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never means anything (הָאָדָמָה or) פרי הארץ

nos Tzemach, has become altogether a proper | LI: “both expressions suit to the Branch Christ

“ Behold I will bring forth my servant and to His body the church.” HOFMANN's explaTzemach, (Branclı),” Zech. iii. 8. And vi. 12: nation (Schriftbew. II. 2, p. 503 sq.): “What Jeho“Behold the man whose name is Tzemach, and yah causes to grow and the land brings forth, the he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall Prophet opposes to the thousands of human probuild the temple of the Lord.” If we agree with ductions with which the previously rebuked luxexpositors that refer the Tzemach of Jer. and ury decked itself, especially in the case of woZech. (which in them, beyond all doubt, means men," seems to me to construe the idea of Tzethe Messialı), to our passage as its original source, much of Jehovah too narrowly, and too little in still the conclusion must not be countenanced its distinction from "Fruit of the land,” as well that the word is to be taken in the same meaning as too much with reference to iii. 16 sqq. in our passage as in Jer. and Zech. For in our Therefore, the entire products, both of the passage a condition, habitus, is evidently described, spiritual and the corporal life shall be such that not a personality. “ Fruit of the land” stands as the rescued ones of Israel shall be highly honored correlative of “Branch of Jehovah.” This is so and glorified thereby. That which has its immegeneral and comprehensive an expression, that it diate source of life in Jehovah Himself, which is is impossible to understand by it any single fruit, the fruit of His Spirit (Gal. v. 22) must redound even though it were the noblest. The passages

to the honor of those in whom it makes its apxi. 1, 10; liii. 2, do not contradict this. For just pearance (comp. Rom. ii. 7 sqq.). We read elsein those passages the Messiah is designated, not where (Chap. xxviii. 5) that Jehovah Himself as the fruit of the land, (or of the earth), in genit of beauty unto the residue

of Ílis people." Both

‘shall be for a crown of glory and for a diadem eral, but a shoot out of the root of Jesse. of the land” in the general and indefinite form amount to the same thing. For where Jehovah of its expression, can only signify the products of is, there He is with His life and with His power; the land in general (not of the earth, for, accord- and where He lives and works, there He makes ing to the context, only Israel is spoken of ). glory. Moreover the fruits of the earth, where Thus what grows of Jehovah and what grows of the Lord alone becomes the principle of spiritual the land stand in antithesis; spiritual and corpo- life, must themselves become glorious and, as it ral fruits, the products of the heavenly and of the were, the cause of a glory like Paradise. All, in earthly life.

fact, will become new : body and soul, nature and But what are the products of the heavenly, history, heaven and earth. spiritual, divine life? This, it seems to me, Isa.

( himself tells us Ixi. 11: "For as the earth else than the products of the ground. The exbringeth forth her bud, and as the garden causeth pression is found often in the Pentateuch (Gen. the things that are sown in it to spring forth; so iv. 3; Lev. xxv. 19; Num. xiii. 20, 20), most the LORD God will cause righteousness and praise frequently in Deut. (i. 25; vii. 13; xxvi. 2, 10; to spring forth before the nations." Thus, xxviii. 4, 11, 18, &c.). Beside these only in Jer. “whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things vii. 20, and Ps. cv. 35. But all this splendor and are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatso- glory shall exist only for “ the escaped of Israel.”' ever things are pure, whatsoever things are love- This is the conception so frequent in Isa., which ly, whatsoever things are of good report; if there he elsewhere designates as “remnant,”. “him be any virtue and if there be any praise” Phil. that remaineth," " residue,” (982, 1988, oņi, iv. 8 (and may not Paul have had Isa. Ixi. 11 in 103 comp. ver. 3; vi. 13; 2. 20–22 ; xi

. 11, 16; his mind ?) that is Tzemach of Jehovah. That is the divine fruit with which the fruit of the xxviii. 5; xxxvii. 31 sq.; xlvi. 3), and which exland stands in contrast, viz.: all corporal life that presses that, not all Israel, but only the remnant the land produces in all the kingdoms of nature.

left after the judging and sisting shall partake of Therefore Tzemach of Jehovah comprehends the

the salvation. entire sphere of the free, conscious, personal life,

Ver. 3 says expressly, that the glory of which all that is product of the breath of life” (Gen? v. 2 speaks shall depend on inward purity and ii. 7); whereas "fruit of the land” designates the spotlessness, on that light that is said to be the garentire impersonal, corporal life, all that is "the

ment of God (Ps. civ. 2). This verse, therefore, production of the earth” (Gen. i. 12). If this contains the more particular definition of v. 2. is the meaning of Tzemach of Jehovah in our

“The left over" (80) comp. xxxvii. 31) and “the passage, then this general notion may easily con- remaining over” (iņij comp. vii. 22, and DEdense and, so to speak, crystallize to the concep- LITZSCH, in loc.) in Zion and Jerusalem (vid. ii. tion of a definite personality. Thus, for instance, 3) shall be called holy, i. e., not only be so, but te the idea of the seed of the woman (Gen. iii. 15) recognized and called such. proceeding originally from a conception general This holiness, which becomes God's house. Ps. and indefinite, gradually, in the consciousness of xciii. 5, is, any way, to be construed objectively believing Israel, condensed to the notion of a as well as subjectively. It includes the sacer anil definite personality.

the sanctus. But these holy men of God are His According to this I cannot agree with those elect in reference to whom He has made the counthat understand “70 Tzemach of Jehovah of sel of His love documentary by entering their the Messiah only (as many Jewish and Christian

names in the book of life.

“To be written to the living" " or "to the expositors), or of the Church alone (so JEROME: nomen Christianum), or of the people of Israel life” calls to mind Pealm lxix. 29, O'P'IY Dj alone (thus KNOBEL, who confounds noy with 9573? " let them not be written with the right

Yo?), or of Christ and the church (thus Zwing-leous," or Jer. xxii. 30, where it is said: “write

T :

again) מָכוֹן

this man '?'?y, childless." This book of life is and fire over the individual dwellings of Mount not that in which are written those destined to Zion and over the whole assembly of the holy earthly life (1 Sam. xxv. 29, Ps. cxxxix. 16), but nation for their protection. that wherein stand written those appointed to Ver. 5therefore introduces a compleeverlasting life. What sort of a book that may mentary idea of what precedes. be, and how the entry in it comports with free in Isaiah only xviii. 4) is sedes, habitatio pa.

( self-determination in men we cannot here investigate. This book is first named Exod. xxxii. 32, rata, stabilita. It is used almost exclusively of 33. Later Isa. in this place, and Ps. Ixix. 29;

the divine indwelling. For with the exception lxxxvii. 4-6; Dan. xii. 1 mention it. In the N? of Ps. civ. 5, where the D'pi?? (foundations) of Test, we read of it Luke x. 20; Phil. iv. 3; Rev. the earth are named (which any way are a divine iii. 5; xiii. 8; xvii. 8; xx. 12, 15; xxi, 27. work too), jd stands only for the earthly (Exod. Some, not without propriety, have reminded, in connection with x. 19; Ezek. xiii. 9; Exod. xxx.

xv. 17, &c.) or the heavenly (1 K. viji. 39, 43, 49,

One is tempted, 12, ete, of the genealogical registers or roll of etc.) dwelling-place of God. citizens, in so far as those inscribed for life are at therefore, to understand pas here of the temple once citizens of the kingdom of God and of the city of God (Gal. v. 26; Heb. xii. 22; Rev. xxi.

as God's dwelling place. But then the 53 would 2).

be incomprehensible. Or if this be translated When the Lord shall have washed.-Ver. “whole," then there must be an article. We 4. It seems to me that the contents of ver. 4 show de- must, therefore, understand by it all the dwellcidedly that it is no premis to ver. 5, but is to be ings that were found on Mount Zion (comp. ii. 2, regarded as specification of the time and conditions 3, naming of the city Jerusalem a potiori). The in reference to vers. 2 and 3. For only the pu- whole of these have become holy dwellings of rifying and sifting judgments of God, that cleanse God, too, inasmuch as their inhabitants are themaway all filth, bring it about that any holy, divine selves scions of God (ver. 2). life still remains in Jerusalem. The filth of the “Assemblies,” is evidently in contrast with daughter of Zion is not only her moral degrada- every dwelling,” and declares that the sign of tion, but all that appears as fruit of it and means Jehovah shall hover over both the dwellings of for furthering it; thus the entire apparatus of individual families and over the assembled total, luxury discoursed of in iii. 16 sqq. Though out of the nation. Every single house, as well as the wardly showy and splendid, regarded from the house of Jacob as a whole, shall be God's holy Prophet's point of view it was only vile filth. The tabernacle, as formerly the typical Tabernacle blood-guiltiness of Jerusalem (comp. i. 15; ix. 4; was alone. Even before the passage of the Red xxvi. 21; xxxiii. 15) proceeds from the innocent Sea, the pillar of cloud and fire went before the blood shed by the injustice and tyranny of the Israelites (Exod. xiii. 21 sq.). It stood as a powerful (i. 15 sqq.). Concerning Zion and Jerusa- protection between the armies of Israel and lem, see ii. 3. This cleansing shall be brought Egypt (Exod. xiv. 19 sq). But when the Taberabout by a spiritual force that is analogous to that nacle was completed, the pillar of cloud and fire force of nature that purifies, viz., the wind. Like rested over it (Exod. xl. 34 sqq.). that rashes over the earth and bears away all im In the Pentateuch the expression 19 y, smoke, is pure rapors, so shall God let loose His judgments never used for this wonderful phenomenon. It over Israel, destroy the wicked and drive to repentance those in whom the Spirit of God finds know whether to join it to ly cloud, or to '

is put in here in such a way that one does not still a point of contact, thus spiritually purify the nation. I do not think, therefore, that non here shining, etc. According to the accents the former

should be done. Moreover it may be urged that is to be translated “spirit.” The context evident- smoke is not seen by night. But why then is lş demands the meaning "wind.” In xxx. 28, also 717 is the breath of God, as one sees from

is placed after opv? Some consider the conthe connection with the lips and tongue (ver. 27). Cloud; for an ordinary vapor cloud it was not.

struction a hendiadys: cloud and smoke=smoke Comp. xli. 16, Dxxn ņi7“ the wind shall carry. This may be correct. But from the nature of them away.MEIER translates our passage things smoke belongs to fire. For there is no fire "breath of wrath." In the kindred passage without smoke, nor smoke without fire. Like xxviii. 6, however, the meaning "spirit" seems to predominate. Whether va is kindred to that HENGSTENBERG, therefore, I refer joy), and wa that means “to burn, to kindle” (see ver. 5; the cloud at night be most plainly visible, for then

smoke to what follows. Precisely as smoke would al. 16; xliv. 15; 2. Chr. iv. 20; xiii. 11) is the smoke was seen mounting out of the fire and doabtful. Our ma is, like vi. 13, used in the illuminated by it. senze of "to cast off, cut away, brush off," in For upon all glory, etc.--If the Prophet, as which sense the word often occurs in Deut. in has been shown, regards every single house as reference to exterminating the scabby sheep out God's holy tabernacle, then he can call it glorious of the holy theocratic congregation (Deut. xiii. too, like in Exod. xl. 34 sq., that which filled the 6; xvii. 7; xix. 19; xxvi. 13 sq., comp. Num. dwelling of the sanctuary is called the glory of JeIriv. 22, &c.) The word therefore involves the hovah. Comp. on ver. 13. This glory of Jehovah notion of a sifting. After the purification is ac- in the pillar of cloud and fire served on the one complished by judgment and sifting, measures hand for Israel's protection--viz., standing beshall be taken against further corruption in that iween them and the Egyptians--on the other for the LORD shall hover with the 'pillar of smokel a guide in the desert. The sanctified Israel of

the last time will not need a guide, for they will in the world against God's sanctuary be extinno more wander. They are to be firmly founded guished ? Is it not conceivable that both in the on the holy mountain. But they will still need world of men and of devils hostile powers may protection. For if even the majority of the na- exist, inclined to and capable of doing harm? tions flow to them, shall then at once all enmity (Rev. xx. 7 sqq.)

2. The bad fruits of the present in the light of the glorious divine fruit of the last

time. CHAP. V. 1-30.

a.

THE BAD FRUITS OF THE PRESENT SHOWN IN THE PARABLE

OF THE VINEYARD.

CHAPTER V. 1-7.

1 Now will I sing to my well-beloved

A song of my beloved touching his vineyard.
My well beloved hath a vineyard
Iniba
very

fruitful hill :
2 And he fenced it, and gathered out the stones thereof,

And planted it with the choicest vine,
And built a tower in the midst of it,
And also 'made a winepress therein:
And he looked that it should bring forth grapes,

And it brought forth wild grapes.
3 And now, 0, inhabitants of Jerusalem, and men of Judah,

Judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard. 4 What could have been done more to my vineyard,

That I have not done in it?
Wherefore, when I looked that it should bring forth grapes,

Brought it forth wild grapes ?
5 And now go to; I will tell you

What I will do to my vineyard :
I will take away the hedge thereof, and it shall be eaten up;

And break down the wall thereof, and it shall be 'trodden down: 6 And I will lay it waste:

It shall not be pruned, nor digged ;
But there shall come up briers and thorns :
I will also command the clouds

That they rain no rain
7 For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel,

And the men of Judah "his pleasant plant:
And he looked for djudgment, but behold oppression;
For righteousness, but behold a cry.

upon it,

1 Heb. the horn of the son of oil.

Heb. howed. * Heb, a scab.

* Or, modo a wall about it.
. Heb. plant of his pleasure.

* Heb. for a treading.

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of my friend.

ba hill of fat soil.

hoed it. auf Gutthat und siehe da: Blutthat! Und auf Gerechtigkeit, und siehe da: Schlechtigkeit. [The commenta tor's license in translating with reference to the sound and sense combined may be imitated in English thus : He waited for equity, and lo, iniquity: For right and lo, riot.-TR.)

T:

may גָדֵר

abandons it to desolation.

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TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. Ver. 1. Attention has often been called to the artistic, | Dag. forte, is – pje (Lam. ii. 6) and 17710 (Mich. rythmical structure of vor. 1: to 77'UN corresponds vii. 4; Prov. xv. 19). The word occurs only here in nyo; to '??? corresponds '77. The first clause Isaiah. The meaning is: a hedge, a thorn hurdle, from of the verse concludes with 12.73%; the second begins sepire (Hos. ii. (8) 6; Job i. 10). Tyas 77'0l et erit with 079, and the third word' is again 'T'?!?! 17?? ad depascendum, comp. iii. 14; iv. 4; vi. 13. The expresrhymes to ?? and the last three words of the verse

? occurs also with the meaning "ad combuend with 1: Moreover tha rythm continues into the 20– rendum ;" xliv. 16, comp. xl. 16; l. 11.–12.9 in the senso Fer.; for the three verbs that begin it, resemble one “to tear down" only here. Beside this in liv. 3, in the another in formation and ending.

sense "to break out, extend oneself abroad." The verb 70 joined with the noun 7occurs of joy- signify the low wall of a vineyard as well as the high ful song in Isaiah in two other places, xxvi. 1; xlii. 10. wall of a city: comp. Jer. xlix. 3; Num. xxii. 24. In 1770 always has the pronoun nxin after it (Exod. Isaiah the word does not again occur. Hedge and wall IV.1; Num. xxi. 17; Deut. xxxi. 19, 21, 22, 30; xxxii

. might be combined in such a way that the hedgo sur

roanded the foot of the wall so as also to protect it. 4; 2 Sam, xxii. 1; Ps. xviii. 1); only in Isaiah, who be

Yet perhaps the double enclosure is not to be pressed side here uses it xxiii. 15, is it determined by only a literally, but, may be construed rhetorically, since no Doun fcllowing in the genitive. 7'7" (the closely bound, actual vineyard is meant.—op conculcatio: vii. 25.; belored, friend) used by Isaiah only here. Comp. Deut. 10, 6; xxviii. 18.–Giving up His vineyard, the Lord Ixxiii. 12; Jer. xi. 15; coll. xii. 7; Ps. Ix. 7; cxxvii. 2. 717, kindred to 7'?, is originally an abstract noun -

Ver. 6. 779 rinj appears to correspond to the examor, caritas (comp. Song of S. v. 9) especially in the pression 7757 noy often used, by Jer. especially, but plural (love deeds, fondling, Song of S. i. 2; iv. 4, etc.; Ezek. xvi. 8; Prov. vii. 18, etc.). Then 717 stands for the which does not occur in Isaiah. is är, dey. Accordperson beloved (compare the words Liebschaft, Bekannt- ing to its meaning and derivation it is one with me schaft, acquaintance, nytia Ruth, iii. 2) and signifios

vii. 19. The verb nne does not occur in Hebrew. Yet both the beloved generally (Song of 8. ii. 3, etc.), and a beloved and near relation (Lev. x. 4; 1 Sam. x. 16, etc.). lects. From that develops n3

the meaning "abscindere" is established from the dia

the close-cut-off, exThat it here means the beloved generally appears from its connection with 7'7. This word, too, does not again

actly measured out, as the name of a fluid measure, occur in Isaiah. ” indicates the object after verbis de (comp. ver. 10), and niņa rastatio and mp3 absciesum,

proruptum. The vineyard abandoned to desolation cendi: Gen. xx. 13; Lev. xiv. 54 ; Ps. iii. 3; xxii. 31; Isa xxvii. 2, etc.?? is used only here in the old will, of course, no more be pruned (7:37 in this sense

only here in Isa., otherwise xii. 5) and no more digged Testament of a horn shaped hill. In Ovid mountain (97in the sense of “to dig” only again vii. 25). Conspurs are called cornua terræ. In Greek too kepas is so sequently it springs up with thorns and thistles (the used. Compare the German Schreckhorn, Wetterhorn construction of 191 with the accusative like xxxiv.

The comp. DPX X xxviii. 1, and the kindred expres

13; Prov. xxiv. 31. The two words 7U and niv, exsions used of the fruitfulness of the soil. 1? (xxx.

cepting xxxii. 13, are always joined together by Isa.: vii.

23, 24, 25; ix. 17; x. 17; xxvii. 4. Both words, as one may see 23; Ezek. xxxiv. 14), d'appp (Gen. xxvii. 28, 39) D'Onox

from the passages cited, signify combustible vegetation (Isa. lix. 10).

of the desert, although nothing as yet has been estabVer. 2. p.:J' is än. dey, but its meaning is definitely lished concerning the etymology and nicaning of either. derived from the dialects. -Sp! in this sense only 0.73, and the Denkschrift der Erfurter Akademie von :

. by bere and lxii. 10.99 with double accusative comp.

Ver. 7. Jer, ii. 21; where, beside, the word is borrowed from

? occurs again in Isa. xvii. 10, 11. Isaiah our passage.png only here and Jer. ii. 21; Gen.

.-- . kliz. 11, impo; Isa. xvi. 8, 6*p.!n: etymology doubt

The verb nav occurs in Hebrew only in the Piel form

nav iii. 17. It is identical with nod (Hab. ii 15) acfal, some taking the underlying idea, to be without Beeds, others the shooting up, others purple color (Zech.cording to a frequent exchange of sound. Not only the L8]: comp. LEYRER in Herzog's R. Encycl. XVII. p. 612. Arabic saphacha proves that nep means effundere, but Ver. 3. On “Jerusalem and Judah"

also passages like Job xxx. 7; then the substantivo

comp. at ii. 1. The expression phoir' av occurs beside in Isa, viil Op that means effusio, inundatio (Job xiv. 19) and ef

fusum, i. e., especially the grain that falls out (Lev. XXV. 14; 1xii. 21; chap. X. 24 718 30 occurs. Except these 6, 11). Of course then noun means first of all effusio. only Tech. xii, 7, 8, 10, uses ^ V'. The more usual ex

But for the sake of a play on words, an author may in. pression is "* "*°; 2 Kings xxiii. 2, especially in Jer. dulge in such an incomplete expression. The reader at (till. 1; xi. 2; xiii. 13, etc.), and in 2 Chron. (IX. 15; xxi. conception " sanguinis" of himself. 11, 13; xxxii. 26, 33, etc.).

cru, is not repented in Isaiah, he also chooses it for the Ver. 4. On ninys GESENIUS & 132, Rem. 1.-2970 sake of the play on words. For my own part I have al

lowed myself to waive a literal translation in favor of a Unip. Comp. I. 2

likeness of sound and to use a word that at least correVer. 8. ITD, which some of the MSS. write with sponds to the proper intention of the Prophet.

uses

נְטַע .occurs only here משְׂפָח.only here שַׁעֲשוּעים

צְעָקָח The word

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

1. When we read the introduction of this piece | trast, therefore, between the sixfold woe of ver. 8 it sounds like a lovely musical prelude. All sounds like singing. It is as if the Prophet tried sqq., and this joy bespeaking beginning! ??? every harmonious sound of speech in der to seems, at first sight, to be an ordinary dative, and to turn the hearts of his hearers to joy. But it hap- say that the prophet would sing to his friend a song, pens to us as he says, ver. 7, it happened to God thus likely a song of right hearty and enlivening in reference to Israel. Instead of a joyful report contents. But i3735, suggests thai that may be we receive a mournful one; instead of happiness, a gloomy prospect of evil is presented.

an incorrect meaning: for this must mean "in re

The piece therefore bears the character of bitter gard to his vineyard.” Thus ļ must here be ? irony. This is especially in the beginning carried of the object. Then it seems likely that in the out even to minuteness. The Prophet makes as preceding case it has the same force. This conif he would sing a joyous song, a song of the jecture becomes a certainty when we read further vineyard, thus perhaps of wine, a drinking song ! It shall be of the vineyard of a boon companion: “ my friend ("775) had a vineyard.” From this And then the Prophet describes the situation. It it becomes plain: 1) that the friend in each case is a good site. For there is no better than on is the same, for the owner of the vineyard is sunny knoll with a good, fat soil (ver. 1 a). But called both 717 and 7'?); 2) that we must transthe owner aided nature as much as possible by late 'Toto's in ver. 1" of my friend,” for the song art (ver. 2 a.). He had a right therefore to ex- shall treat of the vineyard of his friend ; 3) what pect a good yield. His hopes were disappointed. the Prophet would sing is not a song of hisown comInstead of good grapes the vines bore wild grapes posing, but one that his friend has made of his (ver. 2). Thus far the Prophet speaks. From vineyard, so that “I will sing” is qualified by this point he lets the owner of the vine speak. the following," a song of my friend,” &c.; 4) One looked to hear of a real vineyard. But what from the words “my friend had a vineyard,” &c., sort of a vineyard is that whose owner accuses it we know that the song of the friend does not yet and charges it with guilt! Now, therefore, when begin. For to the end of ver. 2 we have still the the inhabitants of Jerusalem and Judah are words of the Prophet, by which, as it were, he summoned to judge between the vineyard and its preludes the song of the friend, in order to aclord (ver. 3), in as much as he has faithfully quaint the hearer with the facts that the song predone his best, yet instead of grapes has gathered supposes. Thus the Prophet gives us one disaponly wild grapes (ver. 4), it is noticed at once pointment after the other. Though they are only that behind this is concealed something else than of a formal kind, still they prepare ús for the the story of a real, natural vineyard. And step more earnest and material disappointments that by step this becomes plainer. For the lord of the follow. vineyard declares that he will tear away hedge We have already remarked that with "my and wall, and give the vineyard up to be browsed friend had,” &c., the song of the friend by no upon and trampled down (ver. 5), yea, that he means begins, as one would expect, and that what will make a ruin of it, he will no more hoe and the Prophet himself says is by no means a song, prune it, but let it grow rank with thorns and but a very earnest presentation of gloomy facts. thistles, and will forbid the heavens to rain on it This is a further disappointment. That i?, as (v. 6). This last word lifts the mask entirely. It is now seen who is the owner and who the vine- commentators remark, signifies the natural fruityard. And this is now (v.7) openly declared: Je-fulness in opposition to what is artificial appears hovah is the lord; Israel, summoned to judge to me to lie less in the expression itself than in between the lord and his vineyard, is itself the its relation to ver. 2. The usus loquendi in itself vineyard. The Lord had expected of Israel the is well known: UMBREIT's translation " on the fruits of righteousness, but only gathered the fruits prominence of a fat spot" is incorrect.

For of unrighteousness. What a contrast between this jä-ja in itself is not a “fat spot” but a feal fruit of the land and that which, according to iv. son, a man, whom the notion "oil" characterizes 2, the land shall one time bear!

(comp. 777}" ?? Zech. iv. 14). It can only be 2. I will sing-wild grapes. Vers. 1 and 2. Everything in this passage tends to express idea of place. Such is ip with which 150-;

come predicate of a place by connection with an the idea of disappointment, the contrast between incipient hope and the final, mournful event. stands in apposition. If they were taken as Honce the joyous, one may say the lark-like trill- standing in a genitive relation the meaning would ing commencement. Every harvest is preceded be: horn of a man of oil, of one oiled, of an by a season of hope. Israel too awakened such. anointed man. However, to this naturally fruitHow joyous this was, v. 1 portrays. One must ful spot, the owner had done everything that the not, therefore, be misled by the peculiar joyous art of wine culture could suggest. He had hoed tone of v. 1, to think that here begins an essenti- it, gathered out the stones, and planted it with a ally new and independent piece. For this sound- choice vine. But not only did the owner undercoloring of ver. 1, is intentional, is art.

take such labor as was important for the flourishThe address begins with 77Up, I will ring. ing of the vines themselves, but also such as wers One, therefore, expects a 70, a jovial song : but

for the protection of the fruit and putting it to

Such are the watch tower (vid. Matth. xxi. a 77P. (Am. viii. 10), alament follows. What a con- | 33) and the wine press (=P.. the lower wine-press

use.

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