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In the foregoing Table there are doubtless points which will not be clear at a first glance to the reader, some probably upon which there will be a difference of opinion. This only we will claim for it, that, as it is the fruit of not a little thought and study of the Liturgies, both comparatively, and with the light thrown upon them by the writings of the older ritualists 1 (properly so called), it can only be properly judged of after a similar comparative study. It is frequently only thus that Examples. the real significance of some prayer, or rite, is detected. For instance, the significance of the 'Oremus' (D in the Roman Liturgy), followed by no spoken prayer, is only seen by considering the analogy of the Ambrosian Oratio super Sindonem, and passing through that to the Eastern Prayer at the Unfolding of the Corporal.' The different intention of the Agnus Dei in the Roman and Ambrosian Liturgies, and of the Lord's Prayer (of which we have spoken elsewhere) in several others, are further instances. If the Liturgies be studied independently and not comparatively, many of these delicate, but less obvious, beauties would inevitably be passed over, the real connexion of the parts would often be missed, and the Liturgy would seem a mere arbitrary concatenation of Prayers and Hymns.

We shall ask our readers to refer to the Glossary for an explanation of the technical terms in general, but a few remarks explanatory of some points in the Table may be useful.

In the first place it will be observed that the service is divided into two main parts, called respectively Missa Catechumenorum and Missa Fidelium. This division is recognised in the very earliest notices of the Eucharistic service that we have. The early Gallican writers commonly use the terms missas and missarum solemnia in speaking of the service. It is clearly to be seen in Justin Martyr's description; and probably owes its origin to the different elements out of which the service was formed. The Missa Catechumenorum was chiefly didactic in its scope, and preparatory to the second solemn service. It

'Missa Cate-
rum' and
'Missa Fide-

1 Such as Amalarius, Sicardus, Durandus, and others; and in more recent times, Le Brun, Krazer, etc.

was so called because the Catechumens were allowed to be present during it. The Missa Fidelium included the celebration of the Mysteries, at which only the faithful might be present.

the word

There is no doubt about the meaning and derivation of the Derivation of word 'Missa.' It is a substantive, a parallel form to missio, Missa.' just as there are1 ascensa, collecta, oblata, and not a few others parallel to ascensio, collectio, oblatio, etc. An account of the word and its various uses may be found at the beginning of Scudamore's 'Notitia Eucharistica.' It meant originally the 'dismissal,' in which sense it is used in a formula for the conclusion of secular as well as sacred assemblies, viz. missa fieri pronunciatur. Missa fit Catechumenis is said of the dismissal of the Catechumens in S. Augustine; and the Deacon was even said missam Catechumenis celebrare (i.e. to 'dismiss the Catechumens'). This phrase is found in Cassian, early in the 5th century. In the Mozarabic, and some of the Gallican Liturgies, the prayer said just after this dismissal, at the beginning of the Missa Fidelium, was called 'the Missa. From these kinds of usage, however vulgarly and improperly, the term became applied to the whole service. Hence the name Mass.' The idea that it is connected with a Hebrew word 'missah,' and that it carries with it a sacrificial connotation, is (like other suggested derivations, μúnois, 'mensa,' 'messe,' and what not besides) unworthy of serious attention, not being supported by a shred of evidence.


Another division of the service is into the Anaphora and the The AnaPro-anaphoral part. The Anaphora is that most solemn part of the service which is occupied with the Thanksgiving, Consecration, Great Oblation, and Communion, and which begins with the Versicle and Response, 'Sursum Corda,'' Habemus ad Dominum,' or with the short Benediction which sometimes precedes these; and includes the whole remainder of the service to the end.

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'Repulsa,' Hor. Od. iii. 2. 17, ‘virtus repulsae nescia sordidae,' is a classical instance that will at once occur to the mind of a reader of Horace.

The three

It will be observed that three Oblations are recognised. The First Oblation takes place, in the Eastern Liturgies, in the preparatory service, and therefore is nowhere mentioned in the Table. It consists essentially of the contribution of Bread and Wine by members of the congregation, out of which the Priest took as much as he thought sufficient for the purpose of the ensuing celebration. From a very early period, however, this was associated with other gifts for the relief of the poor and the service of the Church. The Second Oblation consists of the presentation of the selected portion of Bread and Wine (or wine and water) upon the Altar, in acknowledgment that all our earthly blessings come from God. It always belongs to the Missa Fidelium. Sometimes, as in the Ambrosian and English uses1, the First and Second Oblations are united. The Third, or Great, Oblation takes place in immediate relation to the Consecration. It is the pleading of the one sacrifice of Christ, once offered; and the presentation in union with that, through which alone anything of ours can be acceptable, of ourselves, our souls, and bodies.

The 'Entrances,"


The 'Great Entrance' is a peculiarly Oriental rite: it conGreat and sists of bringing in the Elements, prepared in the chapel of the Prothesis, accompanied by a solemn procession and all the magnificence that circumstances allow, through the church into the Sanctuary, and placing them upon the Altar. In the rite of Constantinople it takes place at the beginning of the Missa Fidelium, and is closely connected with the Second Oblation: in some of the Eastern rites it takes place at the beginning of the service, but this could hardly have been primitive. The Little Entrance (which has nothing to do with the entrance of the Priest to the Altar, or the Introit) is a similar, but less magnificent, procession with which the Book of the Gospels is brought into the Sanctuary, and then solemnly taken to the ambo (or pulpit), where the gospel for the day is read. It was clearly intended to give prominence to the Gospel above the

1 These are the 'Alms and Oblations' of our Prayer for the Church Militant.

other Lections; and to this we find an analogous rite in the Western Church in solemn Masses.


By the Triumphal Hymn' is meant the Hymn which in The Triall Liturgies occurs at the conclusion of the Preface. It always Hymn,' and 'Trisagion.' begins with the Song of the Seraphim in Isa. vi., 'Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts;' to which various additions are made in different Liturgies. This Hymn is sometimes called the 'Tersanctus,' occasionally the Trisagion.' But there is another Hymn to which the name Trisagion more properly belongs, viz. ἅγιος ὁ θεός, ἅγιος ἰσχυρός, ἅγιος ἀθάνατος, ἐλέησον uâs. To avoid the confusion which is constantly1 found in liturgical writers between these two Hymns, we have dropped the name 'Tersanctus' in the following pages, and call the first-mentioned Hymn by its Greek liturgical name, 'the 'Triumphal Hymn' (~μvos éπivíkios), derived from its occurrence in Rev. iv. 8; reserving the term 'Trisagion' for the other exclusively.

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English students of these Liturgies can hardly fail to be The 'Prepastruck with the time that intervenes between the Consecration and the Communion. There is a gap separating these two parts of the service from one another as definite, though not so explicitly expressed, as that between the Missa Catechumenorum and the Missa Fidelium, or between the Anaphora and the Pro-anaphoral service. There is a distinct change in the service from one set of ideas to another. This gap is filled up by two sections which we have called respectively the 'Immediate Preparation of the Communicants,' and the Ritual Preparation.' Sometimes one and sometimes the other of these stands first, but both are always found represented in some form or other. A few words may be useful on each of them.


The section (denominated 'P' in the Table) which has a. Of the reference to the communicants takes very different forms in cants. different Liturgies. Most commonly there is a prayer, which

1 The well-known line of a popular hymn, 'Raise the Trisagion ever and aye,' supplies an instance of this ever-recurring confusion. It is not the Trisagion proper that is meant, but the Tersanctus, or Triumphal Hymn.


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