Obrazy na stronie


EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The meaning of this section is twofold. of a German bushel.—TR.) of fruits (ver, 10). The First of all it contains a specification of the sour second woe pertains to high livers and gluttons, grapes, and a corresponding announcement of that begin early and leave off late (ver. 11), and punishment. In this matter the Prophet begins who, amid the noise of music and the banquet, with a certain selection. For he does not censure never come to regard Jehovah's work (ver.12). For all sins, but only the sins of the eminent, and this the people must wander into exile, and high eminent sins. Thus six evil fruits are enume- rank and low rank shall perish of hunger and rated, and what the Prophet has to say with refer- thirst (v. 13), and be used only to be cast into the ence to each begins with a woe. But a detailed jaws of the insaíiably greedy underworld (ver. 14). announcement of punishment follows on each of Then shall human pride be humbled (ver. 15), and the first two woes only, after the description of the the Lord, the righteous judge shall appear then sinful condition with which they are concerned. as alone high in His righteousness and holiness For the following woes there follows an announce- (ver. 16), the waste places of the fallen grandees ment of punishment common to all from ver. 24 shall become the pastures of the flocks of alien

This difference observed by the Prophet in tribes (ver.17). The third woe is proclaimed against regard to the order of his topics is connected with the insolent mockers that do evil with a very the second meaning of the passage: that is to say rage for it (ver. 18), and with blasphemous conit contains at the same time the twofold conclusion tempt, challenge the Lord, in whom they do not of the second portal, i. e. of the whole discourse believe, to oppose His work to their own (ver. 19). from chap. ii.--v. For the announcement of The fourth woe strikes those who perversely call punishment after the second woe, which is in pro- exactly that good which is bad, and thai bad portion long extended through five verses (v. 13- which is good (ver. 20). The fifth woe concerns the 17), manifestly contains a relative ending: the conceited that think they alone are wise (ver. 21). wicked city sinks into the lower world, and the The sixth woe, finally, is proclaimed against the grass grows over its grave. These are manifest- oppressors and unjust, who in order to live high, ly, I may say, final chords. But in as much as turn aside justice for a vile reward (vers. 22, 23). the Prophet, vers. 15 and 16, reiterates verbatim the The threatening, that those who have despised fundamental thought of his first illumination of the law of Jehovah, shall be destroyed root and the present, he gives us to understand that he branch, corresponds to the last four woes in comwould have this first (relative) conclusion refer to mon (ver. 24). For this the people shall be smitten the first half of his discourse (chap. ii. and iii). and their dead bodies be cast into the streets like And as he handles the following twice-two woes sweepings. But that is not enough even (ver. 25). differently from the first two, he intimates that Foreign nations shall be brought from a distance they have another purpose. They are not inter- against Israel (26). They shall vigorously and rupted in their sequence by announcements of pun- zealously accomplish the work to which they are ishment coming between, but these follow after as called (27–29). Then like the roaring surges of common to all, Precisely by this concentration the sea the enemy shall break over Israel. Israel the Prophet gains a highly effective conclusion shall see nothing on the earth but dark night: inof the whole discourse, but which at the same time stead of a protection against rain and storm (iv. 6), undeniably refers to the second lamp (chap. iv. a dark storm-cloud shall envelop the earth that and v.), just as we have seen that the first (rela- shall turn aside the vivifying and warming light ive) conclusion refers the first lamp. One (v. 30). recognizes this from the comparison of ver. 24, This is the result of the contemplation that the drawn from vegetation, especially from the no- Prophet sets forth in regard to the relative) pretions “root” and “scion,” in which the reference

Sad and gloomy as this result is, the realizaback to the nas branch, chap. iv., as also to the tion of that glorious future which he holds in prosvineyard and its fruit cannot be mistaken. pect (iv. 2-6) is not thereby hindered: on the con

Thus this most artistically composed ending is trary it postulates and prepares the way for that at the same time an image of the whole discourse, future. The words “in that day” point away to whose unity, comprising chaps. ii.-v., here be that. comes most evident. As the twofold division

2. Woe unto them-yield an epba.forms the ground-work of the whole discourse, so Vers. 8–16. On '17 comp. remarks at i. 4. The it does of this conclusion. And this twofold divi- Prophet first proclaims a woe against the rich sion appears in the conclusion in a double form: and mighty, who with insatiable greed annex the first the simple two for the first (relative) conclu- houses and fields of their poor neighbors, so that sion; then the potent, doubled two for the great these are crowded out of the land, and the country principal conclusion. From this we know, at becomes the exclusive domain of these opthe same time, why there must be six woes, and pressors. not seven, as one inclines to expect.

This accumulation of property violates both The first woe concerns the rich and mighty, the statutes concerning the inheritance of real that swallow up the property of inferior people, estate, and the year of Jubilee (Lev. xxv. 10-13; so that at last they possess the land alone (ver. 8). 25 sqq.). What the Prophet has heard is this; not These are threatened that their houses shall be merely some, but many houses, i. e. the houses, all destroyed (ver. 9), and their ground shall become that there are of them (ii. 3), shall be desolated, 80 sterile that ten acres shall yield only a bucket- and the great and beautiful ones shall be without ful of must, and a bushel of seed a peck [i. e: 1-16 dwellers. This desolation of the houses is ascribed


אֵיפָה Also

to the sterility that comes on the land as a pun- ; on the sounding board, comp. xvi. 11; xxiii. 16; the disobedience of Israel with this punishment, xxiv. 8; xxx. 32), 22 (i.e., every stringed inand that in not a few passages: Lev. xxvi. 18-20; strument, whose strings are stretched over a bagDeut. xi. 17; xxviii. 17 sq., 23 sq., 38 sqq. How shaped sounding board by means of a bridge, for great the barrenness shall be may be determined 9. is properly the bag.--comp. xiv. 11; xxii. from the fact, that ten acres of vine land will only yield a bucket of wine, and a bushel of seed 24), 7 (the hand drum, the tambourine, xxiv. only the tenth part as much fruit.- ?y is a pair of beasts of burden bound by a yoke (Judg. xix. 8; xxx. 32), and 5057 (the flute, literally bored 10; 1 Sam. xi. 7; Isa. xxi. 7, 9), then a piece of out, hollow, xxx. 29). Comp. HERZOG'S R. Enground as great as such a Toy could plow up in cycl. X. p. 126 899. If now it is added, “and wine" a day. If a vineyard is not plowed it might still be is their drink, it is to prevent one from thinking measured by the acre. How large a surface a 708 that ver. 12 a indicates a different situation from might be according to our measures, has never

that of ver. 11; rather the identity of both is exyet been made out. Comp. Unterss. über die Län- pressly made prominent. gen-Feld-und Wege-Masse, insbesondere der Greich While nothing is wanting to the scene as en und der luden ron L. FENNER v. FENNEBERG, regards worldly pleasure and joy, there is the Berlin, 1859, p. 96.

most serious poverty in regard to spiritual life. na a bath (comp. at om ver.6) is the principal | In this respect they are as it blind and dead; the measure for fluids, like the ephah for dry measure.

revelations of God that are written both in the Both are the tenth part of a homer or 713, cor.

book of nature and in history, they do not in any (Ezek. xlv. 11, 14), na occurs only here in Isa. way regard. The greatest misery' ever known to

antiquity was destined to follow this luxury, on homer, (probably the burden of a non, an ass., and debauchery that wickedly forgot the one whence Judg. xv. 16; 1 Sam. xvi. 2 hinn stands thing needful; the wandering into exile. One

may see from Lam. v., how distressingly it went directly for pn) does not again occur in Isa. in with such a herd of humanity, driven away as this sense.

an ephahis only here they were like cattle. Because the nation had in Isa. There is still great uncertainty regarding

not regarded what would promote its peace, it the relation of these measures to those rised by us. must go out “unawares,” nyt ihan. In this is If Thenics (The ancient Hebrew long and hollow signified both: without insight, and unawares. measures, Studien und Krit., 1846, Heft. 1 and 2) is The word designates the subjective state that was correct, who sets the contents of the homer at portrayed ver. 12 b, and at the same time the man10143.9 Paris cubic inches, then this would ner in which the objective divine judgment should about correspond to the burden an ass can bear.

3. Woe unto them that rise up early break over them. nytban is only found here. shall strangers eat.–Vers. 11-17. The second But in Hos. iv. 6, which comp. ny77 nap is woe, the longest and most detailed, is directed found in a connection similar to this. Every against the high livers and gluttons. They rise early so as to go soon to drinking; they remain where beside it reads 47 922 (Deut. iv. 42; xix. long sitting of evenings so as to inflame them- | 4; Josh. xx. 3; Job xxxvi. 12). j? here is not selves with wine. “Woe to thee, O land, when causative, but negative : without. [LOWTH, thy king is a child, and thy princes eat in the Barnes and J. A. ALEXANDER retain the meaning morning! Blessed art thou, O land, when thy of the Eng. Vers.: " for want of knowledge.”—Tr.) king is a noble, and thy princes eat in due season, for strength and not for drunkenness!" Eccl.

The honored, the nobility of the people (113 1. 16, 17; Comp. xxii. 13; lvi. 12; Am. vi. 3 abstr. pro concr. comp. iv. 5; xvi. 14; xyii. 3; Ix. 599. The Romans called feasts that began before 13; lxvi. 12 ;) shall become starvelings, and the the usual time (i. e. in the ninth hour) tempestiva great crowd (pion noise, then what makes noise, contitis, seasonable feasts (Cic. de Senect. 14, &c.). the great crowd xvii. 12; xxix. 5-8,) shall pant Ab octava horu bibere was accounted debauchery with thirst. Many, like GESENIUS, would take Juven. 1, 49, comp. GESENIUS. on our ver.): 215m to mean the rich, because the word occurs 0 is the artificial wine, and 1- the natural. in the sense of “riches, treasures” (lx. 5; Jer. The first was prepared partly from dates, apples, iii. 23). But the Prophet announces the judgment pomegranates (Song of S. viii. 2), honey, barley, to the entire people (comp. 'ny in the beginning Lithos, vivos kpiðuros, HER. 2, 77), partly by mix- of the verse): according to which it is quite suitture (like our punch, hence po to mingle able for him to divide the totality into nobility drink v. 22); Comp. HERZOG'S R. Encycl. XVII. and common people. When death has rich harIn general comp. xxiv. 9; xxviii. 7; its gates wide to receive the sacrifice. According

vest on the earth, then the underworld must open Ixix. 9; Iri. 12.

The inflaming caused by wine is physical and to that then 125 therefore, ver. 14 stands to the pas psychical; (the former was by the ancients re

ver. 13, not in a co-ordinate but in a subordinate ferred to the hepar and oculi, the liver and the relation. A soul is ascribed to Sheol (the word eyes); comp. Prov. xxiii. 29 sq.

is with few exceptions, e. g. Job xxvi. 6, feminine). But to a jovial banquet belongs music. There It is therefore personified. The notion "soul' is does not fail vise (the harp, i. e. a stringed in- at the same time used in the meaning of desire, strument, with strings resting free and plumb I greed," a usage that is not infrequent in the O.

P. 615.

Test., as is well known. Thus it is used, e.g., substantives designate everything that is splendid Deut. xxiii. 25, “When thou comest into thy and makes a noise, be it person or thing. isiyo neighbor's vineyard, then thou mayest eat grapes lâm, ney.), too, before which wok is to be supplied,

av 703??.” Comp. Prov. xxiii. 2 vn? Sya does not seem to exclude reference to things. For a greedy person; wa-uy diana Isa. Ivi. 11, dogs why should not the music and all that pertains strong in greediness; comp. Ps. xxvii. 12. The to a banquet (ver. 12) be called jovial? Comp. Ps.

xcvi. 12. same expression as in our passage is found in

In as much as the Prophet in vers. 15 and 16 Hab. ii. 5. The insatiable nature of the underworld is declared also Prov. xxvii. 20; xxx. of the first half of this discourse, that we have

partly repeats verbatim the fundamental thoughts 16.

Sheql (in Isa. again xiv. 9, 11, 15; xxviii. 15, called the first prophetic lamp (comp. ii. 9, 11, 18; xxxviii. 10, 18; lvii. 9), according to the 0.17), he intimates that the two parts belong to one Test. representation, is the resting-place of de- another. Those false eminences illumined by the parted souls, corresponding to the Hades of the first lamp, and the false fruits of which the Greeks, which is conceived of as in the inward second treats, lead to the same end : to the hu

miliation of the wickedly insolent men, and to part of the earth (hence n'ana Six the lowest the proof that the holy and just God is alone hell, Deut. xxxii. 22; Ps. lxxxvi. 13, coll. Ps. high. But why the Prophet just at this point casts Ixxxviii. 7; Lam. iii. 55 ; Isa. xliv. 23; Ezek. xxvi. back this connecting look, is explained in the fact 20; xxxii. 18, 24), because, naturally, the king- that here we stand at a point of relative concludom of death must be conceived of as in the op- sion. This we recognize as was shown above, posite direction from the kingdom of life. When, partly from the contents of this second woe, which therefore, God, the Lord of light, has His seat in sounds like a finale, partly froro the form, for the light which envelop3 us from above, then must following woes have a very different structure the kingdom of death be sought under us in the from this first. But notice with what art the Prodark depths of the earth.

phet leads over to the theme of the first lamp, There are three views regarding the derivation lamps. By the description of the destruction of

and thus unites the fundamental thought of both of the word Sixx: 1) the older, according to the wicked multitncie by hunger and thirst, he which the word should be derived from spa, comes quite naturally on the idea of their sinking

down into the underworld. Therewith he has to demand. The underworld was called “the de- touched the deepest point of antagonism which manding, the summons,” in accordance with its human enmity against God can attain. For it insatiableness (comp. the passages cited above); goes no deeper down than the jaws of Sheol. This and because it will only receive and never gives; mention of the deepest deep reminds him that 2) GESENIUS, and at the same time with him, therewith, what he had said above on the abasethough quite independently, BÖTTCHER, EWALD, ment of human pride, appears in a new light. MAURER (comp. Thesaur. p. 1348) maintain that That is to say it appears, by what is threatened Sixp is softened from hiyo. But byn, which in ver. 14, to be absolute. Precisely thereby the never occurs, must, according to bring the hollow For He that is able to cast down into the lowest hand, spave the excavator, inhabitant of caves, deep must for His own part necessarily be the


. But He is so as the holy one that judges the fox, Sivo? (Num. xxii. 24) the hollow way, righteously. Now if the highness of God calls to have the meaning of being hollow. Sheol would, mind the first lamp, His holiness calls to mind the then, be “the cavern." 3) HUPFELD, EHLER, second (comp. the sacred and sanctifying Branch

And thus the fundamental DELITZSCII, refer the word back to the root bos, of God, iv. 2, 3).

thoughts of the first and second lamp combine Sow, which is the root of by itself, and has the most beautifully. meaning of hanging down loose, sinking down,”

The first half of ver. 15 is repeated verbatim so that Sheol would be “the sinking, going down from ii. 9 a. The second half of ver. 15 is, with deep.” The matter is still undetermined. If it some abbreviation, taken from ii. 11 coll. ver. 17. is opposed to the first explanation that, according app is the judicial act (comp. i. 21); in so far to it, a poetic epithet is made the chief name of as it is a realization of the idea of righteousness, the kingdom of the dead (comp. (Euler in HER- God at the same time proves Himself to be holy zog's R. Encycl. XXI. p. 412); so, too, both the (comp. Ezek. xx. 41; xxviii. 22, 25;. xxxvi. 23; other views must make it comprehensible how an xxxviii. 16, 23),. For holiness and righteousness * comes to take the place of the middle radical. belong together like lamps and burning (ver. 17).

All the glory of Jerusalem descends into the The Prophet concludes his mournful picture of wide gaping throat of hell. pir997 means the the site of the once glorious and joyous city, now

the future in a highly poetic manner, in that on crowd here too (as in ver. 13), but as there is sunk into the ground (vers. 11, 12), he presents a here no contrast with the honored ones as there, pasture in which wandering nomads are feeding but only the notion of superabundance, of multi-their flocks. Comp. the quite similar pictures of tude, of tumult is added to that of glory, I allow future change of fortune. vii. 21-25; xvii. 2; myself with DRECHSLER to translate “riot and xxxii. 13 sq. ; Zeph. ii. 14 sq. Commentators revel.” pirms strepilus, noise, is used of the roar have justly pointed out that the present condition of water (xvii. 12, 13), and of a multitude of men of Jerusalem and Palestine may be regarded as a (xiii. 4; xxiv. 8; Xxv. 5; lxvi. 6). The three l part of the fulfilment of this prophecy. For the

ancient city is as if sunk into the ground. A might in order to start the load, so there lay depth of rubbish covers the old streets and open themselves out to sin with all their might. They places, and above them new ones are laid oui in pull with might and main, they surrender themiotally different directions. Only laborious ex- selves to sin with a diligence and expenditure of cavations can give a correct picture of the topo- power worthy of a better cause. graphy of ancient Jerusalem. The land, how That say, etc. - Ver. 19. What chains them ever, is almost every where become pastures for so fast to sin, and makes them so zealous in its nomadic Arabian tribes. And when, moreover, service, is just that they do not believe in the dione reflects that a foreign people, of another vine announcement of a day of retribution. They faith and inimical to the Jews, has for a long time express their unbelief in a contemptuous chalreigned in Palestine, it must be confessed that the lenge to Jehovah to expedite His work, i.e. His present time corresponds very exactly to this an- work of judgment and punishment, to fulfil His nouncement of the Prophet. Yet it must not be purpose of retribution. They wish for an early overlooked that the circumstances mentioned only coming of this manifestation of judgment. For touch the outward side of the fulfilment. It can- they would like to experience it. They dare so not be doubted that ver. 14 has been fulfilled also much. They are not afraid of it, though it were in a deeper, more inward, and, I may say, tran- true; but they do not believe it is true. With scendental way.

For what has become of the impious irony they even call Him, in whose disland we know. But had not the Prophet also a play of justice they do not believe, by His title; thought of the immortal puls of men ?

the Holy One of Israel. They would have it unThe Dino nians are the ruins that once be- derstood thereby, that He is so called, it is true, longed to the fat and rich, and were then the op- but He is not this. Comp. xxviii, 15; Jer. v. posite of mournful, waste wrecks, that is to say, 12 sq.; xvii. 15; Ezek. xii. 22. places of splendor and prosperity. Strangers 5. Woe unto them-the righteous from shall devour the products of these wastes, i. e. the him.-Vers. 20-23. That ver. 20 does not speak grass growing there, that is use it for their cattle. merely of perversion of justice, as some would By this is implied that the places shall lie unno- have it, appears from the generality of its exprèsticed and without owners. Only stranger, noma- sions, and from ver. 23. This perversion of the dic shepherds, in passing along, will stop there world whereby exactly bad is good, and good with their flocks.

bad, is Satanic. For if the devil became God, as 4. Woe unto them-may know it.-Vers. He attempts to become (2 Thess. ii. 4), it would 18, 19. The third woe is directed against auda- happen thus. But evil has in the physical docious sinners who make unbelief in God's puni- | main, its correlate in darkness and bitterness, as tive justice the foundation of their wicked doings. good has in light and sweetness. For what darkThe fact that the Prophet represents these people ness and bitterness are for the body, such is evil as impiously bringing down the divine judgment for the spirit, and what light and sweetness are on themselves, has caused many commentators to for the body, such is good for the spirit. Thus, construe quo in the sense of attrahere, draw Ps. xix. 9, the commandment of the LORD is toward,” and jx in the sense of “guilt” (EWALD, clear as light, and ver. 11, sweeter than honey UMBREIT), or " punishment of sin” (GESENIUS,

and the honey comb. But bitter appears in KNOBEL, and others). But if the Prophet meant many places as the symbol of evil: Num. v. 18 to say this, and to express that those had drawn sq.; Deut. xxxii. 32 sq.; Jer. ii. 19; Acts viji. on themselves by deeds what they had invoked

23; Heb. xii. 15. That to the bad it is just bad by words, i. e. the judgments of God, he would that tastes good, we read Job xx. 12; Prov. v.

3, 4. certainly have employed expressions that would

Ver. 21. The Prophet pronounces the fifth more exactly correspond to the notions " nuyo and * ülip nyy, thus words that mean directly divine wisdoin counts for nothing, but its own

woe against the proud self-deification, to which * punishment, judgment, destruction, ruin.” I for everything. Comp. Prov. iii. 7; Jer. viii. & do not deny that under some circumstances the


The sixth woe, finally, vers. 22, words " and ison may be taken in a sense bor- 23, strikes the unjust and oppressors, who sell dering very nearly on "guilt of sin, and punish- justice in order to obtain the means for enjoying ment of sin" (comp. the passages cited by Kno å dissolute life. 70 7033, mixing of drink, BEL, Gen. iv. 13; xix. 15; Ps. xxxi. 11; Zech.

comp.on ver. 11. It is debatable whether the Hexiv. 19; Prov. xxi. 4; to which, also, I would brews were acquainted with wines prepared with add Isa. xxvii. 9, where these words in the paral- spices. HitzG, HENDEWERK, DELITZSCH, mainlelism correspond to one another. See at the tain that proof that they did is wanting, and place). But, in the present instance, precisely take rrej 70 - temperare aqua, to mix with water, the choice of these words proves to me that the in which sense the later Jews use Jip. According Prophet did not think of the identity of the fruits of those doings with the display of the divine to BUXTORF, this word means: "miscuit

, temperjustice, but only of a causal relation between arit vinum affusa aqua” whence it is used dithose doings and the divine justice. They sin rectly for “infundere, to pour into.” Comp. ?!?! away so boldly, precisely because they believe Song of Sol. vii. 3. On the other hand GESE there is no danger of a day of vengeance. The NIUS (with whom under the word 273 Hitzo idea of “ boldly sinning away” the Prophet ex. had agreed) see word jos, WineR (R. W. %. presses in his vigorous style, in that he compares v. Wein, DRECHSLER, KNOBEL, LEYRER (in those wicked men to draught horses, that drag a R. Encyl. xvii. p. 616) maintain most decidedly heavy wagon by means of stont ropes. Like these that the Hebrews were acquainted with spiced brasts lay themselves to the traces with all their | wines. WINER and LEYER dispute even that

ix. 22 sq


the use of vinum aqua temperare among the Jews reference in “the hills did tremble” to the earthcan be certainly proved. These scholars named quake in Uzzial's time (Am. i. 1; Zech. xiv. cite Prov. ix. 2,5 in proof of the existence among 5); and in “their carcases," etc., a reference to the ancients of spiced wine (which is to be dis- those 120,000 men of Judah, that Pekah, the tinguished from that prepared from fruit, honey, king of Israel slew in one day: 2 Chr. xxviii. 6. barley), in which passaga the 703 that is simul- The formula, • for all this, his anger is not taneous with the killing, must point to another turned away, but his hand is stretched out still,” mixing, than that with water, which latter must (ix. 11, 16, 20; x. 4), expresses the thought that be coincident with the pouring out. They further something still greater is coming. Thus then cite a passage in Mischna Maaser scheni 2, 1 (non this formula introduces the chief conclusion of condiunt oleum. sed condiunt vinum; si inci- the discourse which corresponds to that relative derit in id mel et condimenta, unde melius reddatur, conclusion, vers. 13-17. For if foreign nations illa in melius confectio fit juxta computum ;) and from a great distance are called to accomplish a also Plin. Hist. nat. xiv. 13, 14, 15 19 where he judgment, it is to be expected in advance that speaks of vinum aromatites, myrrhinum, absynthites, this judgment shall be decisive, and of mighty etc.; and further to the New Testament expres- consequence. In fact, too, it was ever nations sions οίνος εσμυρμισμένος Mark xv. 23, κεκερασ- from a distance that destroyed the respublica Israpévov å kpatov, Rev. xiv. 10; and to a passage in elitarum. Call to mind the Assyrians, BabyDioscor. 5, 64 sq. According to these evidences lonians, Romans. And those that came the I do not see how it can be doubted that the He- farthest, did the work of destruction the most efbrews were acquainted with spiced wines.

fectually. 6. Therefore as-stretched out still,

7. And He will lift up,-deliver it. Vers. 24, 25. On the fourfold woc. of vers: 18-23, and not special. That is, it is not a single, par

Vers. 26–29. The whole description is general, now follows the announcement of the punishment ticular nation, but only the genus of foreign, disto be shared in common. It is joined on by 17 tant nations in general that is described. The like ver. 13. The people are compared to stub. prophecy, therefore, finds its fulfilment in all the ble and hay, who, according to iv. 2, ought to be catastrophes that brought foreign powers against a flourishing divine branch. And quick as stub-Israel, from the Assyrians to the Romans. Evible is devoured by fire or hay disappears in the dently Isaiah has in mind the fundamental proflames, shall their root decay and their bloom plecy Deut. xxviii. 49 sqq., from which the expass away like dust. Thus here too Israel is pression pin?? D'a, “nations from afar," is again represented as a plant, a figure that re taken verbatim, and of which also the XV], "and minds us strongly of iv. 2 sqq., consequently of He shall lift up,” reminds one. the second prophetic lamp. Hay and stubble markable that after the arrival of those Baby

It is reare very inflammable stuff. But those roots and lonian ambassadors, 2 Kings xx. 14, Hezekiah blossoms, that ought properly to be fresh and should himself apply our passage, and so give full of sap, shall fly away, dissolved as they are in dust and decay, as easily as hay and stůbble testimony to its fulfilment, in that, when asked

by the Prophet, whence these people came, he arc devonred by the flames.

The threatening of ver. 24, as appears from the replied, "They are come from a far country suffixes, concerns immediately those against 77198?), from Babylon.” The description whom the preceding four woes were proclaimed that now follows in vers. 27-29, of the enemy But as ver. 13, the banishment of the entire that is summoned, is not of any individual enemy nation is represented as the consequence of the in fact is not at all historical, but generic and' sins of those greedy and riotous men, so here it ideal in character. For, in reality, there is no is shown how the waves of destruction shall roll army, where no one grows tired nor stumbles, in on to the utmost periphery, and thus seize the which no one sleeps nor slumbers, etc. The Prowhole people. I refer yo-yy “therefore," not greatest activity, unweariedness, and readiness for merely to the second clause, but to the whole of conflict._There is a similar description Jer. v. ver, 21. Although all the verbal forms in 25 a, 15 sqq. Their eagerness for battle, and their zeal point to the past, the things themselves that they for the cause is so great that they neither slumdeclare fall in the future. This is evident froin ber, nor sleep. The girdle (xi. 5; Jer. xiii. (ver. 21) the relation of the announcement of 11), that binds the garment about the hips (xi. punishment to the sin, which is indicated as pre- 5; xxxii. 11: coll. iii. 22) does not get louse on Rent (vor. 18.579.), and from the parallel between any one; no one breaks (xxxiii. 20; lviii. 6, Pi.), the threatenings of ver. 9 sq., and ver. 13 sq. the strings (only here in Isaiah, comp. Gen. xiv. Comp. DRECHSLER, in loc. But it were not in- 23), by which the sandals (xi. 15; xx. 2) are possible that Isaiah employs here the past forms, fastened to the feet. because ficts of the past float before his mind, Ver. 28. The equipment of the enemy, too, that were to be regarded, too, as proofs of thic is admirable. The arrows are sharp; the bows wrath portrayed in ver. 27, without, however, re are bent, (an ideal trait, for in reality bows could presenting the en:ire fulfilment of the thrcaten- not be ever bent, that is, trod on with the foot, ing. If, then, as to its chief import ver. 25 has xxi. 15). The hoofs (only here in Isaiah), of respect to the future, and, in contrast with the the steeds are hard as stone. As the ancients did blows to be expected from a distant people (ver. not understand shoeing horses, hard hoofs were 26 e91.), indicates the blows to be expected out an important requisite in a war horse, comp. of the midst of Judah herself, or from the im- Mich. iv. 13, and ya kónovs, kpatepūvus. The immediate neighborhood, then there might be a petuous, thundering roll of their wheels makes

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