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M. Sicca. A recitation of the Mass omitting the Consecration and Communion, and such parts of the service as refer directly to these.

M. Solemnis. Mass celebrated with the full ritual and attendance of Deacon, Sub-deacon, Acolytes, and Choir.

M. Votiva. A Mass said out of special devotion, beyond the regular service of the day, Missae de Sanctis. The services belonging to Saints' days. Missae de Tempore. Those belonging to the seasons of the Christian Year, Advent, Christmas, etc. Missale. (a) In the most general sense, the book containing all that is necessary for the celebration of Mass throughout the year. Such a volume is properly called Missale plenarium, or mixtum. Up to the eleventh century however these complete Missals did not exist, but the parts required by the different ministers were collected in separate volumes, viz. Sacramentarium, Lectionarius, Evangelistarium, and Graduale or Antiphonarium. Then by Missale' was understood (B) the book containing the Missal prayers used by the Priest at the Altar, more commonly known as a Sacramentary.


Missale Offerentium (Moz). 'The Lesser Missal; ie. the common of every Mass' [Neale, Essays on Liturgiology, p. 137]. Probably so called, because it is necessarily used by all priests who celebrate according to that rite. Mixture, (Lat. mistio). The addition of a little water to the wine in the chalice: a practice primitive, and recognised in all ancient Liturgies, except that of the Armenian Church.


Natalitia Sanctorum. The birthdays (i. e. the anniversaries of the death or martyrdom) of Saints.


Oblata (-tio). The forms are used indiscriminately for (a) the act of offering, (B) the offerings presented.

Oblatum. An oblate, i. e. in the East, the Holy Loaf; in the West the wafer; prepared for consecration.

Obsignatio, (East-Syr.). The concluding Benediction. Offerenda (Ambros.). The name of the anthem otherwise called Offertorium. Offertorium (Rom.). The name of the anthem sung at the offertory, or said just before it. It varies with the day. Officium ad Missam (Moz.). The name for the Introit in the Mozarabic Liturgy. Omophorion. Glossary). Oratio Missae (Moz.). The Prayer, or rather short exhortation to the people at the beginning of the Missa Fidelium, corresponding to the Gallican Praefatio Missae (see p. 315).

(See the Greek

Ordinary (of the Mass). All the service of the Mass which is not the Canon.

Ordo (Missae). The rubrics and invariable parts of the service, into which the variable parts, whether prayers and lesser hymns, as in the Western offices, or different Anaphorae, as in the East, are fitted as in a framework. Where there are several anaphorae with a common pro-anaphoral service, as with the Syriac, Ethiopic and other groups of Liturgies, the term Ordo communis is often applied to the latter.


Palla. A veil of linen, used to cover the chalice. It is now commonly stiffened with cardboard for convenience sake.

The Corporal (q. v.) is sometimes called Palla corporalis. Paophi (Copt.). The second month

of the Coptic Calendar, answering to parts of our September and October. (See under 'Baini.') Patena. The paten, or plate, on which the oblation is made. Pax. The Kiss of Peace. A custom recognised in all ancient Liturgies, and probably Apostolic, in which the Faithful by a mutual embrace testified to the brotherly love that ought to exist among them. The usual place of its occurrence is shortly after the commencement of the Missa Fidelium, before the Consecration: but in the Roman Family it occurs just before the Communion. In the Greek Church it appears to have been dropped In the Roman the kiss is interchanged ceremonially at Solemn Mass between the Celebrant and assistant ministers. At Low Mass it is commonly omitted; though sometimes given by means of a small metal tablet, called an osculatory' (sometimes also a Pax'), which the Priest, having kissed the Altar, kisses and presents to the server, who in turn presents it to the people. Peace, Kiss of. See above under 'Pax.'

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Praefatio Missae, (Gall.). A short

exhortation to the people at the commencement of the Missa Fidelium, stirring them to special devotion in connexion with the particular subject of the day or


Preface. By this is commonly meant that address to God which immediately follows the Sursum corda,' and leads up to the Triumphal Hymn, enumerating the grounds of the Thanksgiving (εὐχαριστία). Originally it was probably of considerable length, as we see in the Clementine Liturgy, and of a widely inclusive character, and became gradually shorter as time went on, and as the Church's round of Holy Day and Festival became enlarged.

Then too, in the West, was introduced the custom of having

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variable Prefaces-the fixed part containing only a general acknowledgment of the duty of thanksgiving, while special passages were inserted according to the day or season, mentioning the particular grounds appropriate to the same. Presanctified (Mass of the). (See under 'Missa Praesanctificatorum '). Prooemium (Syr.). A prelude to the Sedra, in the form of a short address or exhortation, (e. g. p. 60). Prophetia (Gall.). The name in this Liturgy for the Benedictus, or Song of Zacharias, sung at the commencement of the Mass before the Collect for the Day. Prophetica lectio (or Propheta), (Gall.). The Lection from the Old Testament, which in the Gallican Liturgy preceded the Epistle and Gospel.

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Sanctus. Another name for the Tersanctus, or Triumphal Hymn. (See under Hymn '). Scrutinium. The examination and instruction of Catechumens, held publicly before they were admitted to Baptism. The commonitio (or denunciatio) pro scrutinio, referred to on p. 373 was given, according to the Gelasian sacramentary, (Muratori, col. 533) in the following form: 'Scrutinii diem, dilectissimi Fratres, quo electi nostri divinitus instruantur, imminere cognoscite. Ideoque sollicita devotione, succedente (sequente) illa feria, circa horam diei sextam convenire dignemini. Ut coeleste mysterium, quo diabolus cum sua pompa destruetur, et janua regni coelestis aperitur, inculpabili, Deo juvante, ministerio peragere valea

mus. Per Dominum nostrum, etc.' Secreta (a) (Rom.). A prayer, or prayers, said by the Priest at the conclusion of the Offertory; perhaps from being said secreto (i. e. in a low tone, but distinctly). (B) (Gall.). The Consecration was sometimes so called in the Gallican Liturgy.

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Sedra (Syr.). A sort of Hymn: sometimes, like the Latin Prosa,' in free rhythm; sometimes in strict verse; and always, apparently, by custom preceded by a short prayer, or Prooemium. Sequence. A Hymn either in free rhythm or metre, sung after the Gradual. There are three now used in the Roman Liturgy, viz. Victimae Paschali at Easter, Veni, Sancte Spiritus at Pentecost, and Lauda, Sion for the Feast of Corpus Christi. The hymn Dies irae, sometimes called a sequence, is pronounced not to be so by strict liturgiologists. The meaning of the term is said to be that in festival seasons the last syllable of the Alleluia was prolonged to a number of notes (neumata' or pneumata), forming a jubilatio. Then to these, or instead of them, words were set.

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Sindon (Ambros.). The corporal. The oratio super sindonem (p. 308) corresponds in position to the εὐχὴ μετὰ τὸ ἁπλωθῆναι τὸ εἱλητόν (p. 99) of the Greek rite. Sonum (Gall.). The anthem, corresponding to the Roman offertorium, sung at the Offertory. Spoon. The instrument with which in the Eastern Churches the consecrated elements are administered together to the communi


Spoudikon (Copt.). A corruption
of Despoticon (q. v.).
Sub-deacon. The third of the Holy


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Eucharistic Hymns beginning ἅγιος ὁ Θεός, ἅγιος ἰσχυρός κ. τ. λ. (See further under Hymn'). Triumphal Hymn (Gr. πivíkιos

uvos). The one of the four great Eucharistic Hymns which occurs in every Liturgy at the conclusion of the Preface, and shortly before the Consecration. It begins 'Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts, etc.' from Is. vi. 3; generally with the addition of Ps. cxviii. 26. It is also called sometimes The Sanctus,' or 'Tersanctus.' (See under Hymn '.)


Tybi (Copt.). The fifth month of the Coptic Calendar, answering to parts of our December and January. (See under Baini '.)

U. Union. (See Greek Glossary, s. v. ἕνωσις.) V. Vagas (Arm). A part of the Arme


ȧnp. The large veil, mystically representing the firmament, used in the Greek Church to envelope both Paten and Chalice each being also covered by its own veil. ȧκρоoríxia. (p. 24). It is not certain what this word means: perhaps either antiphons,' or the ' responsory endings of verses,' as in the 136th Psalm, or the Benedicite.

nian Eucharistic Vestments. It is semi-circular in shape, generally made of metal, and has the heads of the Twelve Apostles engraved upon it. It is fastened with a gold chain. During the robing it is put over the head, and afterwards let down on the neck and shoulders. The Armenians consider that it represents the Jewish Ephod: but it seems to be in some respects at least analogous to the Western Amice. (Malan, Arm. Lit. pp. 2, 18.) Vartabed (Arm.). A title meaning 'doctor or teacher.'



άкроwμevоι (Lat. audientes, auditores).

It seems to be necessary to distinguish the Greek from the Latin use of these terms. In the West it was equivalent to Catechumen. In the Greek system it was the name of the lowest but one order

Veil. The cloths, whether of linen or richer material, used to cover the Sacred Vessels. The number differed in different churches. In the Greek Church three are used; viz. one each for the Paten and Chalice, and a large one (anp) to envelope all.

of penitents, who were only admitted into the vapons, or vestibule, of the Church. außwv. See Ambo.' ávayváσrns. See⚫ Lector.' ávτíswpov. See 'Antidoron.' ἀντίφωνον. For an account of the word see Antiphona.' An example of a Greek Antiphon may be given here:


· . ̓Αγαθὸν τὸ ἐξομολογεῖσθαι
τῷ Κυρίῳ· καὶ ψάλλειν τῷ ὀνό-
ματί σου, ὕψιστε.
R. Πρεσβείαις τῆς θεοτόκου,
Σῶτερ, σῶσον ἡμᾶς.

Κ. Τοῦ ἀναγγέλλειν τὸ πρωὶ τὸ
ἔλεός σου· καὶ τὴν ἀλήθειάν
σου πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς ζωῆς

R. Πρεσβείαις τῆς θεοτόκου, κ.τ.λ. W. Ὅτι εὐθὺς Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς ἡμῶν· καὶ νῦν ἐστιν ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ τοῦ προσώπου αὐτοῦ. R. Πρεσβείαις

τῆς θεοτόκου,

κ. τ. λ.

Κ. Δόξα Πατρί, κ. τ. λ. This is a First Antiphon'; in which the antiphonal response, always the same, makes mention of the intercessions of the Theotokos. In the Second Antiphons the response is always, Taîs πρεσβείαις τῶν ἁγίων, σῶσον ἡμᾶς, making mention of the intercession of Saints. In the Third Antiphons there is always an allusion to the solemnity of the day, the beginning and end being unchangeable: e. g. at Easter, Zwoov μâs, Υἱὲ Θεοῦ, ὁ ἀναστὰς ἐκ νεκρῶν, ψάλλοντάς σοι ̓Αλληλουΐα. (See Goar's Euchologion, pp. 103, 104.) ἀπολυτίκιον. The Hymn sung at

the conclusion of the service.

ἀσκήτης. A hermit. ἀστέρισκος. An instrument of the Greek Church, consisting of two bent bars of metal set crosswise, used to place over the Paten when prepared for Consecration, in order that the veil may not disarrange the oblations.


Bua. The Sanctuary of a Greek Church, in which the Altar stands.


διακονικόν. The Sacristry. A Chamber commonly on the south side of the Bua, in a Greek Church. δισκοκάλυμμα. The special veil of

the Paten.

Siokos. The Paten.


Eiλnτóv. The Corporal. The unfolding of this in the Liturgy of Constantinople is the signal for the dismissal of the Catechumens.

εἰρηνικά, τά. Another name for the ἐκτενή, or ἡ μεγάλη συναπτή.

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evwols. The rite, called in the West commistio; the union of the two consecrated species. There are slight differences in the mode of performing it in the different Churches. (See Renaudot, vol. i. p. 240; ii. p. 108). ἐπιμανίκια. One of the Eucharistic

vestments of the Greek Church, corresponding most nearly to the Western maniple, but worn on both arms. They are a sort of open sleeve covering the arm from the wrist to the elbow, where they are fastened, and hanging down in a peaked flap; on which, in the case of a Bishop, the Icon of Christ is embroidered. ἐπινίκιος (ὕμνοs). The Triumphal

Hymn. (See under 'Hymn.') Eπтρауýλιον. The Priest's stole,

of the Greek Church, worn however by Bishops and Priests alike. It is unlike the Western stole, being in the form of an oblong strip of embroidered stuff or silk, having at one end a hole which is put over the head, so that it hangs straight down in front. It generally has an embroidered seam down the middle, and often ends in a fringe.

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