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worship.' It is also the name of those short, nervous, prayers which as a rule distinguish the Western from the Eastern Liturgies. In this sense the form collectio is used in the Gallican Sacramentaries. Two explanations have been given of the term, (i) that it is the prayer said at the assembling of the people, which however could only well apply to the first prayer in the service; (ii) that in it the Priest collects, and presents to God in a compendious form, the petitions, spoken and unspoken, of the congregation.

Comes (Comitis Liber). (a) A Lectionary of Missal Lections, attributed to S. Jerome. (B) an equivalent for Epistolare, the book of the Epistles used in the mass. Commixture (commistio). A rite

to be distinguished both from the Mixture and the Intinction (q.v.) It consists in placing a small portion of the consecrated Bread, or Wafer, into the Chalice, symbolizing the restoration in the Resurrection of the union of Body and Soul which had been severed in death, in a word, pointing to the Risen Life. Though probably not a primitive rite, it became nearly universal at an early date. Communio. (a) The act of partaking of the consecrated elements. (B) That section of the Liturgy which contains the ritual belonging to this act. (y) (Rom.) An anthem sung originally during the communion of the people, but in later times after the communion. Competentes (Gr. pwτisóμevoi).

The highest order of Catechumens; candidates for immediate Baptism.

Confirmation. When more chalices than one were used, it was the custom to consecrate one, and from this one to pour a little of the consecrated wine into the others, which was held to serve for consecration to the wine in them. This was called Confirma


In the Greek S. James' Liturgy (see p. 50) this seems to have been effected by placing a portion of the consecrated Bread into the Chalices (Renaudot, vol. i. P. 339). Confractorium (Ambros.). An Anthem sung by the Choir during the Fraction. Consignation. In some Churches it was part of the ritual of the Fraction to dip one half of the broken Bread in the Chalice, and with it to make the sign of the cross upon the other half (Renaudot, vol. i. p. 240). Contestatio (Gall.). The name in the Gallican Liturgy for the Preface, i. e. the part beginning Vere dignum et justum est, etc. Corporale (Gr. eiλŋróv). The linen cloth on which the Holy Vessels are placed, and on which the consecration is performed. Corporatio (Moz.) The Incarnation.

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Elevation. The lifting up of the consecrated Bread. There is an essential difference between the meanings of this rite as practised in the Greek Church and in the Roman respectively, at least in later times. In the Greek Church it takes place in the Bema, out of sight of the people, the Holy Doors being still closed: it is an ávádegis to God. In the Roman Church it is a showing to the people for the purpose of adoration. The place of the rite is also different: in the Roman Liturgy it comes immediately after the words of consecration; in the Greek, just before the Commu

nion. Embolismus. Literally 'an insertion.' The name of the short prayer which in almost all ancient Liturgies follows the Lord's Prayer, and is in fact an expansion of the last petition of that Prayer against temptation and evil.

Energumen. A demoniac:


under the influence of an evil spirit.

Entrance (loodos). (a) The Little Entrance, an oriental rite, is the solemn procession when the Book of the Gospels is brought from the Prothesis to the Holy Table. The Deacon carries it, accompanied by the Priest and taperbearers. The procession passes out at the northern door of the Iconostasis, makes the circuit of the northern side of the Church, and enters the Bema by the Holy Doors. The Book, after being laid on the Holy Table, is again taken to the ambo, where the Gospel is read. There is an analogous Procession of the Gospel in solemn Masses in the Western Church.

(B) The Great Entrance is a similar procession, but accompanied by incense and conducted with greater pomp, when the pre

pared Elements are carried from the Prothesis to the Altar. In the Liturgy of Constantinople it takes place near the beginning of the Missa Fidelium; in Syrian and Coptic Liturgies at the commencement of the service. There is nothing corresponding to it in the West.

Ephod (p. 134). See 'vagas.' Ephremiticum (carmen). A kind of heptasyllabic metre in which some of the Syrian Hymns are written, the invention of which is attributed to S. Ephrem. Evangelistarium. A book containing the collection of the (Liturgical) Gospels for the whole


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own action. The Coptic Liturgy however is the only ancient Liturgy which preserves a Fraction at this point, though Scudamore (Notit. Eucharistica, pp. 537, 538) produces some indications that the custom was once more widely spread. (iii) The Fraction is found in almost every Liturgy between the consecration and the communion, symbolising the Death and Passion. Here the Mozarabic ritual (see p. 341) is the most elaborate. (iv) The Fraction for distribution among the communicants. The word μελίζειν, as distinguished from κλᾶν, seems to be appropriated to this Fraction (see pp. 50, 190): comminuere seems to be similarly used in Latin.


Genesis (or Adam) Tonus (Copt.). One of the eight Coptic Tones, or Modes, of a cheerful character. These tones are named from the first word of the Hymn most generally sung to them. Gradalis (p. 364), or, Graduale (Rom). (a) An anthem sung after the Epistle. It probably had its origin in the primitive custom of interspersing the Lections with Psalms. The present custom is as follows:-A verse of a Psalm and a Responsory verse is sung (the Gradual proper'), followed by two Alleluias, another Verse, and a single Alleluia. In the Easter season the 'Gradual proper' is not sung, but a second Verse with Alleluia is added to that just mentioned; so that the anthem consists of two Alleluias, Verse and Alleluia, Verse and Alleluia. On certain great Festivals a Hymn, called a Sequence, is interposed before the last Alleluia. From Septuagesima to Easter Even, when Alleluia is not sung, two Verses alone, called a Tract, are said or sung.

(B) The book in which the Introits, Graduals, and other missal

Anthems were collected was also sometimes called 'the Gradual' (see 'Antiphonarium').


Hebdomada Major. Holy Week, i.e. the week from Palm Sunday (Dominica in Palmis) to Easter Even (Sabbatum Sanctum). Hegumenos. The Superior of a monastery.

Hymn. So far as relates to the Eucharistic Services, Hymns may be divided into two classes, containing respectively (a) the four Greater Hymns, viz. the Angelic, the Cherubic, the Trisagion, and the Sanctus, Tersanctus, or Triumphal Hymn, as it is variously called; (B) the Lesser Hymns, such as the Introit, Gradual, Offertory, Communio, etc.

The Hymns of this latter class will be described under their several names.

The Angelic Hymn is the Gloria in Excelsis with the additions as found in our English Communion Office. As an Eucharistic Hymn in this full form its use is confined to the Western Church, and is probably not older than the sixth century; though the first and Scriptural strain occurs in several Eastern Liturgies, as in the Greek S. James (p. 36), the Syriac S. James (p. 60), and S. Adaeus and Maris (p. 267).

The Cherubic Hymn is peculiar to the Constantinopolitan Liturgy, and others derived from it, or modified to resemble it. It is sung at the Great Entrance. It is said to have been introduced into the Liturgy at the command of Justinian, i. e. about the middle of the sixth century. It begins with the words οἱ τὰ χερουβὶμ μυστικῶς εἰκονίζοντες, and will be found in extenso on p. 32.

The Trisagion. The Hymn ἅγιος ὁ Θεός, ἅγιος ἰσχυρός, ἅγιος ἀθάνατος, ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς, which is sung, according to the rite of

Constantinople, in connexion with the Little Entrance. It was introduced into the service by Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople (A. D. 446). In the Syriac Liturgy it occurs more than once. In the Coptic not at all, though it is found in the Greek S. Mark (as in the Constantinopolitan Liturgy) just after the Little Entrance. This is probably the Hymn referred to in the Expositio brevis attributed to S. Germanus as the 'Ajus,' which is there said to have been sung in the early Gallican Liturgy before the Old Testament Lection, and before and after the Gospel. In the Roman Liturgy it is sung only on one day of the year, viz Good-Friday, in the special office called the Reproaches. The name Trisagion is often improperly applied to the following Hymn, whereby much confusion is caused.

The Sanctus, Tersanctus, Triumphal Hymn, or Seraphic Hymn (for it has all these names, and is sometimes in early writers called also the Angelic Hymn,' and thus is occasionally confounded with the Gloria in Excelsis) consists of the Hymn of the Seraphim in Isa. vi., generally with the addition of Ps. cxviii. 26, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.' This Hymn is found in all Liturgies in the same place, viz. at the conclusion of the Preface, and just before the consecration.

'separates the Sanctuary (Bμa), together with the Chapel of the Prothesis and the Sacristy (diaкoVIKÓv) from the Choir. Hence ritually it answers to our Altarrails, though being solid and reaching in height nearly, or quite, to the ceiling, it more nearly resembles in effect a Roodscreen. It has three doors, viz. the Holy Doors in the centre, leading into the Sanctuary, and a side-door on either side, leading into the two chambers abovementioned. The name is derived from the Icons, which are always arranged upon it. Illatio (Moz.). The name in the Mozarabic Liturgy for the Preface.'

Immolatio (Gall.). The name in the Gallican Liturgy for the Preface.'


Ingressa (Ambr.). The name in the Ambrosian Liturgy for 'the Introit.' It is simpler in form than the Roman Introit, consisting simply of a verse or two, not always from the Psalms, said without repetition, and without Gloria Patri. Intercession, the Great. The Prayer said by the Celebrant for all estates of men in the Church, including the Living and the Dead. The position of it in the Liturgy is one main criterion on which the classification of Liturgies depends. In four of the Liturgical Families it occurs in connexion with the Consecration; in the remaining one, the Hispano-Gallican, it follows the Offertory. Intinction. The act of placing in the Chalice the portions of consecrated bread intended for the Communion of the people, to whom in the Oriental Churches the consecrated elements are administered together by means of a spoon. It is quite distinct from the commixture.


Icon. A kind of highly decorated picture, regarded as sacred, peculiar to Oriental Churches. There are always two at least in a Greek church, viz. one of our Lord on the right of the Holy Doors (looking towards the Sanctuary), and one of the Mother of God on the left. Iconostasis.

The screen which

Introit (Rom.). The anthem sung at the approach of the priest to

the altar. For the form of it see above under 'Antiphona.' Invocation. By the Oriental Churches an Invocation of the Holy Spirit is considered necessary to complete the consecration. In the three Oriental Families of Liturgies such an Invocation is invariably found shortly after the Words of Institution. In the Hispano-Gallican Family there are sufficient traces of such an Invocation in the Prayer called 'Post-pridie' (Moz.), or 'Postmysterium' (Gall.), illustrated by the very clear words of S. Irenaeus1 (Frag. 2, al. 38), to give great probability to the inference that it was at one time universally present here too.


Jacobiticum (carmen) (Syr.). A Syrian tetrasyllabic metre, attributed by some to S. James of Serug (see also 'Ephremiticum '). Jejunia (primi, quarti, septimi, decimi, mensis). Otherwise called jejunia quatuor temporum. The Fasts of the four Ember seasons. Jobi Tonus (Copt.) [or Hebi, viz. 'mourning for the dead']. One of the Coptic tones, of a melancholy or plaintive character (see 'Genesis ').


Kiss of Peace. See under 'Pax.'


Lectionarius. (a) Generally, a col

lection of the Lections from Holy Scripture to be used at any ser

1 Τὴν προσφορὰν τελέσαντες ἐκκαλοῦμεν τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ ̔́Αγιον, ὅπως ἀποφήνῃ τὴν θυσίαν ταύτην καὶ τὸν ἄρτον σῶμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ τὸ ποτήριον τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ, ἵνα οἱ μεταλαβόντες τούτων τῶν ἀντιτύπων τῆς ἀφέσεως τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν καὶ τῆς ζωῆς αἰωνίου τύχωσιν.

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M. Praesanctificatorum (Gr. Tŵv προηγιασμένων). A Mass in which there is no consecration, but communion is made with the consecrated Elements reserved from a previous day. This is customary in the Greek Church on all days in Lent, except Saturdays, Sundays and the Feast of the Annunciation in the Latin Church it is confined to Good Friday. M. Privata. Low Mass, at which the Priest is assisted by a server only. This is not to be confounded with Missa solitaria, Mass said by a Priest alone, without assistant minister or congregation; a custom formerly practised in Monasteries, but now everywhere forbidden.

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