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ceiving of the sacraments instituted by Christ; are all parts of the ordinary religious worship of God:" besides religious oaths; and vows, solemn fastings, and thanksgivings upon special occasions, which are, in their several times and seasons, to be used in a holy and religious manner.”
VI. Neither prayer, nor any other part of religious worship,is, now under the gospel, either tied unto, or made more acceptable by, any place in which it is performed, or towards which it is directed ;. but God
is to be worshipped every whered in spirit and in truth; as in private families! and making melody in your heart to groom is with them? but the days will the Lord. James v. 13. Is any among come, when the bridegroom shall be you afflicted ? let him pray. Is any taken from them, and then shall they merry ? let him sing psalms.
fast. 1 Cor. vii. 5. Defraud ye not w Matt. xxviii. 19. Go ye therefore, one the other, except it be with con. and teach all nations, baptizing them sent for a time, that ye may give in the name of the Father, and of the yourselves to fasting and prayer; and Son, and of the Holy Ghost. [1 Cor. come together again, that Satan tempt xi. 23. to verse 29.] Acts ii. 42. And you not for your incontinency. they continued steadfastly in the apos- [Ps. cvii. throughout.] Esth. ix. 22. tles' doctrine and fellowship, and in As the days wherein the Jews rested breaking of bread, and in prayers. from their enemies, and the month
* Deut. vi. 13. Thou shalt fear the which was turned unto them from Lord thy God, and serve him, and sorrow to joy, and from mourning shalt swear by his name. With Neh. into a good day; that they should x. 29. They clave to their brethren, make them days of feasting and joy, their nobles, and entered into a curse, and of sending portions one to an. and into an oath, to walk in God's other, and gifts to the poor. law, which was given by Moses the b Heb. xii. 28. Wherefore, we reservant of God, and to observe and ceiving a kingdom which cannot be do all the commandments of the Lord moved, let us have grace, whereby we our God, and his judgments and his may serve God acceptably with restatutes.
verence and godly fear. ; Isa. xix. 21. And the Lord shall VI. - John iv. 21. Jesus saith unto be known to Egypt, and the Egyp- her, Woman, believe me, the hour tians shall know the Lord in that day, cometh, when ye shall neither in this and shall do sacrifice and oblation; mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, woryea, they shall vow, a vow. unto the ship the Father. Lord, and perform it. With Eccl. v. Mal. i. 11. For from the rising of 4. When thou vowest a vow unto God, the sun, even unto the going down of defer not to pay it; for he hath nó the same, my name shall be great pleasure in fools: pay that which thou among the Gentiles; and in every hast vowed. Ver. 5. Better is it that place incense shall be offered unto my thou shouldest not vow, than that name, and a pure offering: for my thou shouldest vow and not pay. name shall be great among the hea.
z Joel ii. 12. Therefore also now, then, saith the Lord of hosts. 1 Tim. saith the Lord, Turn ye even to mé ii. 8. I will therefore that men pray with all your heart, and with fasting, every where, lifting up holy hands, and with weeping, and with mourns without wrath and doubting. ing. Esth. iv. 16. Go, gather toge- e John iv. 23. But the hour cometh, ther all the Jews that are present in and now is, when the true worshipShushan, and fast ye for me, and pers shall worship the Father in spirit neither eat nor drink three days, and in truth: for the Father seeketh night or day: I also and my maidens such to worship him. Ver. 24. God will fast likewise; and so will I go in is a Spirit: and they that worship unto the king, which is not accord- him must worship him in spirit and ing to the law; and if I perish, I perish. in truth. Matt. ix. 15. And Jesus said unto Jer. x. 25. Pour out thy fury upon them, Can the children of the bride- the heathen that know thee not, and chamber mourn, as long as the bride- upon the families that call not on thy daily, and in secret each one by himself;b so more solemnly in the publick assemblies, which are not carelessly or wilfully to be neglected or forsaken, when God, by his word or providence, calleth thereunto.
VII. As it is of the law of nature, that, in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God; so, in his word, by a positive, moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in seven for a sabbath, to be kept holy unto him:" which, from the beginning of the world to the name: for they have eaten up Jacob, every one that keepeth the sabbath and devoured him, and consumed him, from polluting it, and taketh hold of and have made his habitation deso- my covenant; Ver. 7. Even them will late. Deut. vi. 6. And these words, I bring to my holy mountain, and which I command thee this day, shall make them joyful in my house of be in thine heart; Ver. 7. And thou prayer: their burnt-offeringsand their shalt teach them diligently unto thy sacrifices shall be accepted upon mine children, and shalt talk of them when altar; for mine house shall be called thou sittest in thine house, and when an house of prayer for all people. Heb. thou walkest by the way, and when x. 25. Not forsaking the assembling of thou liest down, and when thou risest ourselves together, as the manner of up. Job i. 5. And it was so, when someis; but exhorting oneanother:and the days of their feasting were gone so much the more, as ye see the day apabout, that Job sent and sanctified proaching. Prov. i. 20. Wisdom crieth them, and rose up early in the morn- without; she uttereth her voice in ing, and offered burnt-offerings ac- the streets: Ver. 21. She crieth in the cording to the number of them all: chief place of concourse, in the openfor Job said, It may be that my sons ings of the gates: in the city she have sinned, and cursed God in their uttereth her words, saying, Ver
. 24. hearts. Thus did Job continually. Because I have called, and ye refused: 2 Sam. vi. 18. And as soon as David I have stretched out my hand, and no had made an end of offering burnt- man regarded. Prov. viii. 34. Blessofferings and peace-offerings, he bless- ed is the man that heareth me, watch. ed the people in the name of the Lord ing daily at my gates, waiting at the of hosts. Ver. 20. Then David returned posts of my doors. Acts xiii. 42. to bless his household. 1 Pet. iii. 7. Like- And when the Jews were gone out of wise, ye husbands, dwell with them the synagogue, the Gentiles besought according to knowledge, giving honour that these words might be preached unto the wife, as unto the weaker to them the next sabbath. Luke iv. vessel, and as being heirs together of 16. And he came to Nazareth, where the grace of life; that your prayers he had been brought up: and, as his be not hindered. Acts x. 2. A devout custom was, he went into the synaman, and one that feared God with all gogue on the sabbath-day, and stood his house, which gave much alms to up for to read. Acts ii. 42. And they the people, and prayed to God alway. continued steadfastly in the apostles'
8 Matt. vi. 11. "Give us this day our doctrine and fellowship, and in break. daily bread.
ing of bread, and in prayers. h Matt. vi. 6. But thou, when thou VII. k Exod. xx. 8. Remember the prayest, enter into thy closet; and, sabbath-day, to keep it holy. Ver. 10. when thou hast shut thy door, pray But the seventh day is the sabbath of to thy Father which is in secret; and the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not thy Father, which seeth in secret, do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy shall reward thee openly. Eph. vi. daughter, thy man-servant, nor thy 18. Praying always with all prayer maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy and supplication in the Spirit, and stranger that is within thy gates: Ver. watching thereunto with all perse- 11. For in six days the Lord made heaverance and supplication for all saints. ven and earth, the sea, and all that in
Isa. lvi. 6. Also the sons of the them is, and rested the seventh day: stranger, that join themselves to the wherefore the Lord blessed the sabLord, to serve him, and to love the bath-day, and hallowed it. Isa. Ivi. 2. name of the Lord, to be his servants, Blessed is the man that doeth this, and
resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week, which in scripture is called the Lord's Day,m and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the Christian Sabbath."
VIII. This sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord, when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering of their common affairs before-hand, do not only observe an holy rest all the day from their own works, words, and thoughts about their worldly employments and recreations;° but also are taken up the whole time in the publick and the son of man that layeth hold on it; is a sabbath unto the Lord: to-day ye that keepeth the sabbath from polluts shall not find it in the field. Ver. 26. ing it, and keepeth his hand from do- Six days ye shall gather it; but on ing any evil. Ver. 4. For thus saith the the seventh day, which is the sabbath, Lord unto the eunuchs that keep my in it there shall be none. Ver. 29. See, sabbaths, and choose the things that for that the Lord hath given you the please me, and take hold of my cove- sabbath, therefore he giveth you on nant. Ver. 6, 7. [See in letter i.] the sixth day the bread of two days :
i Gen. ii. 2. And on the seventh day abide ye every man in his place; let God ended his work which he had no man go out of his place on the made; and he rested on the seventh seventh day. Ver. 30. So the people day from all his work which he had rested on the seventh day. Exod. xxxi. made. Ver. 3. And God blessed the 15. Six days may work be done; but seventh day, and sanctified it; be in the seventh is the sabbath of rest, cause that in it he had rested from all holy to the Lord: whosoever doeth his work which God created and made. any work in the sabbath-day, he shall I Cor. xvi. 1. Now concerning the col- surely be put to death. Ver. 16. lection for the saints, as I have given Wherefore the children of Israel shall order to the churches of Galatia, even keep the sabbath, to observe the sab60 do ye. Ver. 2. Upon the first day bath throughout their generations, for of the week let every one of you lay a perpetual covenant. Ver. 17. It is by him in store, as God hath pros- a sign between me and the children pered him, that there be no gather of Israel for ever: for in six days the ings when I come. Acts xx. 7. And Lord made heaven and earth, and on upon the first day of the week, when the seventh day he rested, and was the disciples came together to break refreshed. Isa. lviii. 13. If thou turn bread, Paul preached unto them,
ready away thy foot from the sabbath, from to depart on the morrow, and con- doing thy pleasure on my holy day; tinued his speech until midnight. and call the sabbath a delight, the
m Rev. i. 10. I was in the Spirit on holy of the Lord, honourable ; and the Lord's day, and heard behind me shalt honour him, not doing thine own a great voice, as of a trumpet. ways, nor finding thine own pleasure,
Exod. xx. 8, 10. [See letter k] With nor speaking thine own words. Neh. Matt. v. 17. Think not that I am come xiii. 15. In those days saw I in Judah to destroy the law or the prophets : some treading wine-presses on the I am not come to destroy, but to ful. sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and fil. Ver. 18. For verily I say unto lading asses; as also wine, grapes, and you, Till heaven and earth pass, one figs, and all manner of burdens, which jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass they brought into Jerusalem on the from the law, till all be fulfilled. sabbath-day: and I testified against
VIII. Exod. xx. 8. [See letter k.] them in the day wherein they sold Exod. xvi. 23. And he said unto them, victuals. Ver. 16. There dwelt men This is that which the Lord hath said, of Tyre also therein, which brought To-morrow is the rest of the holy fish, and all manner of ware, and sold sabbath unto the Lord; bake that on the sabbath unto the children of which ye will bake to-day, and seethe Judah, and in Jerusalem. Ver. 17.
will seethe; and that which Then I contended with the nobles of remaineth over lay up for you, to be Judah, and said unto them, What evil kept until the morning. Ver. 25. And thing is this that ye do, and profane Moses said, Eat that to-day; for to-day the sabbath-day? Ver. 18. Did not
private exercises of his worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy.P
CHAP. XXII.-Of lawful Oaths and Voros. LAWFUL oath is a part of religious worship," wherein, upon
just occasion, the person swearing solemnly calleth God to witness what he asserteth or promiseth; and to judge him according to the truth or falsehood of what he sweareth.b
II. The name of God only is that by which men ought to swear, and therein it is to be used with all holy fear and reverence;o therefore to swear vainly or rashly by that glorious and dreadful name, or to swear at all by any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorred. Yet as, in matters of weight and moment, an oath is warranted by the word of God under the New Testament, as well as under the Old;° so a lawyour fathers thus, and did not our to spare you
I came not as yet unto God bring all this evil upon us, and Corinth. 2 Chron. vi. 22. If a man upon this city? yet ye bring more sin against his neighbour, and an oath wrath upon Israel, by profaning the be laid upon him to make him swear, sabbath. Ver. 19. And it came to and the oath come before thine altar pass, that, when the gates of Jerusa- in this house: Ver. 23. Then hear thou lem began to be dark before the sab- from heaven, and do, and judge thy bath, I commanded that the gates servants, by requiting the wicked, by should be shut, and charged that they recompensing his way upon his own should not be opened till after the head; and by justifying the righteous, sabbath; and some of my servants set by giving him according to his right. I at the gates, that there should no eousness. burden be brought in on the sabbath. II. • Deut. vi. 13. Thou shalt fear day. Ver. 21. Then I testified against the Lord thy God, and serve him, and them, and said unto them, Why lodge shalt swear by his name. ye about the wall? if ye do so again, . Exod. xx. 7. [See letter b.] Jer. v. 7. I will lay hands on you. From that How shall I pardon thee for this ? thy time forth
came they no more on the children have forsaken me, and sworn sabbath. Ver. 22. And I commanded by them that are no gods: when I had the Levites, that they should cleanse fed them to the full, they then com. themselves, and that they should come mitted adultery, and assembled themand keep the gates, to sanctify the selves by troops in the harlots' houses. sabbath day. Remember me, O my Matt. v. 34. But I say unto you, Swear God, concerning this also, and spare not at all: neither by heaven; for it me according to the greatness of thy is God's throne. Ver. 37. But let your mercy.
communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, P Isa. lviii. 13. [See in letter 0. Matt. nay: for whatsoever is more than xii. 1. to the 13th Verse.]
these cometh of evil. James v. 12. I. a Deut. x. 20. Thou shalt fear the But above all things, my brethren, Lord thy God; him shalt thou serve, swear not; neither by heaven, neither and to him shalt thou cleave, and by the earth, neither by any other swear by his name.
oath: but let your yea be yea; and • Exod. xx. 7. Thou shalt not take your nay, nay; lest ye fall into conthe name of the Lord thy God in vain: demnation. for the Lord will not hold him guilt- e Heb. vi. 16. For men verily swear less that taketh his name in vain. by the greater: and an oath for conLev. xix. 12. And ye shall not swear firmation is to them an end of all by my name falsely, neither shalt thou strife. 2 Cor. i. 23. (See letter b.] Isa. profane the name of thy God: I am lxv. 16. That he who blesseth himseif the Lord. 2 Cor. i. 23. Moreover, I call in the earth, shall bless himself in the God for a record upon my soul, that God of truth; and he that sweareth
ful oath, being imposed by lawful authority, in such matters, ought to be taken.'
III. Whosoever taketh an oath, ought duly to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and therein to avouch nothing but what he is fully persuaded is the truth. Neither may any man bind himself by oath to any thing but what is good and just, and what he believeth so to be, and what he is able and resolved to perform. Yet it is a sin to refuse an oath touching any thing that is good and just, being im. posed by lawful authority.
IV. Ăn oath is to be taken in the plain and common sense of the
in the earth, shall swear by the God 9. And the servant put his hand of truth; because the former troubles undür the thigh of Abraham his mas. are forgotten, and because they are ter, and sware to him concerning hid from mine eyes.
that matter. 11 Kings viii. 31. If any man tres- i Numb. v. 19. And the priest shall pass against his neighbour, and an charge her by an oath, and say unto oath be laid upon him to cause him to the woman, If no man have lain with swear, and the oath come before thine thee, and if thou hast not gone aside altar in this house. Neh. xiii. 25. to uncleanness with another instead And I contended with them, and of thy husband, be thou free from cursed them, and smote certain of this bitter water that causeth the them, and plucked off their hair, and curse. Ver. 21. Then the priest shall made them swear by God, saying, Ye charge the woman with an oath of shall not give your daughters unto cursing; and the priest shall say unto their sons, nor take their daughters the woman, The Lord make thee a unto your sons, or for yourselves. curse and an oath among thy people, Ezra x. 5. Then arose Ezra, and made when the Lord doth make thy thigh the chief priests, the Levites, and all to rot, and thy belly to swell. Neh. Israel, to swear that they should do v. 12. Then said they, We will reaccording to this word : and they store them, and will require nothing
of them; so will we do as thou sayest. III. 8 Exod. xx. 7. [See letter b.] Jer. Then I called the priests, and took an iv. 2. And thou shalt swear, The Lord oath of them, that they should do liveth, in truth, in judgment, and in according to this promise. Exod. xxii. righteousness; and the nations shall 7. If a man shall deliver unto his bless themselves in him, and in him neighbour money or stuff to keep, shall they glory.
and it be stolen out of the man's h Gen. xxiv. 2. And Abraham said house; if the thief be found, let him unto his eldest servant of his house, pay double. Ver. 8. If the thief be that ruled over all that he had, Put, not found, then the master of the I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh; house shall be brought unto the judges, Ver. 3. And I will make thee swear to see whether he have put his hand by the Lord, the God of heaven, and unto his neighbour's goods. Ver. 9. the God of the earth, that thou shalt For all manner of trespass, whether not take a wife unto my son of the it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for daughters of the Canaanites, among raiment, or for any manner of lost whom I dwell. Ver. 5. And the servant thing, which another challengeth to said unto him, Peradventure the wo- be his, the cause of both parties shall man will not be willing to follow me come before the judges; and whom unto this land : must I needs bring the judges shall condemn, he shall thy son again unto the land from pay double unto his neighbour. Ver. whence thou camest? Ver. 6. And 10. If a man deliver unto his neigh. Abraham said unto him, Beware thou bour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or that thou bring not my son thither any beast, to keep, and it die, or be again. Ver. 8. And if the woman will hurt, or driven away, no man seeing not be willing to follow
thee, then thou it: Ver. 11. Then shall an oath of shalt be clear from this my oath : only the Lord be between them both, that bring not my son thither again. Ver. he hath not put his band unto his