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harder material, larger and coarser in structure; and, what we would not expect å priori, they exhibit apparently less skill in the manufacture. But flint objects are found so widely scattered throughout the world, and so many degrees of skill in the manufacture are shown, that scarcely any inference can be drawn, distinctlyindicating nationality. The degree of social advancement is shown with more or less distinctness ; and certain classifications have been made on this ground.

Among the articles procured was a bone, which appears to have been designed for a rude dagger. It is the leg bone of a sheep, a portion of which is broken off at one side, and the remainder sharpened. A somewhat similar dagger of bone is

58. Barbed Arrow-heads.


59. Bone Dagger, from Peru-64 inches.

engraved in Ancient Meols, from the collection of the Royal Irish Academy; along with two spear heads of bone, one of which is part of the leg of

60. Bone Dagger, R.I.A. a horse. These latter were found, one in Lincolnshire and the other in the Thames. Similar daggers of bone have been found in Denmark.*

Sheath knives are in very common use along the whole coast; and their leathern scabbards are sometimes curiously ornamented by fantastical slashing. In the towns, especially those of Peru, accidents and deeds of violence sometimes occur from their too ready presence; but I did not hear of

* Worsaae Af bild., figs. 55, 58.

any such among the Indian people. There can be no doubt, however, that if their passions or interests were excited, there would be little respect shown for human life.

It is curious to notice how long leather is traceable after having lain in the earth. The Bronze age in Denmark is supposed to have been anterior to the first century of the Christian era, yet three implements of the period are shown with leather sheaths still distinguishable.t



MISCELLANEOUS. In the olden time, when pockets in dresses were unknown, the gypciere or separable bag was in common use. The necessity or the fashion of modern times has restored it, under the form of the well known satchel now commonly used by railway travellers. Afterwards, the purse was hung over the belt, or attached to the person by it; and during the existence of this fashion a certain class of thieves were known

cut-purses.” When, about the period of the Restoration, or a little more than two hundred years ago, pockets became common, the occupation of the cut-purse was slightly modified, and he became what is still known as a “pick-pocket.”

Though pockets appear to be in use among the people on the West Coast of South America, some of the purses are of very remarkable construction. For the carrying of large sums of money they are utterly useless, because the currency among the common people consists almost exclusively of silver dollars. A forgery of some dollar notes had taken place in Peru just previous to my visit, so that in the South, notes were often refused ; and Indians who brought down silver from the table-land to Tacna were obliged to carry back nearly its own weight of money in payment.

+ Worsaae Af bild., figs. 113, 117, 118.

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A common kind of purse is made by peeling off the skin of a small quadruped,* as a rat, a lamb, or a kid ;-the orifices at the neck and the fore paws being neatly fastened and decorated with silk ribbon, while the rear of the animal forms the mouth of the purse. A small flap remains from the tail and each of the hinder legs. At one of the mines, I procured a large tobacco bag of this kind. It consisted of the skin of a goat, admitting the hand and arm freely. Where the head and fore feet had been, there were handsome knots and tassels, ingeniously constructed from strips of the skin itself. This article was obtained at many leagues distance from even ai village, and it is an illustration of the expedients to which ordinary people will resort with the materials within their reach. An Englishman possessed it, having made it after the pattern of the country; and no doubt such things were common in the England of the olden time.

Another kind of purse is manufactured by the women of Cochibamba. It is in the shape of a doll, with arms bending round and attached at the haunches ; whilst solid legs and feet are fastened below, and a solid neck and head above. There is a rude attempt at making a face in front of the head, and sometimes a little worsted cap is worked on the top. Some of the purses of this kind are closed below and open at the back of the neck; others are fastened at the head and open at the bottom. Another purse of the same material rssembles the ancient bag or reticule known to English ladies; but it has two smaller purslets attached to it and opening from the interior, like the thumb and little finger of a glove. The bag itself would be serviceable ; but the little purses are evidently more for ornament than use. All the three are fringed at the bottom with coloured wool.

“Mercatores habitantes super Magnum Pontem, [Paris] vendunt “ marsupia sive bursas, de coreo cervino, ovino, bovino, et porcino.”—John de Garlande.

In connexion with the subject of tobacco may be men23

tioned a pipe. One of the oldest known is that engraved in Ancient Meols, page 339, from near Thunder Bay, Michigan. Probably the one shewn in the text is equally ancient.

It was discovered near Puchoco on the Bay of Arauco, by a landslip which laid bare part of the

skeleton of an Indian. It is no doubt a relic

of the ancient 62. Ancient Stone Pipe, from Thunder Bay.

period, when the Araucanians stretched northward to the river Bio Bio, and before the Spaniard had set foot upon their soil. It is of solid stone, the bowl capable of containing about half an ounce of

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cut tobacco; and the stem projecting in a right line beyond the bowl, so as to form a handle. I am indebted to Mr. Schwager and to Captain Hyder, in his employ, for their joint permission to bring it to England.

While the poorer Indian woman fastens her dress with a piece of thorn, her richer sister employs a silver pin, about


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