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EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

1. The meaning of this section is twofold. First of all it contains a specification of the sour grapes, and a corresponding announcement of punishment. In this matter the Prophet begins with a certain selection. For he does not censure all sins, but only the sins of the eminent, and eminent sins. Thus six evil fruits are enumerated, and what the Prophet has to say with reference to each begins with a woe. But a detailed announcement of punishment follows on each of the first two woes only, after the description of the sinful condition with which they are concerned. For the following woes there follows an announcement of punishment common to all from ver. 24 on. This difference observed by the Prophet in regard to the order of his topics is connected with the second meaning of the passage: that is to say it contains at the same time the twofold conclusion of the second portal, i. e. of the whole discourse from chap. ii.-v. For the announcement of punishment after the second woe, which is in proportion long extended through five verses (v. 13– 17), manifestly contains a relative ending: the wicked city sinks into the lower world, and the grass grows over its grave. These are manifest§ I may say, final chords. But in as much as the Prophet, vers. 15 and 16, reiterates verbatim the fundamental thought of his first illumination of the present, he gives us to understand that he would have this first (relative) conclusion refer to the first half of his discourse (chap. ii. and iii). And as he handles the following twice-two woes differently from the first two, he intimates that they have another purpose. They are not interrupted in their sequence by announcements of punishment coming between, but these follow after as common to all, Precisely by this concentration the Prophet gains a hiji; effective conclusion of the whole discourse, but which at the same time undeniably refers to the second lamp (chap. iv. and v.), just as we have seen that the first (relative) conclusion refers to the first lamp. One recognizes this from the comparison of ver. 24, drawn from, vegetation, especially from the notions “root” and “scion,” in which the reference

back to the no branch, chap. iv., as also to the

vineyard and its fruit cannot be mistaken. Thus this most artistically composed ending is at the same time an image of the whole discourse, whose unity, comprising chaps. ii.-v., here becomes most evident. As the twofold division forms the ground-work of the whole discourse, so it does of this conclusion. And this twofold division appears in the conclusion in a double form: first the simple two for the first (relative) conclusion; then the potent, doubled two for the great principal conclusion. From this we know, at the same time, why there must be six woes, and not seven, as one inclines to expect. The first woe concerns the rich and mighty, that swallow up the property of inferior people, so that at last |. possess the land alone (ver. 8). These are threatened that their houses shall be destroyed (ver. 9), and their ground shall become so sterile that ten acres shall yield only a bucketful of must, and a bushel of seed a peck [i.e.: 1-16

of a German bushel.—TR.] of fruits (ver.10). The second woe pertains to high livers and gluttons, that begin early and leave off late (ver. 11), and who, amid the noise of music and the banquet, never come to regard Jehovah's work (ver. 12). For this the people must wander into exile, and high rank and low rank shall perish of hunger and thirst (v. 13), and be used only to be cast into the jaws of the insatiably greedy underworld (ver. 14). Then shall human pride be humbled (ver. 15), and the Lord, the righteous judge shall o then as alone high in His righteousness and holiness (ver. 16), the waste places of the fallen grandees shall become the pastures of the flocks of alien tribes (ver. 17). The third woe is proclaimed against the insolent mockers that do evil with a very rage for it (ver. 18), and with blasphemous contempt, challenge the Lord, in whom they do not believe, to oppose His work to their own (ver. 19). The fourth woe strikes those who perversely call exactly that good which is bad, and that bad which is good (ver. 20). The fifth woe concerns the conceited that think they alone are wise (ver. 21). The sixth woe, finally, is proclaimed against the oppressors and unjust, who in order to live high, turn aside justice for a vile reward (vers. 22, 23). The threatening, that those who have despised the law of Jehovah, shall be destroyed root and branch, corresponds to the last four woes in common (ver. 24). For this the people shall be smitten and their dead bodies be cast into the streets like sweepings. But that is not enough even (ver. 25). Foreign nations shall be brought from a distance against Israel (26). They shall vigorously and zealously accomplish the work to which they are called (27–29). Then like the roaring surges of the sea the enemy shall break over Israel. Israel shall see nothing on the earth but dark night: instead of a protection against rain and storm (iv. 6), a dark storm-cloud shall envelop the earth that shall turn aside the vivifying o warming light (v. 30). This is the result of the contemplation that the Prophet sets forth in regard to the (relative) present. Sad and gloomy as this result is, the realization of that glorious future which he holds in prospect (iv. 2–6) is not thereby hindered: on the contrary it postulates and prepares the way for that future. The words “in that day” point away to that. 2. Woe unto them—yield an ephaVers, 8–16. On "in comp. remarks at i. 4. The Prophet first proclaims a woe against the rich and mighty, who with insatiable greed annex the houses and fields of their poor neighbors, so that these are crowded out of the land, and the country becomes the exclusive domain of these oppressors. This accumulation of property violates both the statutes concerning J. inheritance of real estate, and the year of Jubilee (Lev. xxv. 10–13; 25 sqq.). What the Prophet has heard is this; not merely some, but many houses, i. e. the houses, all that there are of them (ii. 3), shall be desolated, and the great and beautiful ones shall be without dwellers. This desolation of the houses is ascribed to the sterility that comes on the land as a punishment from God. For the Pentateuch threatens the disobedience of Israel with this punishment, and that in not a few passages: Lev. xxvi. 18–20; Deut. xi. 17; xxviii. 17 sq., 23 sq., 38 sqq. How great the barrenness shall be may be determined from the fact, that ten acres of vine land will only yield a bucket of wine, and a bushel of seed only the tenth part as much fruit.—Toš is a pair

of beasts of burden bound by a yoke (Judg. xix. 10; 1 Sam. xi. 7 ; lsa. xxi. 7, 9), then a piece of ground as great as such a Tps could plow up in a day. If a vineyard is not plowed it might still be measured by the acre. How large a surface a TDX might be according to our measures, has never yet been made out. Comp. Unterss. iiber die Längen-Feld-und Wege-Masse, insbesondere der Greichen und der Iuden von L. FENNER v. FENNEBERG, Berlin, 1859, p. 96. n: a bath (comp. at no ver. 6) is the principal measure for fluids, like the ephah for dry measure. Both are the tenth part of a homer or h73, cor. (Ezek. xlv. 11, 14), n> occurs only here in Isa.

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in Isa. There is still great uncertainty regarding the relation of these measures to those used by us. If THENIUs (The ancient Hebrew long and hollow measures, Studien und Krit., 1846, Heft. 1 and 2) is correct, who sets the contents of the homer at 10143.9 Paris cubic inches, then this would about correspond to the burden an ass can bear. 3. Woe unto them that rise up early— shall strangers eat.—Wers. 11–17. The second woe, the longest and most detailed, is directed against the high livers and gluttons. They rise early so as to go soon to drinking; they remain long sitting of evenings so as to inflame themselves with wine. “Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child, and thy princes eat in the morning ! Blessed art thou, O land, when thy king is a noble, and thy princes, eat in due season, for strength and not for drunkenness!” Eccl. x. 16, 17; Comp. xxii. 13; lvi. 12; Am... vi. 3 sqq. The Romans called feasts that began before the usual time (i. e. in the ninth hour) tempestiva convivia, seasonable feasts (Cic. de Senect. 14, &c.). Ab octava hora bibere was accounted debauchery Juren. 1, 49, comp. GESENIUS on our ver.). *::: is the artificial wine, and i. the natural.

The first was prepared partly from dates, apples, pomegranates (Song of S. viii. 2), honey, barley, isiox, oivor opiouvoo, HER. 2,77), partly by mixture (like our punch, hence not TD) to mingle drink v. 22); Comp. HERzog's R. Encycl. XVII. p. 615. In general comp. xxiv. 9; xxviii. 7; xxix. 9; lvi. 12. The inflaming caused by wine is physical and psychical; (the former was by the ancients referred to the hepar and oculi, the liver and the eyes); comp. Prov. xxiii. 29 sq. But to a jovial banquet belongs music. There does not fail n\}3 (the harp, i.e. a stringed instrument, with strings resting free and plumb

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out, hollow, xxx. 29). Comp. HERzog's R. Encycl. X. p. 126 sqq. If now it is added, “and wine” is their drink, it is to prevent one from thinking that ver. 12 a indicates a different situation from that of ver. 11; rather the identity of both is expressly made prominent.

While nothing is wanting to the scene as regards worldly pleasure and joy, there is the most serious poverty in regard to spiritual life. In this respect they are as if blind and dead; the revelations of God that are written both in the book of nature and in history, they do not in any way regard. The greatest misery ever known to antiquity was destined to follow this luxury, and debauchery that wickedly forgot the one thing needful; the wandering into exile. One may see from Lam. v., how distressingly it went with such a herd of humanity, driven away as they were like cattle. Because the nation had not regarded what would promote its peace, it

must go out “unawares,” ny" “on. In this is signified both : without insight, and unawares. The word designates the subjective state that was portrayed ver. 12 b, and at the same time the manner in which the objective divine judgment should

break over them. nym “Yap is only found here. But in Hos. iv. 6, which comp. nyin “on is found in a connection similar to this. Every

where beside it reads" *:: (Deut. iv. 42; xix. 4; Josh. xx. 3; Job xxxvi. 12). To here is not causative, but negative = without. . [LowTH, BARNEs and J. A. ALEXANDER retain the meanin of the Eng. Vers.: “for want of knowledge.”—TR. The honored, the nobility of the people (7)53 abstr. pro concr. comp. iv. 5; xvi. 14; xvii. 3; lx. 13; lxvi. 12;) shall become starvelings, and the great crowd ( |\psi noise, then what makes noise, the great crowd xvii. 12; xxix. 5-8,) shall pant with thirst. Many, like GESENIUS, would take lips to mean the rich, because the word occurs in the sense of “riches, treasures” (lx. 5; Jer. iii. 23). But the Prophet announces the judgment to the entire people (comp. "?y in the beginning of the verse): according to which it is quite suitable for him to divide the totality into nobility and common people. When death has rich harvest on the earth, then the underworld must open its gates wide to receive the sacrifice. According

to that then po therefore, ver, 14 stands to the ph

ver, 13, not in a co-ordinate but in a subordinate relation. A soul is ascribed to Sheol (the word is with few exceptions, e.g. Job xxvi.6, feminine). It is therefore personified. The notion “soul is at the same time used in the meaning of “desiro, greed,” a usage that is not infrequent in the O.

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meaning of “hanging down loose, sinking down,” so that Sheol would be “the sinking, going down deep.” The matter is still undetermined. If it is opposed to the first explanation that, accordin to it, a poetic epithet is made the chief name o the kingdom of the dead (comp. OEHLER in HERzog's R. Encycl. XXI. p. 412); so, too, both the other views must make it comprehensible how an 8 comes to take the place of the middle radical. All the glory of Jerusalem descends into the wide gaping throat of hell. ppm means the crowd here too (as in ver. 13), but as there is here no contrast, with the honored ones as there, but only the notion of superabundance, of multitude, of tumult is added to that of glory, I allow myself with DRECHSLER to translate “riot and revel.” | sty strepitus, noise, is used of the roar of water (xvii. 12, 13), and of a multitude of men (xiii. 4; xxiv. 8; xxv. 5; lxvi. 6). The three

substantives designate everything that is splendid and makes a noise, be it person or thing. roy (äst. Aey.), too, before which no is to be supplied, does not seem to exclude reference to things. For why should not the music and all that pertains to a banquet (ver. 12) be called jovial? Comp. Ps. xcvi. 12. In as much as the Prophet in vers. 15 and 16 partly repeats verbatim the fundamental thoughts of the first half of this discourse, that we have called the first prophetic lamp (comp. ii. 9, 11, 17), he intimates that the two parts belong to one another. Those false eminences illumined by the first lamp, and the false fruits of which the second treats, lead to the same end : to the humiliation of the wickedly insolent men, and to the proof that the holy and just God is alone high. But why the Prophet just at this point casts back this connecting look, is explained in the fact that here we stand at a point of relative conclusion. This we recognize as was shown above, partly from the contents of this second woe, which sounds like a finale, partly from the form, for the following woes have a very different structure from this first. But notice with what art the Prophet leads over to the theme of the first lamp, and thus unites the fundamental thought of both lamps. By the description of the destruction of the wicked multitude by hunger and thirst, he comes quite naturally on the idea of their sinking down into the underworld. There with he has touched the deepest point of antagonism which human enmity against God can attain. For it goes no deeper down than the jaws of Sheol. This mention of the deepest deep reminds him that therewith, what he had said above on the abasement of human pride, appears, in a new light. That is to say it appears, by what is threatened in ver, 14, to be absolute. Precisely thereby the highness of the Lord appears in its fullest #. For He that is able to cast down into the lowest deep must for His own * necessarily be the highest. But He is so as the holy one that judges righteously. Now if the highness of God calls to mind the first lamp, His holiness calls to mind the second (comp. the sacred and sanctifying Branch of God, iv. 2, 3). And thus the fundamental thoughts of the first and second lamp combine most beautifully. The first half of ver. 15 is repeated verbatim from ii. 9 a. The second half of ver. 15 is, with some abbreviation, taken from ii. 11 coll. ver. 17. bâtop is the judicial act (comp. i. 21); in so far as it is a realization of the idea of righteousness, God at the same time proves Himself to be holy (comp. Ezek. xx. 41; xxviii. 22, 25; xxxvi. 23; xxxviii. 16, 23). For holiness and righteousness belong together like lamps and burning (ver. 17). The Prophet concludes his mournful picture of

the future in a highly poetic manner, in that on

the site of the once glorious and joyous city, now sunk into the ground (vers. 11, 12), he presents a pasture in which wandering nomads are feeding their flocks. Comp, the quite similar pictures of future change of fortune, vii. 21–25; xvii. 2; xxxii. 13 sq

have justly pointed out that the present condition of Jerusalem and Palestine may be regarded as a part of the fulfilment of this prophecy. For the

; Zeph. ii. 14 sq. Commentators ancient city is as if sunk into the ground. A depth of rubbish covers the old streets and open places, and above them new ones are laid out in totally different directions. Only laborious excavations can give a correct picture of the topography of ancient Jerusalem. The land, however, is almost every where become pastures for nomadic Arabian tribes. And when, moreover, one reflects that a foreign people, of another faith and inimical to the Jews, has for a long time reigned in Palestine, it must be confessed that the present time corresponds very exactly to this announcement of the Prophet. Yet it must not be overlooked that the circumstances mentioned only touch the outward side of the fulfilment. It cannot be doubted that ver. 14 has been fulfilled also in a deeper, more inward, and, I may say, transcendental way. For what has become of the land we know. But had not the Prophet also a thought of the immortal souls of men? The Donp nonri are the ruins that once belonged to the fat and rich, and were then the opposite of mournful, waste wrecks, that is to say, places of splendor and prosperity. Strangers shall devour the products of these wastes, i.e. the grass growing there, that is use it for their cattle. By this is implied that the places shall lie unnoticed and without owners. Only stranger, nomadic shepherds, in passing along, will stop there with their flocks. 4. Woe unto them—may know it.—Vers. 18, 19. The third woe is directed against audacious sinners who make unbelief in God's punitive justice the foundation of their wicked doings. The fact that the Prophet represents these people as impiously bringing down the divine judgment on themselves, has caused many commentators to construe #32 in the sense of “attrahere, draw

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UMBREIT), or “punishment of sin” (GESENIUS, KNoHEL, and others). But if the Prophet meant to say this, and to express that those had drawn on themselves by deeds what they had invoked by words, i. e. the judgments of God, he would certainly have employed expressions that would more exactly correspond to the notions ‘’Tito and " to PTsy, thus words that mean directly ‘punishment, judgment, destruction, ruin.” . I do not deny that under some circumstances the words p and mison may be taken in a sense bor

dering very nearly on “guilt of sin; and punishment of sin” (comp, the passages cited by KNOBEL, Gen. iv. 13; xix. 15; Ps. Xxxi. 11; Zech. xiv. 19: Prov. xxi. 4; to which, also, I would add Isa. xxvii. 9, where these words in the parallelism correspond to one another. See at the place). But, in the present instance, precisely the choice of these words proves to me that the Prophet did not think of the identity of the fruits of those doings with the display of the divine justice, but only of a causal relation between those doings and the divine justice. They sin away so boldly, precisely because they believe there is no danger of a day of vengeance. The idea of “boldly sinning away” the Prophet expresses in his vigorous style, in that he compares those wicked men to draught horses, that drag a heavy wagon by means of stout ropes. Like these beasts lay themselves to the traces with all their

might in order to start the load, so these lay themselves out to sin with all their might. They pull with might and main, they surrender themselves to sin with a diligence and expenditure of power worthy of a better cause. That say, etc. —Ver. 19. What chains them so fast to sin, and makes them so zealous in its service, is just that they do not believe in the divine announcement of a day of retribution. They express their unbelief in a contemptuous chailenge to Jehovah to expedite His work, i. e. His work of judgment and punishment, to fulfil His purpose of retribution. They wish for an early coming of this manifestation of judgment. For they would like to experience it. They dare so much. They are not afraid of it, though it were true; but they do not believe it is true. With impious irony they even call Him, in whose display of justice they do not believe, by His title; the Holy One of Israel. They would have it understood thereby, that He is so called, it is true, but He is not this. Comp. xxviii. 15; Jer. v. 12 sq.; xvii. 15; Ezek. xii. 22. 5. Woe unto them—the righteous from him.—Vers. 20-23. That ver. 20 does not speak merely of perversion of justice, as some would have it, appears from the generality of its expressions, and from ver. 23. §. perversion of the world whereby exactly bad is good, and good bad, is Satanic. For if the devil became God, as He attempts to become (2 Thess. ii. 4), it would happen thus. But evil has in the physical domain, its correlate in darkness and bitterness, as good has in light and sweetness. For what darkness and bitterness are for the body, such is evil for the spirit, and what light and sweetness are for the body, such is good for the spirit. Thus, Ps. xix. 9, the commandment of the Lord is clear as light, and ver. 11, sweeter than honey and the honey comb. But bitter appears in many places as the symbol of evil: Num. v. 18 sq.; Deut. xxxii. 32 sq.; Jer. ii. 19: Acts viii. 23; Heb. xii. 15. That to the bad it is just bad that tastes good, we read Job xx. 12; Prov. v.

3, 4. Ver. 21. The Prophet pronounces the fifth

woe against the proud self-deification, to which divine wisdom counts for nothing, but its own for everything. Comp. Prov. iii. 7 : Jer. viii. 8 sq.; ix. 22 sq. The sixth woe, finally, vers. 22, 23, strikes the unjust aud oppressors, who sell justice in order to obtain the means for enjoying a dissolute life. Y20 TDI), mixing of drink, comp. on ver, 11. It is debatable whether the Hebrews were acquainted with wines prepared with spices. HITzig, HENDEw ERR, DELITzsch, maintain that proof that they did is wanting, and take to Top-temperare aqua, to mix with water, in which sense the later Jews use lio. According to Buxton F, this word means: “miscuit, temperarit vinum affusa aqua" whence it is used di: rectly for “infundere, to pour into.” Comp. 212 Song of Sol. vii. 3. On the other hand, GEsf. NIUs (with whom under the word lip HITZIG had agreed) see word TD p, WINER (R. W.". v. Wein, DRECHsier, KNobel, LEY RER (in R. Encyl. xvii. p. 616) maintain most decidedly that the Hebrews were acquainted with spiced wines. WINER and LEYER dispute even that the use of vinum aqua temperare among the Jews can be certainly proved. These scholars named cite Prov. ix. 2, 5 in proof of the existence among the ancients of spiced wine (which is to be distinguished from that prepared from fruit, honey, barley), in which passage the TDO that is simultaneous with the killing, must point to another mixing, than that with water, which latter must be coincident with the pouring out. They further cite a passage in Mischna Maaser scheni 2, 1 (non condiunt oleum . . . sed condiunt vinum; si inciderit in id mel et condimenta, unde melius reddatur, illa in melius confectio fit juxta computum;) and also Plin. Hist. nat. xiv. 13, 14, 1519 where he speaks of vinum aromatites, myrrhinum, absynthites, etc.; and further to the New Testament expressions olvor Šauvoutouévoc Mark xv. 23, kekepaaHévov škoatov, Rev. xiv. 10; and to a passage in Dioscor. 5, 64 sq. According to these evidences I do not see how it can be doubted that the IIebrews were acquainted with spiced wines. 6. Therefore as—stretched out still.— Vers. 24, 25. On the fourfold woe of vers. 18–23, now follows the announcement of the punishment

to be shared in common. It is joined on by 12,

like ver. 13. The people are compared to stubble and hay, who, according to iv. 2, ought to be a flourishing divine branch. And quick as stubble is devoured by fire or hay disappears in the flames, shall their root decay of their bloom pass away like dust. Thus here too Israel is again represented as a plant, a figure that reminds us strongly of iv. 2 sqq., consequently of the second prophetic lamp. Hay and stubble are very inflammable stuff. But those roots and blossoms, that ought properly to be fresh and full of sap, shall fly away, dissolved as they are in dust and decay, as easily as hay and stubble are devoured by the flames. The threatening of ver. 24, as appears from the suffixes, concerns immediately those against whom the preceding four woes were proclaimed. But as wer. 13, the banishment of the entire nation is represented as the consequence of the - sins of those greedy and riotous men, so here it is shown how the waves of destruction shall roll on to the utmost periphery, and thus seize the

whole people. I refer p-by “therefore,” not

merely to the second clause, but to the whole of ver. 24. Although all the verbal forms in 25 a, point to the past, the things themselves that they declare fall in the future. This is evident from (ver. 24) the relation of the announcement of punishment to the sin, which is indicated as present (ver. 18 sqq.), and from the parallel between the threatenings of ver, 9 sq., and ver. 13 sq.Comp. DRECHSLER, in loc.—But it were not inn

ossible that Isaiah employs here the past forms,

ecause facts of the past float before his mind, that were to be regarded, too, as proofs of the wrath portrayed in ver, 25, without, however, re

resenting the entire fulfilment of the threatening. If then, as to its chief import ver. 25 has respect to the future, and, in contrast with the blows to be expected from a distant people (ver. 25 sqq.), indicates the blows to be expected out of the midst of Judah herself, or from the immediate neighborhood, then there might be a

reference in “the hills did tremble” to the earthquake in Uzziah's time (Am. i. 1; Zech. xiv. 5), and in “their carcases,” etc., a reference to those 120,000 men of Judah, that Pekah, the king of Israel slew in one day: 2 Chr. xxviii. 6. The formula, “for all this, his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.” (ix. 11, 16, 20; x. 4), expresses the thought that something still greater is coming. Thus then this formula introduces the chief conclusion of the discourse which corresponds to that relative conclusion, vers. 13–17. For if foreign nations from a great distance are called to accomplish a judgment, it is to be expected in advance that this judgment shall be £io. and of mighty consequence. In fact, too, it was ever nations from a distance that destroyed the respublica Israelitarum. Call to mind the Assyrians, Babylonians, Romans. And those that came the farthest, did the work of destruction the most effectually. 7. And He will lift up,-deliver it.— Vers. 26–29. The whole description is general, and not special. That is, it is not a single, particular nation, but only the genus of foreign, distant nations in general that is described. The prophecy, therefore, finds its fulfilment in all the catastrophes that brought foreign powers against Israel, from the Assyrians to the Romans. Evidently Isaiah has in mind the fundamental prophecy Deut. xxviii. 49 sqq., from which the expression Pinho Doil, “nations from afar,” is taken verbatim, and of which also the so, “and

He shall lift up,” reminds one. It is remarkable that after the arrival of those Babylonian ambassadors, 2 Kings xx. 14, Hezekiah should himself apply our passage, and so give testimony to its fulfilment, in that, when asked by the Prophet, whence these people came, he replied, “They are come from a far country (non- l'hs)), from Babylon.” The description that now follows in vers. 27–29, of the enemy that is summoned, is not of any individual enemy in fact is not at all historical, but generic and ideal in character. For, in reality, there is no army, where no one grows tired nor stumbles, in which no one sleeps nor slumbers, etc. The Prophet would only express in poetic form, the greatest activity, unweariedness, and readiness for conflict. There is a similar description Jer. v. 15 sqq. Their eagerness for battle, and their zeal for the cause is so great that they neither slumber, nor sleep. The girdle (xi. 5; Jer. xiii. 11), that binds the garment about the hips (xi. 5; xxxii. 11: coll. iii. 22) does not get loose on any one; no one breaks (xxxiii.20; lyiii. 6, Pi.), the strings (only here in Isaiah, comp. Gen. xiv. 23), by which the sandals (xi. 15; xx. 2) are fastened to the feet. Ver., 28. The equipment of the enemy, too, is admirable. The arrows are sharp; the bows are bent, (an ideal trait, for in reality bows could not be ever bent, that is, trod on with the foot xxi. 15). The hoofs (only here in Isaiah), o the steeds are hard as stone. As the ancients did not understand shoeing horses, hard hoofs were an important requisite in a war horse, comp. Mich. iv. 13, and ražkóTovo, Kparepôvvš. The impetuous, thundering roll of their wheels makes

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