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V. This covenant was differently administered in the time of the law, and in the time of the gospel;' under the law it was administered by promises, prophecies, sacrifices, circumcision, the paschal lamb, and other types and ordinances delivered to the people of the Jews, all foresignifying Christ to come, which were for that time sufficient and efficacious, through the operation of the Spirit, to instruct and build up the elect in faith in the promised Messiah, by whom they had full remission of sins, and eternal salvation; and is called the Old Testament.m
VI. Under the gospel, when Christ the substance" was exhibited, he is the mediator of the new testa- circumcised with the circumcision ment, that by means of death, for the made without hands, in putting off redemption of the transgressions that the body of the sins of the flesh by were under the first testament, they the circumcision of Christ; Ver. 12. which are called might receive the Buried with him in baptism, wherein promise of eternal inheritance. Ver. also ye are risen with him through 16. For where a testament is, there the faith of the operation of God, who must also of necessity be the death of hath raised him from the dead. 1 Cor. the testator. Ver. 17. For a testa- v. 7. Purge out therefore the old leament is of force after men are dead: ven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye otherwise it is of no strength at all are unleavened. For even Christ our while the testator liveth. Heb. vii. 22. passover is sacrificed for us. By so much was Jesus made a surety 11 Cor. x. 1. Moreover, brethren, I of a better testament. Luke xxii. 20. would not that ye should be ignorant, Likewise also the cup after supper, how that all our fathers were under saying, This cup is the new testament the cloud, and all passed through the in my blood, which is shed for you. sea; Ver. 2. And were all baptized 1 Cor. xi. 25. After the same manner unto Moses in the cloud and in the also he took the cup, when he had sup- sea; Ver. 3. And did all eat the same ped, saying, This cup is the new tes- spiritual meat; Ver. 4. And did all tament in my blood : this do ye, as drink the same spiritual drink; (for oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of they drank of that spiritual Rock that
followed them; and that Rock was V. ' 2 Cor. iii. 6. Who also hath Christ.) Heb. xi. 13. These all died made us able ministers of the new in faith, not having received the protestament; not of the letter, but of mises, but having seen them afar off, the spirit: for the letter killeth, but and were persuaded of them, and em. the spirit giveth life. Ver. 7. But if braced them, and confessed that they the ministration of death, written and were strangers and pilgrims on the engraven in stones, was glorious, so earth. John viii. 56. Your father that the children of Israel could not Abraham rejoiced to see my day; and steadfastly behold the face of Moses he saw it, and was glad. for the glory of his countenance ; m Gal. iii. 7. Know ye therefore, which glory was to be done away; that they which are of faith, the same Ver. 8. How shall not the ministra- are the children of Abraham. Ver. tion of the Spirit be rather glorious ? 8. And the scripture, foreseeing that Ver. 9. For if the ministration of con- God would justify the heathen through demnation be glory, much more doth faith, preached before the gospel unto the ministration of righteousness ex- Abraham, saying, In thee shall all naceed in glory.
tions be blessed. Ver. 9. So then they (Heb. Chapters viii. ix. x.) Rom. which be of faith are blessed with iv. 11. And he received the sign of cir- faithful Abraham. Ver. 14. That the cumcision, a seal of the righteousness blessing of Abraham might come on of the faith which he had yet being the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; uncircumcised: that he might be the that we might receive the promise of father of all them that believe, though the Spirit through faith. they be not circumcised; that righte- VI. n Col. ii. 17. Which are a shaousness might be imputed unto them dow of things to come; but the body also. Col. ii. 11. In whom also ye are is of Christ.
the ordinances in which this covenant is dispensed are the preaching of the word, and the administration of the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper ;o which, though fewer in number, and administered with more simplicity and less outward glory, yet in them it is held forth in more fulness, evidence, and spiritual efficacy, to all nations, both Jews and Gentiles ;9 and is called the New Testament. There are not therefore two covenants of grace differing in substance, but one and the same under various dispensations.s
• Matt. xxviii. 19. Go ye therefore, days, saith the Lord, I will put my law and teach all nations, baptizing them in their inward parts, and write it in in the name of the Father, and of the their hearts; and will be their God, Son, and of the Holy Ghost; Ver. 20. and they shall be my people. Ver. 34. Teaching them to observe all things And they shall teach no more every whatsoever I have commanded you: man his neighbour, and every man his and, lo, I am with you alway, even brother, saying, Know the Lord: for unto the end of the world. Amen. they shall all know me, from the least 1 Cor. xi. 23. For I have received of of them unto thegreatest of them, saith the Lord that which also I delivered the Lord; for I will forgive their ini. unto you, That the Lord Jesus, the quity, and I will remember their sin same night in which he was betrayed, no more. took þread: Ver. 24. And, when he 9 Matt. xxviii. 19. [See letter imhad given thanks, he brake it, and mediately foregoing:] Eph. ii. 15. Havsaid, Take, eat; this is my body, which ing abolished in his flesh the enmity, is broken for you: this do in remem- even the law of commandments conbrance of me. Ver. 25. After the tained in ordinances; for to make in same manner also he took the cup, himself of twain one new man, so when he had supped, saying, This cup making peace; Ver. 16. And that he is the new testament in my blood: might
reconcile both unto God in one this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in body by the cross, having slain the remembrance of me.
enmity thereby; Ver. 17. And came P Heb. xii. 22. But ye are come unto and preached peace to you which were mount Sion, and unto the city of the afar off, and to them that were nigh. living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, Ver. 18. For through him we both and to an innumerable company of have access by one Spirit unto the angels, Ver. 23. To the general as- Father. Ver. 19. Now therefore ye are
mbly and church of the first-born, no more strangers and foreigners, but which are written in heaven, and to fellow-citizens with the saints, and of God the Judge of all, and to the spirits the household of God. of just men made perfect, Ver, 24. r Luke xxii. 20. Likewise also the And to Jesus the mediator of the new cup after supper, saying, This cup. is covenant, and to the blood of sprink- the new testament in my blood, which . ling, that speaketh better things than is shed for you. that of Abel. Ver. 25. See that ye s Gal. iii. 14. That the blessing of refuse not him that speaketh : for if Abraham might come on the Gentiles they escaped not who refused him that through Jesus Christ; that we might spake on earth, much more shall not receive the promise of the Spirit we escape, if we turn away from him through faith. Ver. 16. Now to Abrathat speaketh from heaven; Ver. 26. ham and his seed were the promises Whose voice then shook the earth: made. He saith not, And to seeds, as but now he hath promised, saying, Yet of many; but as of one, And to thy once more I shake not the earth only, seed, which is Christ. Acts xv. 11. but also heaven. Ver. 27. And this But we believe that, through the grace word, Yet once more, signifieth the of the Lord Jesus Christ, we shall be removing of those things that are sha- saved, even as they. Rom. iii. 21. But ken, as of things that are made, that now the righteousness of God without those things which cannot be shaken the law is manifested, being witnessed may remain. Jer. xxxi. 33. But this by the law and the prophets; Ver.22. shall be the covenant
that I will make Even the righteousness of God which with the house of Israel; After those is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and
CHAP. VIII.Of Christ the Mediator. 1. T pleased God, in his eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the God and man;a the Prophet, Priest, and King ;d the Head and Sa viour of his Church;o the Heir of all things; and Judge of the world:unto whom he did from all eternity give a people to be his seed, and to be by him in time redeemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified. upon all them that believe; for there between God and men, the man Christ is no difference: Ver. 23. For all have Jesus. sinned,
and come short of the glory of b Acts iii. 22. For Moses truly said God. Ver. 30. Seeing it is one God unto the fathers, A Prophet shall the which shall justify the circumcision Lord your God raise up unto you of by faith, and uncircumcision through your brethren, like unto me; him shall faith. Ps. xxxii, 1. Blessed is he whose ye hear in all things whatsoever he transgression is forgiven, whose sin is shall say unto you. covered. With Rom. iv. For what • Heb. v. 5. So also Christ glorified saith the scripture? Abraham be- not himself to be made an high priest; Lieved God, and it was counted unto but he that said unto him, Thou art him for righteousness. Ver. 6. Even my Son, to-day have I begotten thee, as David also describeth the blessed- Ver. 6. As he saith also in another ness of the man, unto whom God im- place, Thou art a priest for ever, after puteth righteousness without works. the order of Melchisedec. Ver. 16. Therefore it is of faith, that a Ps. ïi. 6. Yet have I set my King it might be by grace; to the end the upon my holy hill of Zion. Lukei. 33. promise might be sure to all the seed: And he shall reign over the house of not to that only which is of the law, Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom but to that also which is of the faith there shall be no end. of Abraham, who is the father of us e Eph. v. 23. For the husband is the all, Ver. 17. (As it is written, I have head of the wife, even as Christ is the made thee a father of many nations,) head of the church; and he is the before him whom he believed, even saviour of the body. God, who quickeneth the dead, and f Heb. i. 2. Hath in these last days calleth those things which be not as spoken unto us by his Son, whom he though they were. Ver. 23. Now, it hath appointed heir of all things, by was not written for his sake alone, whom also he made the worlds. that it was imputed to him; Ver. 24. & Acts xvii. 31. Because he hath apBut for us also, to whom it shall be pointed a day, in the which he will imputed, if we believe on him that judge the world in righteousness by raised up Jesus our Lord from the that man whom he hath ordained; dead. Heb. xiii. 8. Jesus Christ the whereof he hath given assurance unto same yesterday, and to-day, and for all men, in that he hath raised him ever.
from the dead. I. a Isa. xlii. 1. Behold my servant, h John xvii. 6. I have manifested thy whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom name unto the men which thou gavest my, soul delighteth: I have put my me out of the world: thine they were, Spirit upon him; he shall bring forth and thou gavest them me; and they judgment to the Gentiles. 1 Pet. i. 19. have kept thy word. Ps. xxii 30. Å But with the precious blood of Christ, seed shall serve him; it shall be ao. as of a lambwithout blemish and with counted to the Lord for a generation, out spot: Ver. 20. Who verily, was Isa. liii. 10. Yet it pleased the Lord fore-ordained before the foundation of to bruise him; he hath put him to the world, but was manifest in these grief: when thou shalt make his soul last times for you. John iii. 16. For an offering for sin, he shall see his God so loved the world, that he gave seed, he shall prolong his days, and his only begotten Son, that whosoever the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper believeth in him should not perish, but in his
hand. have everlasting life. 1 Tim. ii. 5. For 11 Tim. ii. 6. Who gave himself a there is one God, and one mediator ransom for all, to be testified in due person is
II. The Son of God, the second person in the Trinity, being very and eternal God, of one substance, and equal with the Father, did, when the fulness of time was come, take upon him man's nature, with all the essential properties and common infirmities thereof, yet without sin;' being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the Virgin Mary, of her substance. So that two whole, perfect, and distinct natures, the Godhead and the manhood, were inseparably joined together in one person, without conversion, composition, or confusion. Which
very God and very man, yet one Christ, the only Mediator between God and man.o
III. The Lord Jesus, in his human nature thus united to the divine, was sanctified and anointed with the Holy Spirit above measure ;P havtime. Isa. lv. 4. Behold, I have given people. Heb. iv. 15. For we have not him fora witness to the people, a leader an high priest which cannot be touched and commander to the people. Ver. 5. with the feeling of our infirmities; but Behold, thou shalt call a nation that was in all points tempted like as we thou knowest not; and nations that are, yet without sin. knew not thee shall run unto thee, m Luke i. 27. To a virgin espoused because of the Lord thy God, and for to a man, whose name was Joseph, of the Holy One of Israel; for he hath the house of David; and the virgin's glorified thee. 1 Cor. i. 30. But of him name was Mary. Ver. 31. And, behold, are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and made unto us wisdom, and righteous- bring forth a son, and shalt calí his ness, and sanctification, and redemp- name JESUS. Ver. 35. And the angel tion.
answered and said unto her, The Holy II. k John i. 1. In the beginning was Ghost shall come upon thee, and the the Word, and the Word was with power of the Highest shall overshadow God, and the Word was God. Ver. 14. thee: therefore also that holy thing, And the Word was made flesh, and which shall be born of thee, shall be dwelt among us, (and we beheld his called the Son of God. Gal. iv. 4. [See glory, the glory as of the only begotten letter k immediately foregoing.] of the Father,) full of grace and truth. uIuke i. 35. [See the foregoing verse.] 1 John v. 20. And we know that the Col. ii. 9, For in him dwelleth all the Son of God is come, and hath given fulness of the Godhead bodily. Rom. us an understanding, that we may ix. 5. Whose are the fathers, and of know him that is true; and we are whom, as concerning the flesh, Christ in him that is true, even in his
Son came, who is over all, God blessed for Jesus Christ. This is the true God, ever. Amen. 1 Pet. iii. 18. For Christ and eternal life. Phil. ii. 6. Who, be- also hath once suffered for sins, the ing in the form of God, thought it not just for the unjust, that he might robbery to be equal with God. Gal. iv. bring us to God, being put to death in 4. But when the fulness of the time the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit. was come, God sent forth his Son, made 1 Tim. iii. 16. And, without controof a woman, made under the law.
versy, great is the mystery of godli. 1 Heb. ii. 14. Foiasmuch then as the ness: God was manifest in the flesh, children are partakers of flesh and justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, blood, he also himself likewise took preached unto the Gentiles, believed part of the same; that through death on in the world, received up into glory. he might destroy him that had the • Rom. i. 3. Concerning his Son Jesus power of death, that is, the devil. Ver. Christour Lord, which was made of the 16. For verily he took not on him the seed of David according to the flesh, nature of angels; but he took on him Ver. 4. And declared to be the Son of the seed of Abraham. Ver.17. Where- God with power, according to the Spirit fore in all things it behoved him to be of holiness, by the resurrection from made like unto his brethren, that he the dead. 1 Tim. ii. 5. For there is might be a merciful and faithful high one God, and one mediator between priest in things pertaining to God, to God and men, the man Christ Jesus. make reconciliation for the sins of the III. P Ps. xlv. 7. Thou lovest right
ing in him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge; in whom it pleased the Father that all fulness should dwell:' to the end, that being holy, harmless, undefiled, and full of grace and truth, he might be thoroughly furnished to execute the office of a Mediator and Surety.* Which office he took not unto himself, but was thereunto called by his Father;" who put all power and judgment into his hand, and gave him commandment to execute the same.*
IV. This office the Lord Jesus did most willingly undertake;' which that he may discharge, he was made under the law," and did perfectly fulfil it;' endured most grievous torments immediately in his
eousness, and hatest wickedness : and in earth. Acts ii. 36. Therefore therefore God, thy God, hath anointed let all the house of Israel know asthee with the oil of gladness above thy suredly, that God hath made that fellows. John iii. 34. For he whom same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, God hath sent speaketh the words of both Lord and Christ. God: for God giveth not the Spirit by IV. y Ps. xl. 7. Then said I, LO, I measure unto him.
come: in the volume of the book it is 9 Col. ii. 3. In whom are hid all the written of me, Ver. 8. I delight to treasures of wisdom and knowledge.do thy will, O 'my God; yea, thy law
* Col. i. 19. For it pleased the Fa- is within my heart. With Heb. x. 5. ther, that in him should all fulness Wherefore, when he cometh into the dwell.
world, he saith, Sacrifice and offering • Heb. vii. 26. For such an high thou wouldest 'not, but a body hast priest became us, who is holy, harm- thou prepared me: Ver. 6. In burntless, undefiled, separate from sinners, offerings and sacrifices for sin thou and made higher than the heavens. hast had no pleasure: Ver. 7. Then John i. 14. And the Word was made said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we the book it is written of me) to do thy beheld his glory, the glory as of the will, O God. Ver. 8. Above, when he only begotten of the Father,) full of said, Sacrifice, and offering, and burntgrace and truth.
offerings, and offering for sin, thou • Acts x. 38. How God anointed wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy therein;, (which are offered by the Ghost, and with power; who went law;) Ver. 9. Then said he, Lo, I about doing good, and healing all that come to do thy will, O God. He taketh were oppressed of the devil: for God away the first, that he may establish was with him. Heb. xii. 24. And to the second. Ver. 10. By the which Jesus the mediator of the new cove- will we are sanctified, through the nant, and to the blood of sprinkling, offering of the body of Jesus Christ that speaketh better things than that once for all. John X. 18. No man of Abel. Heb. vii. 22. By so much taketh it from me, but I lay it down was Jesus made a surety of a better of myself: I have power to lay it testament.
down, and I have power to take it u Heb. v. 4. And no man taketh again. This commandment have I rethis honour unto himself, but he that ceived of my Father. Phil. ii. 8. And is called of God, as was Aaron. Ver. 5. being found in fashion as a man, he So also Christ glorified not himself to humbled himself, and became obebe made an high priest; but he that dient unto death, even the death of said unto him, Thou art my Son, to- the cross. day have I begotten thee.
z Gal. iv. 4. But when the fulness of John v. 22. For the Father judgeth the time was come, God sent forth his no man, but hath committed all judg- Son, made of a woman, made under ment unto the Son : Ver. 27. And the law. hath given him authority to execute * Matt. iii. 15. And Jesus answerjudgment also, because he is the Son ing, said unto him, Suffer it to be so of man. Matt. xxviii. 18. And Jesus now; for thus it becometh us to fulfil came and spake unto them, saying, all righteousness. Then he suffered Al power is given unto me in heaven him. Matt. v. 17. Think not that I