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ally inserted to form a sort of crate or open “ boxing.” The draught beam passes under the centre and forms the “median line;" and a wood pin passed through its extremity is fastened to the forehead of the oxen, by which it is pushed (not drawn) along. The wheels appear to be sections of a round tree; they are perforated in the centre, and are thinned off everywhere except round this hole, where a sort of umbilicus or nave is left. They are unshod, and usually there is not a particle of iron in the whole structure. Now, the AngloSaxon woodcart was also very simple in construction, but much more artistic than this. It had a single beam,* but was drawn by oxen, the traction being from the shoulder. It had sides of boards, and wheels with spokes. These are mentioned at a very early period, though we know that cars with solid wheels exist in remote districts of the British Isles to the present hour. Several carts which I saw at the city of La Serena were much superior to those of South Chile, and resembled much more nearly the Anglo-Saxon cart. Each had wheels with spokes.
In other places we see the ox-yoke such as is common in the East, and it is dug up in bogs throughout the British Islands. The annexed very interesting example of a horse or ox-yoke,
53. Horse or Ox-yoke.
is from the Collection of the Royal Irish Academy. It was found in a bog in the county of Monaghan : it is 3 feet 9 inches long, and 7 inches deep at the extremities. It appears to have been fastened to the pole by the central hole; and there were other holes near the lower side of the part
Knight's Pictorial History of England, i, 282, engraved from Cotton. MSS.
+ Radii, spacan or spokys."
which lay between the animals. There were also holes passing vertically through the extremities which lay beyond the necks of the animals. No doubt these served some important purpose in harnessing. The goad is in use as it was in the days of Shamgar*; but it is usually a long bamboo with a nail in the end, and not like the formidable instrument which may still be seen in England.
The plough is also very simple in structure, even the share being frequently of wood. This however, is sometimes covered by a plate of metal. It has but one handle, and is very similar in structure to the one-handled plough of the Saxons; which is figured several times in the Harleian MSS., and is represented on the Bayeux Tapestry.
During the Crimean War, Colonel Wilson-Patten was in charge of the 3rd Regiment of Lancashire Militia at Gibraltar; and on one of the largest Spanish farms in the neighbourhood, there were fifteen ploughs of similar construction at work. One of these he purchased ; and it is now deposited in the Warrington Museum and Library. On the 4th of December, 1862, an interesting account of it was given to the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, t by J. F. Marsh, Esq., of Warrington; and he showed conclusively, its coincidence in minute detail with the plough described by Virgil, Georgic I. A plough not very different, -both being one-handled,—is still found in Italy; and the Spanish people reproduced it in South America. The plough which is seen therefore at Lima or Conception illustrates the practice of both ancient and modern Spain ; and this intervening link again, connects us with the rustic implements of the time of Augustus.
Judges, iii, 31. + Transactions of the Historic Society of Lanc. and Chesh., XV (N.S. iii), pp. 1-20, pl. i, figs. 1, 2.
VII.-ARMS. It is recorded that in the days of Pizarro or at the period of the Conquest of Peru, the Chilians occupied the Stone period of civilization and the Peruvians the Bronze period. Certain it is that the former were deficient in a knowledge of the use of metals; and stone implements are found there at the present day. In warfare, these were sufficiently formidable; and they are so still among the people who employ them.
It is not to be expected that during a brief visit in a time of profound peace, I should know much of the implements of war which the people would use on an emergency; but I am aware of nothing to prevent them from supplying themselves with fire arms. No doubt the governments of the respective countries would exercise suitable precautions that dangerous people might not be too readily supplied, but these would not always be successful. I saw no large firearms except in the hands of the military ; but pistols are common, for protection of both person and property, especially among Europeans.
At the siege of Arauco, by the Indians, in 1861, it appears that the principal fighting-men were spearmen ; and that regularly at eight o'clock in the morning they commenced the day's proceedings, and retired again at nightfall. But though spears were their principal weapons, it is not unlikely that they employed any instrument which came readily to hand, -as the musket, the sword, or the bow. Among the articles indicating a former and perhaps even
the present state of society, were two flint arrow heads procured in Araucania. One
of them has a short handle 56. Flint Spear-point, serrated.-Half. for insertion, and was prob
ably used on the end of a spear, for which it is well adapted. It is beautifully serrated* along both edges; thus affording facilities for being lashed to the handle, and likely to produce a more dangerous wound. The other may be described as an ellipse with a very long major axis. It would certainly serve the purpose of an arrow or spear head, either end being inserted in the shaft; but it is not improbable that it served a more peaceful purpose, viz., as a scraper in removing flesh from the inner side of the skins of beasts. Articles 57, Flint Scraper.-Half. manufactured of flint are easily lost and are almost indestructible; so that they constitute a stone book in a sense different from that of the Geologist, and enable us to read some things definite respecting man, for many centuries beyond the limits of history or tradition, in any particular locality.
The old men, among the hunters of the North American Indian tribes, still manufacture flint arrow heads by a simple process;t and the extensive forgeries of similar articles in our own country, recently, by Flint Jack,f show that knowledge of a very simple and obvious kind, may perish among a highly civilized people, and be recovered by some of the humblest of its members.
Two arrow heads, or rather spear heads, from the United States, present a considerable contrast to these. They were procured near the centre of the state of New York, in the country of Logan, “the white man's friend." They are of
• Worsaae gives a flint saw (Afbildninger, fig. 37) and two bronze saws, (Ib., figs. 127, 128) which are serrated in a similar way.
+ Schoolcraft's Annuls, üü, 467. For an account of Flint Jack and his performances, and for a portrait, see Reliquary, viii, 65.
§ Several implements in flint have been manufactured by John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., and he has shown that no material is necessary, as a tool, beyond stone and wood. He has also manufactured some with a piece of hard bone,