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of ventilation, pure water, clean streets, wholesome drainage, a sort of minor Providence that God, from whom all rule and all authority flows, has set to watch over our cities.

And remember, as all authority comes from God, so to God it shall all be yielded up in that day when Christ shall have put down all rule and all authority and power. And then, as I shall be asked to give an account of my stewardship in the Church of Christ, so will you be called upon to render at the assize of God an account how you have exercised the power and authority which God gave you in the civic corporation to which you belong. You


think that the clergyman has five talents entrusted him by God, and yourselves but one: I am not so

sure of that: but, at least, do not hide your talent in the earth; use it; and you shall in no wise lose your reward.

Your Worship, and you members of the Corporation, his colleagues, have, according to the general custom of this borough, as I understand, from the time when first it became a borough, come here to-day to honour God, as one of the first duties due from you, after installation into office. It is right: you are ordained of God; and to God give the glory. You have joined with the general congregation in prayer that your office and work may be blessed: you have heard from the sermon, if not all your duties, the spirit at any rate, I trust, in which all your duties should be performed. Now go forth, Mr. Mayor, go forth, gentlemen of the Corporation, and seek, during these ensuing twelve months, to do your

duty in this municipal relation of life to which it pleases God, for this

year, to call you; and may God bless

you in

“All you design, and do, and say ;
That all your powers, with all their might
In His sole glory may unite. Amen."

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JOT a ratepayer ; a citizen, a burgess. St. Paul

tells us he was a citizen of no mean city

Indeed it was a fine town that Tarsus, the city of Cilicia. It lay in a lovely plain ; on one side washed by the Mediterranean, on the other enclosed by the snowy range of Taurus; down from whose heights there flowed the swift Cydnus, tumbling, like the Rhine or the Shannon, over rocky rapids, cooling the city and dividing it in two, and then widening out itself to receive fleets like those of Antony and Cleopatra, and bear on its broad bosom the commerce of the merchant to the sea. What was, what is a citizen ? The world then might be roughly classed in three divisions - the citizen of Rome, the slave, and between the two

the provincial inhabitant of towns subject to the Roman sway.

The slave was a chattel ; what he acquired was not his property : his union with his wife was not considered matrimony, and his children belonged to his master : his person, his life was absolutely in his lord's power. Custom and a humane master may have mitigated his lot; but strictly speaking, rights he had none.

The citizen of Rome in its best days had all personal rights; he could not be scourged; he could not be imprisoned; he could not be put to death without trial; and even then, such ignominious deaths as crucifixion were not permitted : he had rights of property, both as regards possession and bestowing it by will. But also being an elector of the magistrates of his country, he had, as that country's dominion extended, a share in the government of the world.

The provincials stood between the two; in much the same position as our Indian subjects nowadays. They were protected in property and in person; but in a general way had no share in the legislative, and not much in the executive government of their country: and sometimes when Roman garrisons were quartered upon them, and not absolutely immaculate magistrates sent to preside over the province, their lot was far from enviable.

But the full citizenship was a matter of pride and self-congratulation to any who possessed it. To the meanest it secured the enjoyment of life, liberty, and property; of the rights of family and of home. To the

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moving spirits it opened the prospect of service and of office in the state. The soldiers were citizen-soldiers; no slaves might shed their blood for that free and sacred country; and in the discipline of that citizen-army the best virtues of the citizen were cultivated, and for thousand


maintained. Once a citizen of that proud, and almost world-wide empire, a man might aspire to the highest offices, military or civil. Hence citizenship was a school for ambition the legitimate ambition of laying at your country's feet for the good of your fellow-men, the best that God has given you ; your power to devise laws; to organise; to rule ; to handle army ;

administer a province; your eloquence, your honesty, your wisdom, your strong arm,



your blood.

Our English citizenship is not materially different. Our life, our liberty, our property is protected. Except the ostracized clergyman, every man here present may aspire to represent his own town in Parliament: and to any young man of ability, of character, and of patient plodding, the highest offices in church or state are open ; nay, so free, so cosmopolitan are we, that at this moment, the highest office in the state is administered by one of Jewish extraction, and in the Church of England by a Scotchman. Yet there is one difference between the old Roman citizenship and our modern English citizenship, that, whereas, the former was difficult to obtain by those who were not born to it rom their parents before them having been citizens ; with us, to-day, it is the exception to find a townsman who does not enjoy the municipal franchise. But what is the effect in

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