger. Institutions liturgiques. 3 vols. 8vo. Fr.

Bona, Cardinal. Rerum Liturgicarum Libri duo. (Ed. Sala.) 3 vols. Folio. Lat. (A standard authority on Antient Liturgies in general, and subjects connected with them.)

Martene, Edm. De antiquis Ecclesiae ritibus Libri tres. Editio novissima aucta. 4 vols. fol. Lat. (A collection of very early documents from all quarters, on the Ritual and Discipline of the Church.)

Krazer. De antiquis Eccles. Occidentalis Liturgiis. I vol. 8vo. Lat. (A useful compendium on the Western Liturgies.)

Mone. Lateinische und griechische Messen aus dem zweiten bis sechsten Jahrhundert. 4to. Germ. (The object of this work was to publish the very antient fragmentary Gallican Masses, which we have spoken of at p. lxviii, but incidentally a good deal of useful information is given on the Gallican, African and Roman Liturgies.)

Probst. Liturgie der drei ersten christlichen Jahrhunderten. I vol. 8vo. Germ. (An investigation into the origin and various developments of the Liturgy in the first three centuries: especially valuable for the references to the early Christian writers.)

2. Works on the Oriental Liturgies.

Goar. Euchologion, Gr. cum Interp. Latina, glossario, et observationibus illustratum. I vol. fol. Lat. (The standard work on the Liturgies of Constantinople.)

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