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habit and ensign of the order are a garter, mantle, and with a spear, encountering a dragon, which
cape, George, and collar. The first three were lies on his back under the horse's feet.
assigned the knights companions by the founder; The left shoulder has from the institution been
and the George and collar by Henry VIII. The adorned with a larger garter, with the device,
garter challenges pre-eminence over all the other Honi soit, &c. Within this is the cross of the
parts of the dress, as from it the order is depo- order, which was ordained to be worn at all
minated. It is the first part of the habit pre- times by king Charles I. At length the star was
sented to foreign princes and absent knights, introduced, being a sort of cross irradiated with
who, as well as all other knights elect, are there- beams of silver. In 1551 Edward VI. nade
with first adorned: and it is of so great honor some alterations in the ritual of this order: that
and grandeur, that by the bare investiture with prince composed it in Latin, the original whereof
this noble ensign, the knights are esteemed com- is still extant in his own hand-writing. Ile
panions of the greatest military order in the there ordained, that the order should no longer
world. It is worn on the left leg between the be called the order of St. George, but the order
knee and calf, and is enamelled with this motto, of the garter; and, instead of the George, hung
Honi soit qui mal y pense.

at the collar, he substituted a cavalier, bearing The mantle is the chief of those vestments a book on the point of his sword, with the made use of on solemn occasions. It is of blue word, protectio graven on the sword, and verbum velvet lined with white taffeta ; and to its collar Dei on the book : with a buckle in the left hand is fastened a pair of long strings, with large tas- and the word fides thereon. When the knights sels, called 'cordons,' made of blue silk inter- do not wear their robes, they are to have a silver mixed with gold. On the left breast of this star on the left side; and they commonly bear mantle are placed the arms of the order within the picture of St. George; enamelled on gold, the garter, richly embroidered. The mantle and beset with diamonds, at the end of a blue worn by the sovereign is distinguished by having riband, crossing the body from the left shoulder. a longer train than that of the knights. The They are not to appear abroad without the garcolor of these mantles is, by the founder's statute, ter, on penalty of 6s. 8d. paid to the register. appointed to be blue; and it so continued till As this is one of the most splendid and favorite the reign of queen Elizabeth, when it was changed orders of the knighthood in this country, or even to purple, and this was retained till about the in Europe, we add an account of the Installation twelfth year of king Charles I., when he restored of the duke of Rutland, the earl of Hardwicke, the color of the mantle to its original institution. the duke of Beaufort, the marquis of Abercorn,

The surcoat, or kirtle, as well as the mantle, the earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, the carl was originally composed of woollen cloth, and so of Winchelsea and Nottingham, and the earl of continued till the reign of Edward IV., about Chesterfield, on the 23rd of April, 1805. which time it was also made of velvet. Anciently, On the morning of installation, at ten o'clock, the color of this vesture changed every year, the Knights Companions began the procession, commonly into blue, scarlet, sanguine in grain, in the following complete habit of the order, or white; it is now made of crimson velvet, consisting of a black velvet plume, white ostrich lined with white taffeta.

feathers, and heron sprig: a purple velvet mantle, The hood was formerly worn on the head at lined with white silk; gold and purple cordons; all public ceremonies, and made of the same ma- collar of the order; crimson velvet hood, and terials as the mantle, and sometimes was trimmed crimson velvet surcoat; silver tissue jacket, and or set off with a small proportion of garters; but puffed breeches; white silk pantalvons; white it is not now used in the same manner as for- kid shoes; silver shoe roses, and silver knee merly, but remains fixed to the mantle as part of ditto, garter, &c. The officers of the order in the habit; and, instead of the hood, the knights their mantles, the Knights elect in their wider now wear on their heads a cap of black velvet, habits, having their caps and feathers in their deep in the crown, lined with taffeta, and adorned hands, and the honorable captain Yorke, the with a large plume of ostrich feathers, in the cen- proxy of the earl of Hardwicke, in his ordinary tre of which is a tuft or aigrette of heron's fea- habit, attended the Sovereign in the royal apartthers; these feathers are usually fixed to the cap ment. The Officers of Arms, and the four by a band of diamonds. The custom of wearing Serjeants at Arms, with their maces, attended in these

caps and feathers, at the great solemnities the Presence Chamber; the Prebends, Poor of the order, had sometimes been omitted, in and Naval Knights, as also the kettle drums, and and before the reign of James I., and therefore, house trumpets, in the Guard Chamber. The in a chapter beld on the 13th of April, in his honorable captain Yorke, proxy for the earl of tenth year, the custom of wearing the cap and Hardwicke, walked in the procession, dressed in feathers was established.

his naval uniforin. At eleven o'clock, a disThe collar of the order is of gold, weighing charge of guns announced the procession. thirty ounces Troy; it is composed of twenty-six The Sovereign coming under his state, Garter pieces, in the form of the garter enamelled blue, King of Arms called over the knights; and a with the motto of the order in gold; in the cen- procession was made froin the royal apartment, tre of each garter is a rose, enamelled red, through the Presence and Guard Chambers; the seeded gold, and leaved green: these twenty-six end of St. George's Hall; the late private garters are fastened together with as many knots chapel : the passage leading to the great stairs; of gold. At the middle of it, pendent to one of descending which, through the hall to the great the garters, is the badge of the order, being the court; and from thence, to the south door of St. figure of St. George armed, sitting on horseback, George's Chapel, in the following order :

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Two Serg. at Arms, a little Pensioners before the Sword of State. Gentlemen

Two Fife-Majors.

Majesty, that Robert Quarme, Esq. Deputy Four Drum-Majors of the Household. Black Rod, waited at the door and humbly prayed - Lamb, Esq. Drum-Major of England, uncovered. admittance to take the oath of Office: and he Fourteen Trumpets.

being thereupon introduced by Garter, kneeled 'Two Trombones.

near the Sovereign, on the left hand, when GarTwo side-Drums.

ter, holding the Gospels, administered the oath. Six Naval Officers of Travers' College, two and two.

Deputy Black Rod, having kissed the Sovereign's
Eighteen Poor Knights of Windsor, two and two.
Ten Prebends, two and two.

hand, retired to his place at the bottom of the
Pursuivants and Heralds, two and two.

table. Then Garter, in the absence of the ChanNorroy (King at Arms), Clarencieux (Ditto).

cellor (who was indisposed), acquainted His KNIGHTS ELECT,

Majesty that the dean of Windsor, the honor

able and reverend Dr. Edward Legge, attended (Having their caps and feathers in their hand); viz.

at the door, and prayed admittance to take the Earl of Chesterfield. Earl of Winchelsea. oath, as the Register of the Order. He was Earl of Pembroke.

Marquis of Abercorn.
Duke of Beaufort.

thereupon introduced by Garter and Deputy
Duke of Rutland.

Black Rod; the latter carrying the ensigns of

the Register's office: the locum tenens adminisKNIGHTS COMPANIONS ; viz,

tered the oath ; and Register being invested, and Earls Camden, Spencer,

having kissed the Sovereign's hand, withdrew to Westmoreland,

Salisbury, his place at the bottom of the table. Then, by
Earl of Chatham,

the Sovereign's command, the officer acting for
Duke of Devonshire,

the Chancellor standing on the left hand of His
Prince William, D. of Gloucester, Majesty, read the new statute. Which done, the
D. of Cambridge, Duke of Sussex,

Register returned to his place.
D. of Cumberland, Duke of Kent,
Duke of Clarence, Duke of York,

Garter then, by the sovereign's command, intro

duced the duke of Rutland between two knights,
Prince of Wales.
The Register (the Dean),

viz. their royal highnesses the dukes of York and
Having Garter King at Arms on his Clarence, who was received at the door by the
right, and Deputy Black Rod on his two junior knights, and conducted to the table,
left band.

where the surcoat, girdle, and sword had been The Chancellor with the Purse,

placed : and Garter presenting the surcoat to Having on his right hand the Prelate. the two senior knights, they invested his grace Lord Chamberlain. The Sword of State. therewith, the Register reading this admoniTHE SOVEREIGN.

tion: take this robe of crimson, to the increase

of your honor, and in token and sign of the
His Train borne by the Marquisses of

most noble order you bave received, where-
Worcester and Tavistock, and the
Honourable Mr. Villiers.

with you being defended, may be bold not only

strong to fight, but also to offer yourself to shed
The Officers of State, viz.
The Earl of Harrington, Gold Stick.

your blood for Christ's faith, the liberties of the Marquis of Hertford, Master of the Horse.

church, and the just and necessary defence of Earl Macclesfield, Captain of the Yeoman of the them who are oppressed and needy. Then GarGuards.

ter presented the girdle in like manner, and Lord St. Helens, Lord in Waiting.

afterwards the which they put on his Band of Gentlemen Pensioners.

grace, who then took his place near the table. Ten of His Majesty's Pages, in a new uniform. Garter then introduced the honorable captain

Yorke, the proxy for the earl of Hardwicke, lord In this manner, moving to the Chapel, the pro- lientenant of Ireland, and knight elect of the cession entered the south door; passed down the order, who stood at his excellency's place near south aisle, and up the centre, or nave, then the table, between their royal highnesses the turning to the left proceeded up the north aisle, dukes of Cumberland and Kent. to the Chapter-house; the organ and band play- The duke of Beaufort and his companions ing the March in Hercules; the Naval and Poor were then severally introduced between two Knights dividing on either side, at some distance knights in like manner, and invested with the from the Chapter-house; then the Prebends, surcoat, girdle, and sword. next above; and the Officers of Arms nearest to The knights elect and the proxy continued in the Chapter-house. None entering with the the Chapter-house, while the procession to the Sovereign into the Chapter-house, but the Chapel was made down to the bottom of the Knights Companions, and the sworn Officers of north aisle and up the nave, into the choir, in the order; the Knights elect retired to their chairs the following order:—First, the naval and poor in the aisle behind the altar. The Sovereign's knights, who, coming into the choir, made their train was carried into the Chapter-house by reverences, first to the altar, then to the soveGarter; and borne out of the Chapter-house by reign's stall

, and placed themselves, on each side, Deputy Black Rod, and then again carried by near the altar. The prebends made their revethe Train Bearers. Deputy Black Rod, and the rences in like manner, and went to their places Register, not having been sworn, remained in the under the stalls. The officers of arms, making aisle, opposite to the Knights elect. The their reverences, stood next to the poor knights. Sovereign and the Knights Companions, being Then the knights companions, each in the order seated, the latter according to their seniority, and in which he had walked, made their reverences, their stalls in the Chapel ; Garter acquainted His and retired under their banners, where they re

before the Sword of State.
Two Serg, at Arms, a little


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mained standing. The Register, Garter, and the Gospels :—You being chosen to be one of Deputy Black Rod, making their reverences to- the honorable company of the most noble order gether, stood before their form. The Prelate and of the Garter, shall promise and swear, by the Chancellor did the same. The Sword of State, Holy Evangelists, by you here touched, that with the Lord Chamberlain on his left hand (the wittingly, and willingly, you shall not break any Sovereign being seated), stood on the steps be- statute of the said order, or any article in them fore, or under the sovereign's stall. The Sove- contained, unless you shall have first received a reign made one reverence to the altar; and, being dispensation from the sovereign, the same being in his stall, repeated the same; the train bearers agreeable, and not repugnant to the will of God standing upon the steps leading to the sovereign's and the laws of the realm, as far forth as to you stall.

belongeth and appertaineth, so help you God Garter then went into the middle of the choir, and his Holy Word.' The two knights then and making his double reverence, waved his scep- conducted his grace into the upper stall; the tre towards his Royal Highness the prince of Register and Garter entering into the lower stall; Wales; who, thereupon came from under his the Deputy Black Rod remaining in the area. banner, made his reverences, and ascended into his Garter then presented the mantle to the knights, stall; where, repeating his reverences, he sat down. who invested his grace therewith, the Register All the other knights continued standing under reading the following admonition :-Receive their banners. The Prelate was conducted to the this robe of heavenly color, the livery of this altar by the verger of St. George's Chapel; and most excellent order, in augmentation of thy the two Prebends, by the same Verger.

honor, ennobled with the shield and red cross of Then Garter, with the usual reverences, the our Lord, by whose power thou mayest safely organ and band playing the Dead March in pierce troops of thine enemies, and be over them Saul, and Dirge in Sampson, took up the banner ever victorious; and, being in this temporal warof his Serene Highness the late duke of Saxe fare glorious in egregious and heroic actions, Gotha; and holding it up, the Provincial Kings thou mayest obtain eternal and triumphant joy.' of Arms joined, and making their reverences, Next Garter presented the hood, which was put repaired to the two senior knights; who there- on over his grace's right shoulder, the ends of the upon joined, making their reverences together, tippets being brought in front, and passed under and received the banner from Garter, which they the girdle. Then garter presented the great colcarried, the point foremost, a little declining; lar and George, with which the knights invested and being preceded by the said Provincial Kings the duke, whilst the Register read this admoniof Arms, advanced to the first step of the altar; tion :- Wear this collar about thy neck, adorned where they repeated their reverences; and com- with the image of the blessed martyr and soldier ing to the rails, made reverences to the altar; in Christ, St. George, by whose imitation prothen kneeling, they delivered the banner to the voked, thou mayest so overpass both prosperous Prelate, who, assisted by the Prebends, placed and adverse encounters, that, having stoutly vanit upright at the south end of the altar.

quished thine enemies, both of body and soul, The two knights then returned with like re- thou mayest not only survive this transient comverence, and stood upon their banners. The bat, but be crowned with palms of eternal vicsword was then delivered by Garter to the next tory.! Garter then presented the statute-book, senior knights; who, attended by the said Pro- which the knights delivered to his grace; and vincial Kings of Arms, offered the same, the hilt then placing the cap and feathers on his head, they upwards, with like ceremonies. The helm and seated him in his stall; and his grace rising up, crest were offered by the two next senior knights, made his double reverence, viz., first to the altar, with the same ceremony, attended by the said then to the sovereign : the knights, after embrace Provincial Kings of Arms. The achievements ing and congratulating him, descended into the of the late marquis of Stafford, of the late duke of middle of the choir, and, making their reverences, Beaufort, and the late duke of Roxburgh, were

into their stalls, and, repeating the same, offered with the same ceremonies, by the six se- sat down ; the officers returning to their places. nior knights, not of the blood royal, attended each Then garter summoned the two knights next time by two heralds, in rotation. Then Garter, in seniority, in order to install the honorable bowing to each knight (the senior first), sum- captain Yorke, the proxy for the earl of Hardmoned him to ascend into his stall; when he wicke; who was thereupon conducted, with the made his reverences, and the same were repeated same ceremony, into the stall under that apwhen in the stalls. All the knights being in pointed for his principal, where the Register adtheir stalls, Garter summoned the two senior ministered to him the oath. He was then conknights under their banners, in order to install ducted into the upper stall; and, the mantle the duke of Rutland; and a procession was made being presented by Garter, the knights put the to the Chapter-house, all making the usual same over his left arm, so that the cross, emreverences, on going out of the choir.

broidered within the garter, might be seen. They The procession passing to the west end of the then seated the said proxy in the stall, with the choir only, entered the choir, all making the ceremony as before-mentioned, and returned to usual reverences; Garter, with the Register and their stalls; the proxy, immediately rising, made Deputy Black Rod, went under the stall ap- his reverences, and remained standing during the pointed for his grace; Garter placing the cushion rest of the ceremony, with the mantle on his upon the desk of the lower stall.

The two knights, with the duke, entered into The duke of Beaufort, the marquis of Aberthe lower stall, where the Register administered corn, the earl of Pembroke, the earl of Winchilsea, the following oath, Deputy Black Rod holding and the earl of Chesterfield, were severally intr

went up



style is uniformly simple, perspicuous, and posed of all the offals of fish, of every kiad,

macerated in salt; it had its name, he says, from His principal works are, 1. Dissertatio de its being originally made of a fish, called by the Nonnullis quæ Pertinent ad Logicam Probabili- Greeks garos; but in his time the best seeins to um, 1766, 4to. 2. Dissertatio de Ratione Scri- have been made with the mackerel ; but that there bendi Historiam Philosophicam. 3. A prize were several other kinds used both in food and essay, in German, on the Inclinations, which was medicine, some of which must have been made crowned by the Royal Academy of Berlin, 1769, from scarce fish, for they were of great price. 410. 4. Progr. Legendorum Philosophorum They were used in glysters, and externally apNonnulla et Exemplum, 1770, 4to. 5. Remarks plied in several kinds of cutaneous eruptions: on the Character and Writings of Gellert, 1770, the ancients had a great opinion of them in glys8vo. in German. 6. A Dissertation in German) ters, for removing the pain in the sciatica, and on the union of morals and politics, Breslau, other like cases; and the coarser sorts were their 1788, 8vo.; also translated into French. 7. Es- common medicine for curing cattle of the scab, says (in German) on various subjects in litera- by making incisions in the skin, and laying over ture, morals, and social life. 8. A sketch (in Ger- the part cloths wetted with them. Strabo, lib. ill. man) of the most remarkable principles of 109; Plin. lib. xxxi. cap. 8. The exact way in moral philosophy, from the time of Aristotle to which the ancients prepared their garum, which the present day, &c., was first prefixed to his they so much valued as a delicacy at their tables, translation of Aristotle's Ethics, and afterwards is unknown to us; but it appears that some kinds printed separately; Breslau, 1798, 8vo. 9. Some of garum had no fishy matter in them, from observations on the most general principles of Aetius, who gives the following prescription of morals, in German, ibid. 1798, 8vo. Besides a liquor, which he calls by this name:- take of these works Garve wrote a number of literary common water thirty-one pints, of sea-salt two essays. He also translated into German a variety pints, and of dried figs fifty; let these all maceof English works. Garve's Correspondence was rate together, and afterwards be strained clear published at Breslau, in 2 vols. 8vo.

All the garums were esteemed hot and GARUM, in ancient cookery and medicine, drying by the ancients, and were sometimes is a common term for a kind of pickle, in which given as laxatives before food. The modern fish had been preserved. The principal kind of writers understand the word garum in a much fish thus preserved was the mackerel; and the more limited sense, meaning no more by it than garum principally consisted of the juices of the the brine or pickle in which herrings or anchories fish and salt. We find the old writers speaking are preserved. of several kinds of it: one they call Spanish ga- GARUMNA, a navigable river of Gaul, which, rum, from the place whence they had it; another rising from the Pyrenees, anciently bounded kind, from its color, was termed the black garum: Aquitain on the north; but, by a regulation of this last kind seems to have been that called Augustus, divided it in the middle: running to fæcosum by the Latin poets, as if the fæces and the north of Burdegala, into the Aquitanic Ocean remains of the fish were left among it; and by It is now called Garonne. Mela observes, that others garum sanguineum, from its being some- unless it is swelled by winter rains, or the melitimes tinged with their blood to a reddish color. ing of the snow, it is for a great part of the year The Romans sometimes called the Spanish kind, shoaly and scarcely navigable; but, when 10which was esteemed the best, garum sociorum; creased by the meeting tide, by which its waters and Galen says that the black garum was called are repelled, it is somewhat fuller, and the faroxyporum; but he only means by this, that it was ther the river advances, it is broader, till at length used in the preparations called oxypora. It it resembles an extensive frith; not only bearing served to dilute them, and thence took the name large vessels, but swelling like a raging sea, ani of them to itself, by way of distinction from the tossing them extremely, especially if the direction Spanish, and other kinds, not used for this of the wind be one way and that of the current purpose. Pliny tells us that garum was com- another.

for use.

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