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them resemble a tempest. The same figure recurs lxvi. 15. Comp, beside xvii. 13; xxi. 1; xxix. 6. The 29th verse finally describes the attack and victory of the enemy. The discourse which, to this point, has had almost a regular beat, and progressed, one might say, with a martial step, now becomes irregular and bounding. With mighty impetuosity that reveals itself in a battle cry that is compared to the roaring of a lion, the enemy attacks. It is strange that the Prophet expresses this thought doubly. But this doubled expression has apparently only a rhetorical aim. If we take into account the comparison of deep growling, we receive the impression that the Prophet would indicate that the enemy has at command every modulation of the lion's voice. The moment the lion seizes his prey, he ceases to ‘oar, and one hears only deep growling. The teized prey he saves for himself: i.e., he bears t away out of the tumult. Yo (recurs only xi.
5), is the young lion no longer sucking but besome independent of its dam. Yol is the sucking lion. The plural is used here, probably, on purpose to make prominent the numbers in contrast with wo. 8. And in that day—tho heavens thereof. —Ver. 30. The Prophet hastens to the conclusion. For this purpose he comprehends all that he has still to say in one figure drawn with a few, yet strong traits. It is also a proof of the great rhetorical art of the Prophet, that he does not name Judah. He rather allows to be guessed what was painful to him to say. For we need not refer the words only to what immediately precedes, as if it were declared that what is déscribed ver. 30, happens on the same day as that of which ver, 29 speaks. For that is to be understood of course. But this “in that day” refers back to ii. 11, 17, 20; iii. 7, 18; iv. 1 and to iv. 2, so that hereby is intimated that this ; rophecy too, shall be fulfilled in the “last days.” And as iv. 2 speaks of a day of great happiness, he passage previously named, however, oa day f dreadful judgment, so the Prophet refers jack to both, meaning to intimate that when hese final dreadful visitations of , the last ime shall have come upon Israel, then shall ome the daybreak of salvation. I see therefore in this phrase “in that day,” a fresh proof of the connection of chap. v., with the preceding chapters ii. iv. Like surges of the sea, therefore, raging and roaring, shall the enemy fall on Judah in that day ? DELITZSCH appropriately refers to Sierra-Leone because, “those that first landed there, mistook the noise of the surf breaking on the precipitous shore for the roar of lions.” The subject of ball (Niph. it. Žey.), is evidently Judah. But the further meaning of these words presents great difficulties. I think two passages shed light on this one....The first is cited by all commentators, viz.: viii. 42. When we read there: “And He looks to the earth and behold
trouble and darkness,” (nonliny) We are justified in taking Y on in our passage together; either TX as adjective (compressed, thick darkness, ion is masc.), or as apposition (V1TRIsga, HENDEwehr), or as genitive (darkness
of anguish). According to that we must separate, then, TX from msl, a union for which there is no other authority than the (for us not binding) Masoretic tradition, and then we must read Yo!. For this reading, however, we have the
support of another passage, which, so far as I know, has never hitherto been adduced by any expositor for the elucidation of our verse, viz.:
Job xviii. 6. There we read *Is: Twn nik
“the light shall be dark in his tent.” That passage, speaks of the wicked whose light goes out, and whose fire burns no longer, in whose tent, therefore, it is dark. Can then the com
ing together of these words on his be accidental * I am the less inclined to believe this, as the thought, that the light itself becomes dark, and not the lighted room, is a very specific one. Something similar may be found xiii. 10; Ezek. xxxii. 8; Joel iv. 15.-Dong is ar. Zey. It is derived from Ty “to drop down,” which occurs only Deut. xxxii. 2; xxxiii. 28. opy appears to be kindred to it. As opy originates from Bly by the addition of the letter 5 like on2 from Dy2 and ona from na (CIIAld, firit, transfirit) see GREEN & 193, 2 c, and as opy very often joined to loy (Deut. iv. 11; v. 19; Joel ii. 2; Zeph. i. 15; Ezek. xxxiv. 12) undoubtedly means the cloudy obscurity, the
thick clouds, so D'Eony can be nothing else than the rain clouds out of which the rain drops down.
This rain cloud is now regarded as the tent covering of the earth, or at least as belonging to it, like e. g., xl. 22 it says: “that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in,” (comp. Job xxxvi. 29; Ps. civ. 2 sqq.). The expression “in his tent” would not be suitable. For the light that illumines a tent, stands within under the tent cover. But the light that illumines the earth, is above and beyond the heavenly tent cover. . If then, it is to be dark on earth, the light must be hindered from penetrating down from above. Therefore I translate: “and the light becomes dark through its clouds.” The sem., suffix is therefore to be referred to so, “earth.” It will not do to refer it to his,
as GESENIUs does, referring to Job xxxvi. 32 (Thes. p. 1072), because then it must read
prising. For the opposite of “earth” is not “the light,” but “the heaven.” The explanations “distress and light” (DELITZSCH), and “stone and gleam ” (i. e., hail and lightning, DRECHsler) seem to me to pay too little regard to the two parallel passages quoted. I would, moreover, call attention to the fact that in this |on his there lies, too, a significant reference to the doings of the people who, according to ver: 20 “make darkness light and light darkness.” Because they do that, their light shall be darkened wholly and permanently, And at the same time we find here a remarkable antithesis to iv. 5. 6. There God creates upon Mount Zion a cloud by day and flaming fire by night, for a shade by day against the heat, and for shelter against rain and storm. Here darkness of anguish shall cover the earth and the rain-clouds shall not only overwhelm the unprotected earth with their showers, but beside these keep back the light, therefore, in a sense, be a shelter before the light. Thus this chapter, which had apparently ion so joyously, ends in deepest night and gloom. One feels that the discourse of the Prophet has exhausted itself. We are at the end. Nothing can follow these mighty, and at the same time vain words but—silence. But the informed know well that the two prophetic lamps that are thrust out before (ii. 1–4 and iv. 2-6) stretch out beyond this period of misfortune. When, then, ver. 30, it reads “in that day,” we know that this is a hint that refers back out of the midnight gloom of this conclusion to the comforting beginning iv. 2. That very day, when the evil fruits of the vineyard sink away in night and horror, begins for the “Branch of Jehovah” the day of light, and of eternal glory. 1 Cor. xiv. 36, “What? came the word of God out from you?” The word of God did not go forth from Corinth, Athens, Rome, Ephesus, but from Jerusalem, a fact that bishops assembled in Antioch opposed to Julius I. (Sozom. hist. eccl. III. 8, “the orientals acknowledged that the Church of Rome was entitled to universal honor—although those who first propagated a knowledge of Christian doctrine in that city came from the East”). CYRIL took sy, in the false sense of karszéaoute future ? What difference obtains ? What must happen for that condition of holiness and glory to be brought about? The Christian Church, too, and even each individual Christian must put himself in the light of that prophetic statement. On the one hand that will humiliate us, for we must confess with the motto of Charles W. : nondum. / And long still will we need to cry : Watchman what of the night (xxi. 11)? On the other hand the Prophet's word will also spur us up and cheer us. For what stronger impulse can be imagined than the certainty that one does not contend in vain, but may hope for a reward more floo than all that ever came into a man's eart? (lxiv. 4; 1 Cor. ii. 9). In the time of the second temple, in the evenings of the first days of the feast of Tabernacles, great candelabras were lighted in the forecourt of the temple, each having four golden branches, and their light was so strong that it was nearly as light as day in Jerusalem. That might be for Jerusalem a symbol of that “let us walk in the light of the LoRD ' But Jerusalem rejoiced in this light, and carried on all sorts of pastime, yet it was not able to learn to know itself in this light, and by this self-knowledge to come to true repentance and conversion. 10. On ver. 8, “their land is full of idols.” “Not only images and pictures are idols, but every notion concerning God that the godless heart forms out of itself without the authority of the Scripture. The notion that the Mass is effective er opere operato, is an idol. The notion that works are demanded for justification with God, is an idol. The notion that God takes delight in fasts, peculiar clothes, a special order of life, is an idol. God wills not that we should set up out: of our own thoughts a fashion of worshipping Him; but IIe says: “In all places where I re. cord My name, I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee,” Exod. xx. 24 –LUTHER. 11. On ii. 9–21. When men have brought an idol into existence, that is just to their mind, whether it be an idolum manufactum, or an idolum mente ercogitatum, there they are all wonder, all worship. “Great is Diana of the Ephesians.” Then the idol has a time of great prosperity and glory. But sooner or later there comes a time when the judgment of God overtakes the idol and its servants. God suffers sin to become ripe like men let a conspiracy, like they let fruit ripen. But when the right time comes then He steps forth in such a fashion that they creep into mouse-holes to hide themselves, if it were possible, from the lightning of His eye and His hand. Where then are the turned-up noses, the big mouths, the impudent tongues? Thus it has often happened since the world began. But this being brought to confession shall happen in the highest degree to the puffed-up world at that day when they shall see that one whom they pierced, and whom they thought they might despise as the crucified One, coming in His glory to judge the world. Then they shall have anguish and sorrow, then shall they lament and faint away with apprehension of the things that draw nigh. But those that believed on the Lord in His holiness, shall then lift up their heads for that their redemption draws nigh. At that time, indeed, shall RD alone be high, and before Him shall
DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL.
1. On ii. 2. Domus Dei, etc. “The house of God is built on the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, who, themselves, too, are mountains, quasi imitators of Christ. (They that trust in the #. shall be as Mount Zion, Ps. cxxv. 1.) Whence, also, upon one of the mountains Christ founded the Church and said: Thou art Peter, etc., Matth. xvi. 18.” JEROME.-‘‘We can understand Jerusalem by the mountain of God, for we see how the believing run thither, and how those that have accepted the testimony come thither and seize the blessing that proceeds thence. But we may also by the house of God understand the churches spread over land and sea, as we believe St. Paul, who says, “we are the house of God,' Heb. iii. 6. And so we may recognize the truth of the prohecy. For the Church of God stands shining orth, and the nations, forsaking wickedness that has long had dominion over them, hasten to her and are enlightened by her.” THEoport E.T.Ecclesia est, etc. “The church is a mountain exalted and established above all other mountains, but in spirit. For if you regard the external look of the church from the beginning of the world, then in New Testament times, you will see it oppressed, contemned, and in despair. Yet, notwithstanding, in that contempt it is exalted above all mountains. For all kingdoms and all dominions that have ever been in the world have perished. The church alone endures and triumphs over heresies, tyrants, Satan, sin, death and hell, and that by the word only, by this despised and feeble speech alone. Moreover it is a great comfort that the bodily place, whence first the spiritual kingdom should arise, was so expressly predicted, that consciences are assured of that being the true word, that began first to be preached in that corner of Judea, that it may be for us a mount Zion, or rule for judging of all religions and all doctrines. The Turkish Alcoran did not begin in Zion—therefore it is wicked doctrine. The varions Popish rites, laws, traditions began not in Zion—therefore they are wicked, and the very doctrines of devils. So we may hold ourselves
upright against all other religions, and comfort our hearts with this being the only true religion which we profess. Therefore, too, in two psalms Ps. ii. and cx., mount Zion is expressly signified: “I have set my king upon my holy hill of Zion;” likewise: “The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion.” LUTHER.
2. On ver. 2. LUTHER makes emphatic, as something pertaining to “the wonderful nature of this kingdom,” that “other kingdoms are established and administered by force and arms. But here, because the mountain is lifted up, the nation shall flow (fluent), i.e., they shall come voluntarily, attracted by the virtues of the church. For what is there sweeter or lovelier than the preaching of the gospel?. Whereas Moses frightens weak souls away. Thus the prophet by the word fluent, “flow,” has inlaid a silent description of the kingdom of Christ, which Christ gives more amply when He says: Matth. xi. 12, “the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence and the violent take it by force,” i.e. “they are not compelled, but they compel themselves.” “Morever rivers do not flow up mountains, but down them; but here is such an unleard-of thing in the kingdom of Christ.”—STARKE.
3. LUTHER remarks on “and shall say: come,” etc. “Here thou seest the worship, works and efforts and sacrifices of Christians. For they do only the one work, that they go to hear and to learn. All the rest of the members must serve their neighbors. These two, ears, and heart, must serve God only. For the kingdom rests on the word alone. Sectaries and heretics, when they have heard the gospel once, instantly become masters, and pervert the Prophet's word, in that they say: Come let us go up that we may teach him his way and walk in our paths. They despise, ... the word as a familiar thing and seek new disputations by which they may display their spirit and commend themselves to the crowd. But Christians know that the words of the Holy Ghost can never be perfectly learned as long as we are in the flesh. For Christianity does not consist in knowing, but in the disposition. This disposition can never perfectly believe the word on account of the weakness of the sinful flesh. Hence they ever remain disciples and ruminate the word, in order that the heart, from time to time, may slame up anew. It is all over with us if we do not continue in the constant use of the word, in order to oppose it to Satan in temptation (Matth. iv.). For immediately after sinning ensues an evil conscience, that can be raised up by nothing but the word. Others that forsake the word sink gradually from one sin into another, until they are ruined. Therefore Christianity must be held to consist in hearing the word, and those that are overcome by temptations, whether of the heart or body, may know that their hearts are empty of the word.”
row Szán, “has forsaken Zion.” When the Lord opened the understandings of the disciples at Eminaus, to understand the Scriptures and see in the events they had experienced the fulfilment of what was written concerning Him in the law, Prophets and Psalms, He cannot have forgotten the present passage. Of this we may be the more assured since the words: “Thus it is written and thus it behooved Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day: And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in His name among all nations beginning at Jerusalem.” Luke xxiv. 46, 47, point clearly to vers. 2 and 3 of our passage. Therefore too, JUSTIN MARTYR Apol. i. (commonly ii.), & 49, says: “But where the prophetic spirit predicts the future, he says: from Zion shall go forth the law, etc. And that this finally came to pass in fact, you may credibly assure yourselves. For from Jerusalem have men gone forth into the world, twelve in number, and these were unlearned, that knew not how to speak. But by the might of God they have proclaimed to all mankind that they were sent by Christ in order to teach all the word of God.”
“Zion is contrasted here with Mount Sinai, whence the law came, which in the Old Testament was the foundation of all true doctrine: But in the New Testament Mount Zion or Jerusalem has the privilege, to announce that now a more perfect saw would be given and a new Covenant of God with men would be established. Thus Zion and Jerusalem are, so to speak, the nursery and the mother of all churches and congregations of the New Testament.”—STARKE.
5. FöRsTER remarks on the end of ver. 3, that the gospel is the sceptre of Jesus Christ, according to Ps. cx. 2, and xlv. 7 (the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre). “For by the word Christ rules His church (Rom. x. 14 sqq.).” 6. On ver. 4. “Par optima rerum.” FoERSTER. The same author finds this prophecy fulfilled by Christ, who is our peace, who has made of both one, and broken down the partition that was between, in that by His flesh He took away the enmity (Eph. ii. 14). FoERSTER, moreover, combats the Anabaptists, who would prove from this passage that waging war is not permitted to Christians. For our passage speaks only against the so. Christianorum discordia But waging war belongs to the publicum magistratus officium. Waging war, therefore, is not forbidden, if only the war is a just one. To be such, however, there must appear according to THOMAs, part. 2 th: quarst. 40. 1) auctoritatis principis, 2) causa justa, 3) intentio bellantium justa, or ut allii efferunt: 1) jurisdictio indicentis, 2) offensio patientis, 3) intentio finem (?) convenientis. 7. On ver. 4. JERoME regarded the time of Augustus, after his victory at Actium, as the ful
filling of this prophecy. Others, as CoccEIUs, refer the words, “they shall turn their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruninghooks,” to the time of Constantine the Great; and the words “nation shall not lift up sword against nation” to the period of the restoration of religious peace in Germany, finally the words: “they shall no more learn war,” to a future time that is to be hoped for. Such interpretations are, however, just as one-sided as those that look only for a spiritual fulfilment of prophecy. For how is an inward fulfilment of this promise of peace to be thought of which would not have the outward effects as its consequence? Or how is an outward fulfilment, especially such as would deserve the name, conceivable without the basis of the inward 2 Or must this peaceful time be looked for only in heaven? Why then does the promise stand here? It is a matter of course that there is peace in heaven: for where there is no peace there can be no heaven. The promise has sense only if its fulfilment is to be looked for on earth. The fulfilment will take place when the first three petitions of the Lord's prayer are fulfilled, i. e. when God's name shall be held holy by us as it in itself is holy, when the kingdom of God is come to everything, without and within, and rules alone over all, when the will of God is done on earth as in heaven. Christendom makes this prayer quite as much with the consciousness that it cannot remain unfulfilled, as with the consciousness that it must find its fulfilment on earth. For, if referred to heaven, these petitions are without meaning. Therefore there is a time of universal inward and outward peace to be looked for on earth. “It is not every day's evening,” i. e. one must await the event, and our earth, without the least saltus in cogitando, can yet experience a state of things that shall be related to the present, as the present to the period of urilobites and saurians. If one could only keep himself free from the tyranny of the present moment But our entire, great public, that has made itself at home in Philistia, lives in the sweet confidence that there is no world beside that of which we take notice on the surface of the earth, nor ever was one, nor ever will be.
bow the knees of all in heaven, on earth, and under the earth, and all tongnes must confess that Christ is the LoBD, to the glory of God the Father. 12. On ii. 22. Of what do men not make idols! The great industrial expositions of modern times often fill me with dismay, when I have seen how men carry on an actual idolatrous worship with these products of human science and art, as if that all were not, in the end, God s work, too, but human genius were alone the creator of these wonders of civilization. How wickedly this so-called worship of genius demeans itself! How loathsome is the still more common cultus of power, mammon and the belly 13. On iii. 1 sqq. Causa awarrah, etc. “The saving cause of the columonwealth is the possession of men of the sort here mentioned, which Plato also knew, and Cicero from Plato, each of whom judge, commonwealths would be blessed if philosophers, i.e., wise and adept men were to administer them.”—FoERSTER. The same writer cites among the causes why the loss of such men is ruinous, the changes that thence ensue. All changes in the commonwealth are hurtful. , XENoph. Hellen. 2: “tial uév Tāaal utragozai TootTetov Gavarmóðpot.” ARISTOT. Metaph. 2: “ ai peraßožai Távrov rapaxóðetc.” 14. On ver. 1. “The stay of bread,” etc. VITRINGA cites Horat. Satar. L. II, 3 v. 153 sq.;
Deficient inopem vena te, ni cibus atque Ingens accedit stomacho fultura ruenti.
And on ver. 2 sq. he cites CICERo, who, De Nat. Deorum III, calls these “praesidia humana,” “firmamenta republica..” On ver, 6 sq. the same author cites the following passage from LIVY (xxvi. chap. 6): “Cum fame fer, ogue (Capuani) urger, ntur, mec ulla spes superesset is, qui nati in spem honorum erant, honores detrectantibus, Lesius querendo desertam et proditam a prinoribus Capuam summum magistratum ultimus omnium Campanorum cepit * On ver, 9 he quotes SENECA: De vita beata, chap. xii.; “Itaque quod unum labebant in peccatis to mum perd unt peccan di were cundian. Laudant enim ea, quibus erubescant, et vitio gloriantur.” 15. On iii. 4 and 12. FoERSTER remarks: Pueri, etc. “Boys are of two sorts. Some are so in respect to age, others in respect to moral qualifications. So, too, on the contrary there is an old age of two sorts: “For honorable age is not that which standeth in length of time, nor that is measured by number of years. But wisdom is the true gray hair unto men, and an unspotted life is the true old age.” Wisd. iv. 8, 9. Examples of young and therefore foolish kings of Israel are Relioboam (“the young fool gambled away ten whole tribes at one bet” 1 Kings xii). Ahaz, who was twenty years of age when he began to reign (2 Kings xvi. 2). Manasseh who was twelve years (2 Kings xxi. 1,) and Amon who was twenty-two years (2 Kings xxi. 19). 16. On iii. 7. FoERstER remarks: Nemo se, etc. “Let no one intrude himself into office, especially when he knows he is not fit for it,” and then cites: “Seek not of the Lord pre-eminence, neither of the king the seat of honor. Justify not thyself before the Lord ; and boast not of
thy wisdom before the king. Seek not to be
21. On iii. 16 sq. Usus vestium, etc. “Clothes have a four-sold use: 1) they are the badge of guilt, or souvenir of the fall (Gen. iii. 7, 10, 21); 2) they should be coverings against the weather; 3) they may be ornaments for the body, (Prov. xxxi. 22, 25); 4) they may serve as a mark of rank (2 Sam. xiii. 18).-The abuse of clothes is three-fold; 1) in regard to the material, they may be costhier or more splendid than one's wealth or rank admits of; 2) in respect of form, they may betray buffoonery and levity; 3) in respect to their object, they may be worn more for the display of luxury and pride than for protection and modest adornment.”—FoERSTER.
22. On iv. 2. “Germen Jehovae est momen Messiae mysticum, a memine intellectum, quam qui tenet mysterium Patris et Christi. Idem valet quod filius propago Patris naturalis, in quo patris sui imago et gloria perfectissime splendet, Jessaiae in seqq. (ix. 5) +h", 15, filius, Joanni & 26) or roi &eoi, 6 viðr orporárokoc, stovoyevsc, processio Patris naturalis. Est hic eruditi cujusdam viri elegans obserratio, quae eodem tendit, quam non licet intactam praetermittere. Comparat ille inter se nomina Messiae Ti" rips (Jer. xxiii. 5) et Tin" nox in hoc Cum autem prior appellatio absque dubitatione innuat, Messian fore filium Davidis, docet posteriorem āvaMoytkö: non posse aliud significare quam filium Jehovae. quod momen Christi Jesu est uvottrörepov, omni alio nomine excellentius. Addit non minus docte, personam, quae hic germen Jehovae dicitur, deinceps a propheta nostro appellari Jehovam (xxviii. 5).” — VITRINGA. This exposition, which is retained by most Christian and orthodox commentators, ignores too much the fundamental meaning of the word no, “Branch.” It
is, nevertheless, not incorrect so far as the broader meaning includes the narrower concentrically. If “Branch of Jehovah” signifies all that is the personal offshoot of God, then, of course, that one must be included who is such in the highest and most perfect sense, and in so far the passage xxviii. 5 does not conflict with exposition given by us above.
[J. A. ALEXANDER joins with VITRINGA and HENGSTENBERG in regarding “the fruit of the earth,” as referring to the same subject as “the branch of the Lord,” viz.: the Messiah; and thus, while the latter term signifies the divine nature of the Messiah, the former signifies His human origin and nature; or if we translate “land” instead of earth, it points to his Jewish human origin. Thus appears an exact correspondence to the two parts of Paul's description, Rom. i. 3, 4, and to the two titles used in the New Testament in reference to Christ's two natures, SoN of GoD AND SoN of MAN.— TR.]. 23. On iv. 3, 4. Great storms and upheavals, therefore, are needful, in order to make the fulfilment of this prophecy possible. There must first come the breath of God from above, and the flame of God from beneath over the earth, and the human race must first be tossed and sisted. The earth end mankind must first be cleansed b great judgments from all the leaven of evil. § A. ALEXANDER, with LUTHER, CALVIN, EwALD, maintains concerning the word Spirit in ver.4, that “the safest and most satisfactory interpretation, is that which understands by it a personal spirit, or as Luther expresses it, the Spirit who shall judge and burn.”—TR.]. What survives these judgments is the remnant of which Isaiah speaks. This shall be holy. In it alone shall the LoRD live and rule. This remnant is one with the new humanity which in every part, both as respects body and soul, will represent the image of Christ the second, Adam. This remnant, at the same time, comprehends those whose names are written in the book of life. What sort of a divine book this may be, with what sort of corral, heavenly reality, of course we know not. or Himself God needs no book. Yet if we compare the statements of the Revelation of John regarding the way in which the last judgment shall be held, with certain other New Testament assages, I think we obtain some explanation. W. read Matt. xix. 28, that on the day of the regeneration, when the Son of Man shall sit on the throne of His glory, the twelve apostles, too, shall sit on twelve thrones to judge the generations of Israel. And 1 Cor. v. 2, we read that the saints shall judge the world. But, Rev. xx. 11, we find again the great white throne, whereon sits the great Judge of the living and the dead after that, just before (ver. 4), it was said: “ And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them.” . Afterwards it reads (ver. 12): “And I saw the dead, small and great. stand before God; and the books were opened; and another book was opened, which is the book of life; and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the !. according to their works.” And (ver. 15). “An whosoever was not found written in the book of