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We are sometimes surprised at the immense quantities of

pottery which are found with Roman remains, and at Anglo-Saxon and other burial places; for they constitute a much larger proportion of the objects found than do the articles of pottery of recent periods. Various have been assigned

for this fact, but 32. Jug from the Graves at Arica.-Scale Half.

a careful observation of people, who possess the conveniences of civilization in only a limited degree, exhibits to us an adequate explanation. Among the common people of Peru and Chile, for example, we find numerous implements of pottery, which are of metal or glass amongst ourselves; because the prices at which metal and glass are sold cannot be reached by them, in numerous cases. Vessels of clay, for instance, are used for baking, boiling, frying, &c., and also for containing both fluids and solids.

They appear in every variety and size, from the small vessel

33. Gourd, probably suggesting

form.-Half. which can be concealed in the hollow of the hand, to the amphora of many feet




high.* In the graves of the dead, some of these are found of little more than half the capacity of a common egg-shell; and the cups from which an infusion of the yerba-maté is sucked,

are often very little larger.

Some of this pottery
is remarkable by the fact,
that it contains indenta-
tions and ornaments simi-
lar to those
ancient British ware ; t
shewing that the taste
of primitive peoples is in
a great degree similar,
and that the forms which
give pleasure, as well as

the instruments which produce them, are in a great degree identical. One of these egg-shaped little vessels, taken from a native grave near Arica, is still stoppered up, and contains perhaps the chicha, or native maize-beer, which was deposited beside the corpse, with benevolent intentions, several centuries ago.

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34. From the Graves at Arica.-Half.

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* In Old English, the general name for the larger pieces of pottery is “crock." Hence, in Alfric's Vocabulary, and indeed in several others of later date, occurs “ Anfora, crocca."

+ Compare fig. 32 with figs. 26 and 36.

In making some of these Pottery vessels the wheel is not employed. They are built up entirely by the hand, and with an accuracy sufficient for all practical purposes. The same fact has been noticed in connexion with some primitive

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pottery found at the Cape of Good Hope,* and no doubt this is, comparatively, a common occurrence.


In the graves of the dead have also been found, curious little baskets, manufactured like the dish mats of bent-grass which are common in this country. They contained, like the pottery vessels, some of the viands on which departed friends were expected to regale themselves; and there is no reason to believe that they were specially prepared, they illustrate the utensils which were, and indeed still are, in use in the cottages of the inhabitants.

Several years ago, I procured in the Isle of 39. From the Graves, Arica.-Half.


Mr. Busk, at Congress of Prehistoric Arcbæology.

Man, a basket identical in structure, and very similar in shape.

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Along with these are found curious woven bags* and nets, the former being occasionally of many colours, and decorated with tassels. These contained the meal from Indian corn, or perhaps tobacco; and something akin to them is regularly employed even now, by natives who undertake long journeys.

The common people of Peru, and of some other parts of the coast, use a large quantity of lard or animal fat with their food, and it is extraordinary what an amount of severe bodily labour is performed on no other sustenance than boiled beans and lard. The cooking of the former is sometimes a tedious process, as they require several hours' boiling, and the latter is sometimes rancid and disgusting; but the men have formulæ of their own for restoring it to comparative purity.

In most parts of the country fire is never required except for cooking, and a little charcoal is sufficient for this purpose. The pan or braserot in which it is lighted, appears afterwards,

* Fig. 10. + It is frequently of copper, but not always; it is occasionally seen of pottery, a sort of shallow “ pan-mug." A similar implement was used in England, four centuries ago, for the same purpose ; for we find in the Pictorial Vocabulary Hec arula, Anglice a croke.” “In the Anglo-Saxon Vocabularies, arula is “ explained as meaning a fire-pan, a vessel for holding lighted charcoal." Wright's Note.

for hours, to contain only a heap of ashes; but a primitive
pair of bellows soon revives the glowing embers. This is a
little fanner composed of plaited rushes, about the size of a
hand-screen on an English chimney piece. It sometimes
serves the purpose of a rustic fan, and is known by the
common name sopla. In hotels, restaurants, and clubs,
little trays of 'live charcoal, but apparently
of ashes, each not much larger than a good
salt cellar, stand on the table. These are
for the purpose of lighting cigarettes; and
they exhibit a glow upon the slightest puff,
but without the aid of the sopla. It may be from the Pict. Vocab!
interesting to see an English vessel of four centuries ago; a
brewer's “ corb " or basket.

41. Brewer's Vessel,

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Among the richer people of South America, before its conquest by Europeans, the precious metals were very abundant, and an almost incredible number of vessels of gold were brought in to Pizarro as a ransom for the unfortunate monarch of Peru. Among the less distinguished chieftains, silver was abundant; and even within the last twenty to twenty-five years, many of the common household vessels were of silver, both among the wealthier natives and the people of Spanish origin. This was more especially the case at some distance from the sea shore ; basins, goblets, ewers, teapots, maté cups, and bombillas, were all of silver.

At the present day, the Indian of the South displays his barbaric splendour mainly in connexion with the trappings of his horse; while his wife or daughter exhibits her wealth in the decorations of her person. Knowing, as they do, that dollars are of standard silver while bars or ingots might be adulterated, their manufactured articles are frequently if not usually, formed from dollars beaten up. When the Indian,

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