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Judge between me, etc. - Comp. ii.4; Exod. xviii. 16; Ezek. xxxiv. 17, 20, 22. The summons of ver. 3 to judge between the vineyard and its owner, must of itself awaken the thought that no actual, physical vineyard is meant here. For where is the owner that would ever think of laying a complaint against his vineyard ” One sees from this, and other obvious traits of the description, that the subject here is not an ordinary vineyard and its owner; and v. 6 b. one is made aware that the owner is God Himself. For only He has the power to cause it to rain, and to shut up the rain. Notice, moreover, how vers. 1 and 2 the Prophet himself has spoken, although announcing a song of the friend, and only at ver. 3 the friend begins to speak, in that with “and now " he takes up the discourse of the Prophet and continues it. One may say: quite unnoticed the Prophet glides over into the part played by him whom properly he has to produce to view. And to the first “and now” corresponds a second in ver. 5, that introduced the judgment, so that the extraordinary judgment begins in precisely the same way that the extraordinary complaint does. The Lord will command the clouds to let no rain fall on the vineyard. With these words the vail falls completely. It is plain now that the beginning of ver, 1 was irony. A fearful disappointment comes on those that had disappointed the Lord Himself, and, by the art of the Prophet, the reader, too, must share this disappointment, in that he is conducted from the charming pictures #. 1, to the dreadful ones that are now to oilow.

For the vineyard—a cry.—Ver. 7. Like the prophet Nathan, 2 Sam. xii. 5, first provoked King David to a stern judgment of a wicked man by means of a fictitious story, and then exclaimed:

“ thou art, the man,” so here Isaiah explains to the men of Jerusalem and Judah, after they had at least silently given their assent to the judgment on the bad vineyard: “The vineyard of Jehovah is the house of Israel.” But this statement is

connected by "2 for, with what precedes, because

a consequence of this fact was already indicated at the end of ver. 6. For this not letting it rain explains itself from the fact that the Lord Himself is the owner, and the vineyard is the house of Israel. For, though one must admit that wer.7 refers to all that precedes, yet still that trait in ver. 1–6 which especially receives its light from the identity of the owner with Jehovah, is precisely that which we read in ver. 6 b.

But why does the prophet vary from the designation “Judah and Jerusalem” hitherto employed by him? Why does he here make “house of Israel” and “men of Judah” parallel? CasPARI attempts in his Beiträgen, p. 164, an extended proof that o as iv. 2 and i. 2, Israel is Judah as Israel, and as Israel in Judah. But one naturally asks: why, if Isaiah meant only. Judah, doese not name Judah exclusively 7 Why does he suddenly drop the designation used hitherto? But if with the name “house of Israel” he designates Judah (to be) as Israel, is it not therewit admitted that the conception Israel extends over Judah, and is not then this more comprehensive Israel in its totality, the vineyard of Jehovah 7 It is true that the figure of the vineyard is nowhere in older writings applied either to Judah or Israel. But the Lord calls Israel His people (iii. 12, &c.), His flock (Ps. xcv. 7, &c.), His peculiar treasure (Exod. xix. 5; Deut. vi. 6), His inheritance (Jer. ii. 7: xvi. 18, &c.), and all these expresssions refer to Israel entire. Thus it cannot be contested that Israel in the narrower sense belongs also to the vineyard of Jehovah. If now, too, in general, as can not be denied, Judah and Jerusalem form the principal object of the discourse (ii. 1), yet the prophet may here and there cast a glance aside at the kingdom of Israel. Prophets of Jehovah can never forget that Israel, which hastens faster to the abyss of destruction than Judah, as Jer. expressly says: xxxi.20; comp. Isa. xi. 11 sqq. I therefore share the view of VITRINGA, DRECHSLER, I) ELITZSCH, that “house of Israel” of course means all Israel. This view is not refuted but rather confirmed by the fact that the men of Judah are presently called “the plant of his pleasure.” For this expression that accords to Judah a certain precedence, suits better when “house of Israel” does not signify Judah over again, but the Israel of the Ten Tribes.

The Lord had planted with pleasure. But He was outrageously deceived in His just expect; tions. He had expected a “fruit of the earth.” iv. 2, that would do Him honor. But behold! instead of upon mishpot, He gathers næto mispahh: instead of mp is taedhaka, he gathers"??? iseaka. The poet here choicely depicts by the word-likeness, which yet conceals a total difference of meaning, the deceptive appearance in the conduct of the Israelites, which at first looked like good vines and then developed a wild wine.


CHAPTER W. 8–30.

8 Woe unto them that join house to house, That lay field to field, Till there be no place, That "they may be placed alone in the midst of the earth! 9 *In mine ears said the LoRD of hosts, *Of a truth many houses shall be desolate, Even great and fair, without inhabitant. 10 Yea, ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath, And the seed of an homer shall yield an ephah. 11 Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; That continue until night, till wine “inflame them 12 "And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, *And wine, are in their feasts: But they regard not the work of the LoRD, Neither consider the operation of his hands. 13 Therefore my people are gone into captivity, “because they have no knowledge: And “their honorable men are “famished, And their multitude dried up with thirst. 14 Therefore hell hath enlarged "herself, And opened her mouth without measure: And their glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, And he that rejoiceth, shall descend into it. 15 And the mean man shall be brought down, And the mighty man shall be humbled, And the eyes of the lofty shall be humbled: 16 But the LoRD of hosts shall be exalted in judgment, And" "God that is holy shall be sanctified in righteousness. 17 Then shall the lambs feed after their manner, And the waste places of the fat ones shall strangers eat. 18 Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, And sin as it were with a cart rope: 19 That say, Let him make speed, and hasten his work, That we may see it : And let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw nigh and come, That we may know it. 20 Woe unto them "that call evil good, and good evil; That put darkness for light, and light for darkness: That put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitterl 21 Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, And prudent "in their own sight! 22 Woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine, And men of strength to mingle strong drink: 23 Which justify the wicked for reward, And take away the righteousness of the righteous from him 1 24 Therefore as "the fire devoureth the stubble, And the flame consumeth the "chaft,

So their root shall be as rottenness,
And their blossom shall go up as dust:
Because they have cast away the law of the LoRD of hosts,
And despised the word of the Holy One of Israel.
25 Therefore is the anger of the LoRD kindled against his people,
And he hath stretched forth his hand against them,
And hath smitten them : and the hills did tremble,
And their carcasses were" torn in the midst of the streets.
For all this his anger is not turned away,
But his hand is stretched out still,
26 And he will lift up an ensign to the nations from far,
And will hiss unto them from the end of the earth:
And, behold, 'they shall come with speed swiftly:
27 None shall be weary nor stumble among them;
None shall slumber nor sleep; -
Neither shall the girdle of their loins be loosed,
Nor the latchet of their shoes be broken:
28 Whose arrows are sharp,
And all their bows bent,
Their horses' hoofs shall be counted like flint,
And their wheels like a whirlwind :
29 Their roaring shall be like a “lion,
They shall 'roar like young lions:
Yea, they shall roar, and lay hold of the prey,
And shall carry it away safe, and none shall deliver it.
And in that day "they shall roar against "them like the roaring of the sea:
And if one look unto the land, behold darkness and "sorrow,
*And the light is darkened" in the heavens thereof.


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vealed is omitted. It does not follow from this that this or some similar word has fallen out of the text. For the Prophet may very well have had in thought the

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Hos. iv. 2. Hiphilyon occurs beside only vi. 7 ; viii.
8; xxv. 12; xxvi. 5; xxx. 4. Bop is generally not con-
- r
strued with E. But when DREchsleh says that this con-
struction never occurs, it is asserting too much. For
Ps. xci. 10 it is said “No plague ions: -NP." comp.
•. r. iri - I : •
Judges xix. 13. In our passage the construction of
the first clause has doubtless influenced that of the
second. Hiph. a pn only again xxvi. 17-ops (de-
feetus, non-existent) occurs oftener in the second part
than in the first: xl. 17; xli. 12, 29; xlv. 6, 14, 22; xlvi. 9,
lii. 4, 10; liv.15. In the first part it occurs again only
xxxiv. 12—The Hophal Dnigan (xlv. 26) indicates
that their dwelling alone in the land was not a natural
thing, but something contrived. Compare complaints
of like import iii. 14 sq.; Mich. ii. 2; iii. 2, sq.
Ver. 9. In mine cars, etc. In xxii. 14 an address
of Jehovah begins with the words, “and it was revealed
in mine ears,” etc. In our passage noj}) “and it was re-
t : " :

bare notion of existence as predicate of his sentence;
“In mine ears is Jehovah Sabaoth.” It must not how-
ever be construed in a pregnant sense: Jehovah keeps
ever saying to me (liegt mir in den Ohren). For there
is not a thought of any resistance on the part of the
Prophet that had provoked a persistence on the Lord's
side. Neither may the expression mean: Jehovah
whispers in my ear; as if the secrecy of the address
were meant by it; for there exists no reason for such
secrecy. But the Prophet will only say, that what fol-
lows he has clearly heard by the inward ear as the word
of Jehovah. There lies thus in the expression a dis-
tinguishing of actual from merely imaginary hearing.
Comp. Ps. xliv. 2; Job xxviii. 22; xxxiii. 8.
The pointing of the word "JIN in as a pausal form ap-
pears to have for its object to separate it from what fol-
lows and to signify thereby that in this word alone is
contained the predicate of the sentence—mpt” again
xiii. 9, comp. Deut. xxviii. 37; Mich. vi. 16–lop
inton" comp. vi. 11; Jer. ii. 15; iv. 7, etc.; Zeph. ii. 5; sii. 6.

Ver. 11. A likeness of structure is to be noticed in the two halves of the verse. The verb. fin. in the phrase 357" on Duj relates to the foregoing participle, not simply like job. ver. 8, as the dominant form, but at the same time as assigning thepurpose; and so is it too with Dp"T.—The Pi. of nns again in Isa. xlvi.13. To from no to breathe, to blow, the time of day when cooler air stirs, the morning and evening twilight: comp. xxi. 4; lix. 10. The verb po- (comp. Ezek. xxiv. 10) is found only here in Isaiah. -r

Ver, 12. If Dn"ntin (sing. comp. Gesenius, 3 93, 9) were subject, it must follow TNT), for this position is r r = constantly maintained after a verb with Vau consec. But if it were predicate, it would say nothing; for what else would music and wine be but a feast. For that TTT) would be superfluous. We construe non there•r-r fore, not as mere copula, but in the sense of being on hand; and there is on hand.—The combination of Toyn with T in a manfold sense is quite current with Isa. ii. 8; xvii. 8; xix. 25; xxix. 23; xxxvii. 19; lx. 21; lxiv. 7; lxv. 22. Ver. 13. noj in the sense of “making bare, i.e., clear+ r. ing out the land” occurs in Isaiah only again xxiv. 11, which passage generally resembles this one.—only

ap) has without reason been discredited, and instead r

some would read Dyn "In according to Deut. xxxii. 24, for Donn is wont to be used in a contemptuous sense, comp. iii. 25–nny (comp. GREEN's Gram. 4187,1 b) is adjectivum ad f. oy, |3}, phs etc., and only occurs here. Ver. 14. "I'B aperire, that always stands with TIE) - r ... (Job xvi. 10; xxix. 23; Ps. cxix. 131) occurs in Isaiah only here. The same with “75% (comp. Job xxxviii. 41; xli. 23). pn again only xxiv. 5.—The sumxes of the nouns are to be referred to the notion “ Jerusalem,” although immediately before ver. 13, the masculine DJ’ is used. But it is plain that the Prophet in ver. 14 b, aims at a mimicry of sound. For this purpose he employs the clear a sound as often as possible. DELITzscil calls attention to the omission to draw the tone back on the penult. of the word toy), “so that one may hear the object that is falling down as it rolls and at last strikes bottom.” Yin comp. ii. 10, 19, 21; xxxv.2; liii.2. • r Wer. 15. The aorists nuj"), "Evil, Tool") are to be construed as Praeterita prophetica. Also nx"stin, with the Way preceding and separate, is, as DRechsler has remarked = noon. : - ; -Wer. 17. *y is to be taken absolutely, without object. r What is understood suggests itself from what precedes. The pronoun of the third person is, as object of the phrase, very often omitted; Gen. ii. 19; iii. 21 ; vi. 19, 20, 21, etc. It is not necessary, with Grsensus to take Dohn") for Dyo. for nyl Very often stands r: or : - r with the accusative of the place that is pastured : xxx. 23; Mich. vii. 14; Jer. vi. 3; l. 19, etc. As their pasture shall the sheep graze over the ruins of Jerusalem, in so far as the inhabited city becomes a sheep walk. When Delitzsch thinks that no accusative object is to be supplied to lyn, but that the determination of the locality results from the context, it is seen that still there is a supplying of the object. One may as well supply the definite locality as object according to frequent usus

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singular suffix in loop must be construed distributively. The righteousness of the righteous they let disappear from him, i. e., from the righteous man in question. Comp., at ii. 8 and i, 23.

Wer. 24. As regards the construction ; ox2 is a predicate infinitive dependent on a preposition, which is followed immediately, not as usually by the subject, to the object, because the order vpus two, 7385 offends against euphony; also in xx. 1, the object precedes, because it is a pronoun (init). Commentators call attention to the multiplication of sibilants in the sentence. “One hears the crackling sparks, the sputtering flames" says DELITzsch. wyn occurs only

once again in the Old Testament, xxxiii. 11-no-h is

“to become lax, withered, weary, fall away” (especially

of the hands xiii. 7). non", is accus. loci...—The sufr r".

fixes in Dejonto; and Dno refer back to those whom the preceding four woes concern. To these then their punishment is announced. P2 only occurs again iii. 24. nna (only xviii. 5 again) is the blossom. pix dust, only - - - r r occurs again xxix. 5-The second clause of the verse ealls to mind i. 4. They were therefore the opposite of * the branch of Jehovah” iv. 2, and much rather comparable to the bad grape-vine, v. 1 sqq. Thor occurs , r , . again xxviii. 23; xxix. 4; xxxii. 9. Wer. 25. The expression As Toon does not occur - r r again in Isaiah, and, excepting the part, Niph. xli. 11; xlv.24, no other form of the verb TinTV occurs in Isaiah. Our expression, however, calls to mind, Num. xi. 33, “And the wrath of the Lord was kindled against His. people, and the Lond smote the people,” as all those numerous places in the Pentateuch, especially Num. where the expression (* As Yn”, “and the anger of

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23; lxii. 10. Only in the last named passage does the verb D'Yn occur. Pro “to hiss, whistle,” is taken from the practice of bee keepers, as may be seen in vii. 18, where the same figure recurs. Tix pro recurs xiii. 5; xlii. 10; xliii. 6, thus equally in both parts. In each place, xiii. 5 excepted, Ynsm follows it. nymp properly substantive = celeritas: recurs lviii. 8; combined with op according to Joel iv. 4. Sprecurs in Isa. xix. 1; xxx. 16; xviii. 2. On the change of number in *7, comp., at ver, 23. The singular here apparently indicates that though the signal is given at various times

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Wer. 29. Ron', (again in Isa. xxx. 6) is by most held • r to mean lioness. Comp. GeseNIUs, Thes. p. 738 . . . On the construction of Robin see at ver, 18.—Nts) is ac• r - cording to K'thibh Nol, according to K'ri Nej". The - r : - : reading of K'ri is the correct one, for there is no reason for the perfect with the Vav consec., whereas the imperfect stands here, according to rule, to describe permanent qualities.—DT) only here in Isaiah, see Prov. – r xxviii. 15; xix. 12; xx. 2). Of tools the form sound here - r

is the only one used by Isaiah, and that only here. The formula oxy t"N) occurs again xlii. 22, and xliii. 13, in which latter place it sounds the same as the original passage Deut. xxxii. 89.

Ver. 30. The subject of Dn)", “he shall roar,” is the same that it has in the preceding verse. But we translate “it roars dull,” only to give prominence to the collective more than to the individual as indicated in D"-nnnli) “as the roaring of the sea.” The suffix, in roy can refer only to the one seized, i. e., Judah.non, occurs only again Ps. xxxviii. 9.--DRechsler, has justly called attention “to the sound painting produced by accumulating the buzzing and rumbling sound of m, and n, too,” in the first hemistich of this verse. Both sounds are in phy; to this word Dio rhymes; in D"-nnn).5 we find m. and n. again, and the syllable am twice-To this hemistich, which I may say has itself a low rumble, the second is opposed, which portrays the conquered by its many, i.e., and a sounds, thus by thinner sounds, that in a measure paint weakness. *

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