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VI. That doctrine which maintains a change of the substance of bread and wine into the substance of Christ's body and blood (commonly called Transubstantiation) by consecration of a priest, or by any other way, is repugnant not to scripture alone, but even to common sense and reason; overthroweth the nature of the sacrament; and hath been and is the cause of manifold superstitions, yea, of gross idolatries.m

VII. Worthy receivers, outwardly partaking of the visible elements in this sacrament," do then also inwardly by faith, really and indeed, yet not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, receive and feed upon Christ crucified, and all benefits of his death: the body and blood of Christ being then not corporally or carnally in, with, or under the bread and wine; yet as really, but spiritually, present to the faith of believers in that ordinance, as the elements themselves are to their outward'senses.

VIII. Although ignorant and wicked men receive the outward elements in this sacrament, yet they receive not the thing signified thereby; but by their unworthy coming thereunto are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, to their own damnation. Wherefore all ignorant and ungodly persons, as they are unfit to enjoy communion with him, so are they unworthy of the Lord's table, and cannot, without great sin against Christ, while they remain such, partake of these holy mysteries, or be admitted thereunto. 9

VI. m Acts iii. 21. Whom the hea- 14. Be ye not unequally yoked togeven must receive until the times of ther with unbelievers: for what fel. restitution of all things, which God lowship hath righteousness with unbath spoken by the mouth of all his righteousness ? and what communion holy prophets since the world began. hath light with darkness ? Ver. 15. With 1 Cor. xi. 24. And, when he had And what concord hath Christ with given thanks, he brake it, and said, Belial ? or what part hath he that be, fake, eat; this is my body, which is lieveth with an infidel? Ver. 16. And broken for you: this do in remem- what agreement hath the temple of brance of me. Ver. 25. After the same God with idols ? for ye are the tem. manner also he took the cup, when he ple of the living God; as God hath had supped, saying, This cup is the said, I will dwell in them, and walk in new testament in my blood : this do them; and I will be their God, and ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remem- they shall be my people. brance of me. Ver. 26. (See in letter q'i Cor. v. 6. Your glorying is not !] Luke xxiv. 6. He is not here, but good. Know ye not that a little leais risen: remember how he spake un. ven leáveñeth the whole lump? Ver. to you when he was yet in Galilee. 7. Purge out therefore the old leaven, Ver. 39. Behold my hands and my that ye may be a new lump, as ye are feet, that it is I myself: handle me, unleavened. For even Christ our passand see; for a spirit hath not flesh over is sacrificed for us.

Ver. 13. and bones, as ye see me have.

But them that are without God judgVII. * 1 Cor. xi. 28. [See in letter!] eth. Therefore put away from among

o 1 Cor. X. 16. The cup of blessing yourselves that wicked person. which we bless, is it not the commu- Thess. iii. 6. Now we command you, nion of the blood of Christ ? the bread brethren, in the name of our Lord which we break, is it not the commu- Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw your. aion of the body of Christ?

selves from every brother that walk. VIII. P 1 Cor. xi. 27, 28. [See in eth disorderly, and not after the traletter!! Ver. 29. For he that eateth dition which he received of us. and drinketh unworthily, eateth and 14. And if any man obey not our word drinketh damnation to himself, not by this epistle, note that man, and discerning the Lord's body. 2 Cor. vi. have no company with him, that he



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CHAP. XXX.-Of Church Censures. I. THE Lord Jesus, as king and head of his church, hath therein

appointed a government in the hand of church-officers, distinct from the civil magistrate.“

II. To these officers the keys of the kingdom of heaven are committed, by virtue whereof they have power respectively to retain and remit sins, to shut that kingdom against the impenitent, both by the word and censures; and to open it unto penitent sinners, by the ministry of the gospel, and by absolution from censures, as occasion shall require.b may be ashamed. Ver. 15. Yet count grief: for that is unprofitable for you. him not as an enemy, but admonish Ver. 24. Salute all them that have him as a brother. Matt. vii. 6. Give the rule over you, and all the saints. not that which is holy unto the dogs, They of Italy salute you. 1 Cor. xii. neither cast ye your pearls before 28. And God hath set some in the swine, lest they trample them under church, first, apostles; secondarily, their feet, and turn again and rend prophets ; thirdly, teacherş; after you.

that miracles; then gifts of healings, I. a Isa. ix. 6. For unto us a child is helps, governments, diversities of born, unto us a son is given; and the tongues. Matt. xxviii. 18. And Jesus government shall be upon his shoul, came and spake unto them, saying, der: and his name shall be called All power is given unto me in heaven Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty and in earth. Ver. 19. Go ye there. God, The everlasting Father, The fore, and teach all nations, baptizing Prince of Peace. Ver. 7. Of the in- them in the name of the Father, and crease of his government and peace of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; there shall be no end, upon the throne Ver. 20. Teaching them to observe of David, and upon his kingdom, to all things whatsoever I have com, order it, and to establish it with judg- manded you: and, lo, I am with you ment and with justice from hence, alway, even unto the end of the world. forth even for ever. The zeal of the Amen. Lord of hosts will perform this. 1 II. b Matt. xvi. 19. And I will give Tim. v. 17. Let the elders that rule unto thee the keys of the kingdom of well be counted worthy of double heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt honour, especially they who labour in bind on earth shall be bound in hea, the word and doctrine, i Thess. V. ven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose 12. And we beseech you, brethren, to on earth shall he loosed in heaven. know them which labour among you, Matt. xviii. 17. And if he shall ne. and are over you in the Lord, and ad glect to hear them, tell it unto the monish you. Acts xx. 17. And from church: but if he neglect to hear the Miletus he sent to Ephesus, and call. church, let him be unto thee as an ed the elders of the church. Ver. 18. heathen man and a publican. Ver. And when they were come to him, he 18. Verily I say unto you, Whatsosaid unto them, Ye know, from the ever ye shall bind on earth shall be first day that I came into Asia, after bound in heaven; and whatsoever ye what manner I have been with you shall loose on earth shall be loosed in at all seasons. Heb. xiii. 7. Remem. heaven. John xx. 21. Then said ber them which have the rule over Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you, who have spoken unto you the you : as my Father hath sent me, word of God; whose faith follow, even so send I you. Ver. 22. And considering the end of their conver- when he had said this, he breathed sation. Ver. 17. Obey them that have on them, and saith unto them, Re. the rule over you, and submit your ceive ye the Holy Ghost. Ver. 23. selves

: for they watch for your souls, Whose soever sins ye remit, they are as they that must give account; that remitted unto them; and whose soever they may do it with joy, and not with sins ye retain, they are retained. % III. Church censures are necessary for the reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren; for deterring of others from the like offences; for purging out of that leaven which might infect the whole lump; for vindicating the honour of Christ, and the holy profession of the gospel; and for preventing the wrath of God, which might justly fall upon the church, if they should suffer his covenant, and the seals thereof, to be profaned by notorious and obstinate offenders.

IV. For the better attaining of these ends, the officers of the church are to proceed by admonition, suspension from the sacrament of the Lord's Supper for a season, and by excommunication from the church, according to the nature of the crime, and demerit of the person.

CHAP. XXXI.—Of Synods and Councils. IFR the better government, and further edification of the church,

there ought to be such assemblies as are commonly called Synods or Councils.

II. As magistrates may lawfully call a synod of ministers, and other

Cor. ii. 6. Sufficient to such a man is and have no company with him, that this punishment, which was inflicted he may be ashamed. Ver. 15. Yet of many. Ver. 7. So that contrari. count him not as an enemy, but adwise ye ought rather to forgive him, monish him as a brother. 1 Cor. v. and comfort him, lest perhaps such 4. In the name of our Lord Jesus an one should be swallowed up with Christ, when ye are gathered together, over much sorrow. Ver. 8. Where and my spirit, with the power of our fore I beseech you, that ye would con. Lord Jesus Christ, Ver. 5. To deliver firm your love toward him.

such an one unto Satan for the deIII. • [1 Cor. v. throughout.] 1 Tim. struction of the flesh, that the spirit V. 20. Them that sin rebuke before may be saved in the day of the Lord all, that others also may fear. Matt. Jesus. Ver. 13. But them that are vii. 6. Give not that which is holy without God judgeth. Therefore put unto the dogs, neither cast ye your away from among yourselves that pearls before swine, lest they tram. wicked person. Matt. xviii. 17. And ple them under their feet, and turn if he shall neglect to hear them, tell again and rend you. 1 Tim. i. 20. Of it unto the church: but if he neglect whom is Hymeneus and Alexander; to hear the church, let him be unto whom I have delivered unto Satan, thee as an heathen man and a publi. that they may learn not to blaspheme. can. Tit. iii. 10. A man that is an [1 Cor. xi. 27 to the end.] With Jude, heretick, after the first and second Ver. 23. And others save with fear, admonition, reject. pulling them out of the fire; hating I. • Acts xv. 2. When therefore Paul even the garment spotted by the flesh. and Barnabas had no small dissension

IV. 1 1 Thess. v. 12. And we be- and disputation with them, they deseech you, brethren, to know them termined that Paul and Barnabas, which labour among you, and are over and certain other of them, should you in the Lord, and admonish you. go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles 2 Thess. iii. 6. Now we command you, and elders about this question. Ver. brethren, in the name of our Lord 4. And when they were come to Je. Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw your. rusalem, they were received of the selves from every brother that walk. church, and of the apostles and elders, eth disorderly, and not after the tra- and they declared all things that God dition which he received of us. Ver. had done with them. Ver. 6. And 14. And if any man obey not our the apostles and elders came together word by this epistle, note that man, for to consider of this matter.

fit persons, to consult and advise with about matters of religion;" so if magistrates be open enemies to the church, the ministers of Christ, of themselves, by virtue of their office, or they, with other fit persons upon delegation from their churches, may meet together in such assemblies.

III. It belongeth to synods and councils ministerially to determine controversies of faith, and cases of conscience; to set down rules and directions for the better ordering of the publick worship of God, and government of his church; to receive complaints in cases of maladministration, and authoritatively to determine the same: which decrees and determinations, if consonant to the word of God, are to be received with reverence and submission, not only for their agreement with the word, but also for the power whereby they are made, as being an ordinance of God, appointed thereunto in his word.

IV. All synods or councils since the apostles' times, whether general or particular, may err, and many have erred; therefore they are not to be made the rule of faith or practice, but to be used as an help in both.

II. •Isa. xlix. 23. And kings shall Syria, and Cilicia.. Ver. 25. It seembe thy nursing-fathers, and their ed good unto us, being assembled with queens thy nursing-mothers: they one accord, to send chosen men unto shall bow down to thee with their you with our beloved Barnabas and face toward the earth, and lick up Paul. the dust of thy feet; and thou shalt III. & Acts xv. 15, 19, 24, 27, 28, 29, know that I am the Lord: for they 30, 31. [See in the Bible.] Acts xvi. 4 shall not be ashamed that wait for And as they went through the cities,

1 Tim. ii. 1. I exhort therefore, they delivered them the decrees for that, first of all, supplications, pray- to keep, that were ordained of the ers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, apostles and elders which were at be made for all men: Ver. 2. For Jerusalem. Matt. xviii. 17. And if kings, and for all that are in autho- he shall neglect to hear them, tell it rity; that we may lead a quiet and unto the church: but if he neglect to peaceable life in all godliness and hear the church, let him be unto thee honesty. [2 Chron. xix. 8 to the end. as an heathen man and a publican. 2 Chron. Chapters xxix. and xxx. Ver. 18. Verily, I say unto you, throughout.] Matt. ii. 4. And when he whatsoever ye shall bind on earth had gathered all the chief priests and shall be bound in heaven; and what. scribes of the people together, he de- soever ye shall loose on earth shall be manded of them where Christ should loosed in heaven. Ver. 19. Again I be born. Ver. 5. And they said unto say unto you, That if two of you shall him, In Bethlehem of Judea : for agree on earth as touching any thing thus it is written by the prophet. that they shall ask, it shall be done Prov. xi. 14. Where no counsel is, for them of my Father which is in the people fall: but in the multitude heaven. Ver. 20. For where two or of counsellors there is safety. three are gathered together in my

• Acts xv. 2, 4. [See in letter] Ver. name, there am I in the midst of 22. Then pleased it the apostles and them. elders, with the whole church, to send IV. Eph. ii. 20. And are built upchosen men of their own company to on the foundation of the apostles and Antioch with Paul and Barnabas; prophets, Jesus Christ himself being namely, Judas surnamed Barsabas, the chief corner-stone. Acts xvii. 11. and Silas, chief men among the bre- These were more noble than those in thren: Ver. 23. And they wrote let- Thessalonica, in that they received ters by them after this manner; The the word with all readiness of mind, apostles, and elders, and brethren, and searched the scriptures daily, send greeting unto the brethren which whether those things were so. 1 Cor. are of the Gentiles in Antioch, and ii. 5. That your faith should not stand


V. Synods and councils are to handle or conclude nothing but that which is ecclesiastical; and are not to intermeddle with civil affairs, which concern the commonwealth, unless by way of humble petition, in cases extraordinary; or by way of advice for satisfaction of conscience, if they be thereunto required by the civil magistrate.

CHAP. XXXII.--Of the State of Men after Death, and of the

Resurrection of the Dead.
THE bodies of men after death return to dust, and see corrup-

1. ,

immortal subsistance, immediately return to God who gave them.bThe souls of the righteous, being then made perfect in holiness, are received into the highest heavens, where they behold the face of God in light and glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies ;* and the souls of the wicked are cast into hell, where they remain in torments and utter darkness, reserved to the judgment of the great day. Besides these two places for souls separated from their bodies, the scripture acknowledgeth none. in the wisdom of men, but in the are written in heaven, and to God the power of God. 2 Cor. i. 24. Not for Judge of all, and to the spirits of just That we have dominion over your faith, men made perfect. 2 Cor. v. 1. For but are helpers of your joy: for by we know, that, if our earthly house of faith stand.

this tabernacle were dissolved, we V. | Luke xii. 13. And one of the have a building of God, an house not company said unto him, Master, speak made with hands, eternal in the heato my brother, that he divide the in- vens. Ver. 6. Therefore we are alheritance with me. Ver. 14. And he ways confident, knowing that, whilst said unto him, Man, who made me a we are at home in the body, we are judge or a divider over you? John absent from the Lord: Ver: 8. We are xviii. 36. Jesus answered, My king- confident, I say, and willing rather to dom is not of this world. If my king- be absent from the body, and to be dom were of this world, then would present with the Lord. Phil

. i. 23. my servants fight, that I should not be For I am in a strait betwixttwo, havdelivered to the Jews: but now is my ing a desire to depart, and to be with kingdom not from hence.

Christ; which is far better. With Acts I. a Gen. iii. 19. In the sweat of thy ii. 21. Whom the heaven must receive face shalt thou eat bread, till thou re- until the times of restitution of all turn unto the ground; for out of it things, which God hath spoken by the wast thou taken: for dust thou art, mouth of all his holy prophets since and unto dust shalt thou return the world began: And Eph. iv. 10. Acts xiii. 36. For David, after he had He that descended is the same also served his own generation by the will that ascended up farabove all heavens, of God, fell on sleep, and was laid un- that he might fill all things. to his fathers, and saw corruption. d Luke xvi. 23. And in hell he lifted

• Luke xxiii. 43. And Jesus said up his eyes, being in torments, and unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To- seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus day shalt thou be with me in paradise. in his bosom. Ver. 24. And he cried, Eccl. xii. 7. Then shall the dust re- and said, Father Abraham, have turn to the earth as it was; and the mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that spirit shall return unto God who gave he may dip the tip of his finger in wa

ter, and cool my tongue; for I am · Heb. xii. 23. To the general assem. tormented in this flame. Acts i. 25. bly and church of the first-born, which That he may take part of this minis


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