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of “walking along” is no obstacle to its meaning step-chainlets. For the abstract word could easily be taken in a concrete sense; the walking in the sense of the instrument of walking—pop (from YE to bind) are, according to Jer. ii. 32, comp. Isa. xlix. 18, mentioned as pieces of a bride's outfit. But whether the girdle is meant or bandages (perhaps the breastband, armúðdequo: LXX. in Jer. ii. 32) is uncertain—on F2 are smelling bottles. For no often stands for receptacle, place of storage generally (comp. Exod. xxvi. 29; Job viii. 17; Ezek. xli. 9, and for the very common use of this word in Aram, and Rabb. language, see Buxtorf, Lex. p. 301 sqq.). 1933, however is breath, scent (comp. Niphal von respirare, to breathe out, Exod. xxiii. 12; xxxi. 17. nyy to fragrant wood, Prov. xxvii. 9; and the original passage Gen. i. 20, 30; Job xli. 13). The expression occurs only here—Don’, (comp. ver. 3; xxvi. 16) are instruments of magic, amulets.ngâû from yao, imprimere, is the ring, generally, and especially the signet ring. Comp. Gen. xli. 42; Exod. xxv. 12, 14, and many places beside in Exodus-on "pil are the nose rings which are in use in the East to the present day.

Comp. Prov. xi. 22; Ezek. xvi. 12; WINER R. W. B. the word, nose-ring. So far the prophet has named articles of embellishment made of metal. In what follows he chiefly enumerates articles of clothing proper.—

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mental meaning (on, extrahere, eruere) they are

clothes that one takes off at home, comp. nion. The expression appears to be one of general meaning, and occurs only here, and in the passage cited from zech-nepy? (properly covers, from py operire) are mentioned only here. The word in Arabic signifies the second tunic, broader, longer and provided with sleeves, that corresponds to the Roman stola, the garment peculiar to women.— Trepp from nob expandere (xlviii. 13) is the great wide over all, shawl (Ruth, iii. 15, the only place beside that the word occurs). bonn is found beside only 2 Kings v. 23, from which place it is seen that it means a bag or pocket that may

serve to carry money.—bo, according to LXX. would be dia?avī Aakovská, i.e., Lacedaemonian gauze dresses that expose the body more than cover it. But so, viii. 1, is the smooth, polished tablet. Such served for mirrors, as the ancients knew nothing of glass mirrors. Travellers assure us that such mirrors in the form of small plates set in a ring are worn to this day. Comp. HERzog, R. Encycl. XIV., p. 666–prop are cover, i.e., garments of fine India linen. It is debated whether undergarments, such as shirts, are meant, or some sort of light thing to throw over one. The word is found again Judg. xiv.

12 sq.; Prov. xxxi. 24.—no (from 'lly, tegere, velare) are the head-band, turban. The word bands, turbans, occurs lxii. 3; Job xxix. 14; Zech. iii.5.— TT) (from TT, spread, spread under, spread out, xlv. 1; Ps. cxliv. 2; 1 Kings vi. 32) is the wide veil that covered over the rest of the clothes (Arab. rida ridat) Song of Sol. v. 7.-But not only shall all nyson adornment, ver, 18, be taken away, they shall also be replaced by worse things. Instead of Do, balsam, (product of the balsam bush, vid. Exod. xxx. 23; Ezek. xxvii. 22; 1 Kings x. 10) Pp shall be given. This latter word is only found again v. 24, where, however, it is written 2, which has no effect on the meaning. The root PPo, dilucre is used of the flowing of matter from a wound; e.g. Ps. xxxviii. 6. Pp seems therefore rather to mean matter than the dry decay. In place of nyon (apron, Gen. iii. 7 ; girdle, Isa. xxxii. 11; 1 K. ii. 5) shall be a rope, nPP). The word is it. Aey. There is conflict regarding the meaning. Some derive it from TP) percutere, to strike (x. 34; xvii. 6) and take it in the sense of vulnus (so the CHALD. and the most of the Jewish expositors). But this meaning does not well suit the context. It is better to derive it from TPl =circuire, gyrare, circle, gyrate (see xxix. 1; Hiphil TPm). TPI would be, then, feminine of AP) or "P) =turning around, i.e., that resulting from twisting. DELITZSCII derives it from næP, contorquere, but this does not occur in biblical idiom, which uses only so to contract, congeal. Instead of the artistically curled hair, shall baldness be given. Topp (är. Zey,) in apposition with noop is synonymous with mopp Exod. xxv. 18, 31, 36; Jer. x. 5, opus tornatile, twisted, turned work. Baldness, compare 2 K. ii. 23; for women it is doubly disgraceful. And instead of a splendid mantle, shall be given a girding of sackcloth. orna, dr. As), isofuncertain derivation and meaning. Expositors waver between the derivation from in; amplum esse, with affix

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of the preposition “instead of.” Such a passage is Exod. xxi. 23–25. Among these specifications occurs, “burning for burning.” To nnn no. The Prophet, however, was not speaking of jus talionis, therefore the idem per idem or idem pro eodem, “like for like,” did not suit his purpose. He speaks of the recompense that threatened the daughters of Zion. Among the things to be taken from them he had not mentioned beauty, the direct gift of nature, which to women is of the greatest price. He had to this point spoken only of productions of art. Now as beauty is 'B' (in Isa. again only xxxiii. 17), he might easily happen to think of n. 2 as a suitable rhyme for

it. However, no itself does not rhyme, but a

word of kindred root, properly its simple masculine form, "3, which appears only to have been used in the contracted form "3 (comp. "N. 'I', 'y, "T). Thus too the inversion explains itself. For as we find the words, they most resemble the passages in Exod.; much more than if they read “instead of beauty burning.” - or 2 is it. Zey. Its root is no “to burn,” and means, like mo, and like the Arabic kej, the branded mark, arsyua. If even it cannot be proved that it was customary to mark captives by branding them, that does not affect the matter. It was also not customary to offer them pus instead of balsam. Such traits of poetic speech must not be pressed. Enough if the thought in itself affords a suitable meaning. I think, therefore, the established meaning “brand mark,” which indicates a strong contrast with “beauty,” is not to be departed from, and we need not with KNoDEL understand “scratchings.”

4. The women—our reproach —Ver. 25 —iv. 1. But the misery of the daughters of Zion is not yet exhausted. Worse things yet must happen to them. They shall be robbed, too, of the men. From the singular suffix, it is seen that the Prophet ver. 25 now addresses Zion itself, thus not “the daughters of Zion,” ver. 16, but “daughter of Zion.” The loss of splendid garments is not to be understood as if only articles of luxury would be taken from the women of Zion. It is seen from ver. 25 that the blow is to be universal, falling upon all. Therefore all shall suffer under it: but the rich and noble most of all. The loss of the men, however, shall concern all in equal measure. For this reason the Prophet no longer addresses the daughters, but the daughter of Zion. Don? does not appear to involve the no

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For Jer. xlix. 35 there is no reason for taking it in any other than the usual abstract sense, strength.

And her gates, etc. Ver. 26. nys, to sigh,

groan, occurs only here and xix. 8, where, too, it

stands with 558. The latter word is in general more frequent, and common, too, in Isaiah: xxiv. 4, 7; xxxiii. 9; lxvi. 10. Most expositors translate; “and her gates groan and lament.” With that no gate, is personified and used by me. tonymy for the assemblies in the gate, which is grammatically allowable. But I would make three objections: 1) It is surprising that we do

not read, then, Yyt, gate. For nDB is only the

door opening (hence so often hyton Tini), door of the gate, Josh. xx. 4; Judges ix. 35, 44; 2 Sam. x. 8; Jer. i. 15; xix. 2; Prov. i. 21, etc.), while Typ stands for gate in its emphatic, and also its comprehensive meaning. 2) Does it not seem strange in this exposition, that the discourse suddenly turns from the women to speak of the totality of the people? For the gates do not represent the women alone, but the entire people; whence DRECHSLER justly calls attention to the fact that this exposition occasions “something fluctuating in the connection of ideas.” 3) nni),

times without number, stands as acc. localis to the question where? or whither? without a preposition, vid. Lericon and Concordances. It comes very natural therefore to translate; “and they (the women) groan and sigh at her gates.” There they await, and there they receive the mournful intelligence. The suffix in Trini) relates naturally to Zion addressed in the verse before. The following words are obscure. no can

be nothing else than Niph. perf 3 pers. sem. from mp3 purum esse. Niphal often occurs in the

sense of culpa vacuum, immunem esse, which gives no sense here. Purificari here can only mean “swept out, cleared up, emptied, desolated.” In this sense the word does not again occur; only Zech. v. 3, may in some degree compared. HoFMANN (Schriftbeweis II. 2, p. 503) translates:" “on the bareness, off on the bare ground sits she.”

But Tinp) is neither participial nor nominal form.

If now we translate: “and she was emptied, desolated, on the ground she sits,”—we must first remark concerning the construction, that DRECHsLER is right in connecting the two verbs so that the first contains an adverbial qualification of the second. Sitting on the ground is the posture of those mourning: xlvii. 1; Job ii. 13; Lam. ii. 10. The subject of nñp. as well as of Dion is Zion, to

which also the suffixes in vers. 25, 26, refer. Therefore if the widows of Zion weep at the gates, Zion itself appears desolate and lies on the ground. Yet {".f. that this exposition is not entirely satisfactorv, although it fits, the existing text. Perhaps the text is corrupt in mnp).

At all events, according to ver, 25, a great scarcity of men exists. . For the Hebrew woman that was the greatest misfortune. For in its most ancient parts the Old Testament knows no other genuine life than that on this earth, and thus no other continuation of living after death than by means of children. To be childless was, then,

the same as being deprived of continuance after

death. It corresponded to the being damned of the New Testament.” Physical reasons, therefore, were not all that made marriage appear as a pressing necessity. It is now, said here that seven women (notice the sacred number) shall lay hold of one man and, renouncing all claim of support and clothing, beg only the right to be called his wives.—Only let thy name, etc.— As the temple was called the house that bears the name of Jehovah, without however the temple being called Jehovah Himself, so, among the Hebrews, the wives were not called by the same name as their husbands, which would be to transfer modern customs to the ancients; but the name of the husband was named on her, when she was called this or that man's wife. Comp. “Sarai, Abram's wife,” Gen. xii. 17, “Rachel, Jacob's wife,” Gen. xlvi. 19. GESENIUs quotes the beau

tiful parallel from Lucan, Pharsal. II.342, which was first adduced by GROTIUS.

da tantum momen inane

Connubii, Liceat tumulo scripsisse: Catonis

Marcia + or + x ,< * *

—Give only the empty name of marriage. Let my monument be inscribed: Cato's Marcia.

ps with the meaning “auferre, demere,” bear away, like xvi. 10; lvii.1. As a parallel expres: sion comp., too Zech. viii. 23. The division of chapters is evidently incorrect here. . That the words “seven women,” etc., were carried over to chap. iv., as VITRINGA remarks, happened because it was supposed that the seven women represented the seven graces of the Holy Spirit (xi. 1, 2), thus JERoME and CYRIL–or the believing women under the one man or Christ, the Branch, ver. 2.

• [this extreme statement of the Author cannot pass without challenge. He repeats it substantially p. 259, t; p. 606, p. 610, 23. As he does not support, it by any more texts than Gen. xxx. 23; 1 Sam. i. 5 sqq.; ii. i. uke 1. 25, the reader may judge for himself how littlé foundation there is for the statement. See in the Vol. on

Exodus, p. 17, the Translator H O.'s note on the kindred notion that among the Israelites,“ the reward of the good and the punishment of the wicked was not expected after death, but here on earth."—Th.]

C.—The second prophetic lamp, which, in the light of the glorious divine fruit of the last time, makes known the bad fruits of the present.

CHAPTER IV. 2—W. 30.

1. THE SECOND PROPHETIC LAMP ITSELF AND THE GLORIOUS DIVINE FRUIT OF THE FUTURE DISPLAYED BY IT.

CHAPTER IV. 2–6.

2 In that day shall "the branch of the LoRD be beautiful and glorious, And the fruit of the earth shall be "excellent and comely

*For them that are escaped of Israel,

3 And it shall come to pass, that he that is left in Zion,

And he that remaineth in Jerusalem, Shall be called holy,

Even every one that is written "among the living in Jerusalem; 4. When the LoRD shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion,

And shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof . By the ‘spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of “burning. 5 And the LoRD will create upon every dwelling place of Mount Zion,

And upon her assemblies, “A cloud and smoke by day,

And the shining of a flaming fire by night:

For “upon all the glory shall be "a defence. 6 And there shall be a 'tabernacle for a shadow in the day time from the heat,

And for a place of refuge, and for a covert from storm and from rain.

qui.;

1 Heb. beauty and glory

*Heb. For the escaping of Israel.

* Or, to life.

* Or, above. * Heb. a covering.

* that which sprouts of Jehovah. * for splendor and glory.

* wind. d sifting. A cloud by day, and smoke together. with the shining, etc. f a booth.

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1. Just at that time, i. e., at the time to which the parallel passage ii. 2–4 refers, the rescued ones of Israel shall partake of a glory that shall appear as fruit of the life that Jehovah Himself shall produce (ver. 2). In consequence of that all that still remain in Jerusalem shall be called holy, all whose names shall be written in the book of life (ver. 3). But the ones left remaining are those that shall be present when all moral filth and all blood-guiltiness shall have been cleansed away by the tempest of the divine judgment (ver. 4). Then shall Jehovah hover over

each house and over the assembled total of the

dwellers of Jerusalem, as formerly over the tabernacle, with a cloud by day, with smoke and appearance of fire by night (ver. 5), for the presence of the glory of Jehovah shall be protection and shelter against every attack (ver. 6). 2. I regard this section as parallel member to ii. 2-4. Like that, it transports us into the last time: like that, it sets before our eyes the glory that Israel shall then enjoy. Only there is this difference, that, whereas ii. 2-4 describes the outward eminence and exaltation of Zion, as the central point of dominion over all nations, iv. 2-6 rather describes the inward glory of Zion as one that is now purified and sanctified. For the tempest of judgment has cleansed away all

morally impure and ungodly elements. Whatever personal life remains in Zion is a divine scion,

and therefore whatever the land produces must

be glorious divine fruit. And as in the wilder

ness the cloud by day and the appearance of fire

by night was over the Tabernacle, so shall every single house in Israel and the whole, congregation in its entirety be marked as the holy abode of Jehovah by the glorious signs of His presence warding off every hostile storm. This is the second prophetic lamp with which the prophet, so to speak, stretches his arm far out and illuminates the distant future. But as in ii. 5–iv. resent that lies between (we com

prehend all do precedes that last time as §". sent) in the light of that prophetic word ii. *

and by this means makes manifest the immense difference between the present and the future, so he does likewise here. o am of the opinion there

fore that v, has the same subordinate relation to

iv. 2-4 that ii. 5—iv. 1 has to ii. 2-4. That v. is not

independent, but integral part of the prophecy

that ". with ii. 1, has already been asserted

by For ensus, Vogel, DoEDERLEN, JAHN, Hit:

zig, EwALD (comp. CASPARI, Beitr, p. 234). I

maintain the same, only I have other grounds

for it than they. If one were to assume. with

CAsPARI (int. al. p. 300) that the passage ii. 2-4,

1 he sets the

“is not in the proper sense prophecy; they are repeated, quoted, recited by Isaiah, as a prophecy given to Israel by another prophet, for the purpose of joining on to it the warning and reproof of ii. 5-8,”—then indeed must iv. 2-6 be regarded as the promise appertaining to ii. 5–iv. 1. But that assumption of CASPARI is as unnatural as can be. The glorious words of MICAH must be no prophecy! i. they are so per se. This cannot be controverted. They must serve only as “points of departure and connection!” That would need to be indicated. Then Isaiah must have presented them in a form that would reveal at once that he employs the words only as introduction to his address proper. They must be separated from the discourse of Isaiah, and be expressly designated as a citation by some sort of historical reference. But such is not the case. Isaiah makes the words entirely his own. He does not say that they are borrowed from another: those informed know it and draw their own conclusion; but that is another thing. The main thing is that the LORD has so said, and therefore Isaiah too may use the words and found his discourse on it. It is clear as day and undisputed that Isaiah from ii. 2 to iv. 1 shows the false estimate of human glory in the light of the divine. But just as clear, it seems to me, is it that Isaiah, in iv. and v., also contemplates, as it were, the condition of the fruits in the field of the hearts of Israel in the F. in the light of the fruitage that, in the st time, shall be produced on the soil of the judged and purified Israel. For iv. 2, “the ranch,” and “Fruit of the earth” are evidentl the main ideas. These both shall become glorious. This, however, is explained ver. 3: all that then remain in Zion shall be called holy, because the tempest of judgment has removed from Zion all pollution and all guilt. Then shall both, each individual and the totality, be fully as secure a dwelling-place of Jehovah as once the Tabernacle was. Therefore the prophet speaks iv. 2–6 also of a glory indeed, but of a different one from ii. 2–4. In the latter place he has in view more that glory which in that time Israel shall develop externally: it shall as the solitary eminence of the earth shine far around, and all nations shall flow to this eminence. But iv. 2 sq. speaks of that glory that is identical with holiness, the notion “holy” taken in the sense of sanctus and sacer: this glory, however, is first of all inward. But as that outward glory takes the inward for granted, which is indicated i. 3 by the terms “out of Zion shall go forth the law,” etc., so, too, the inward glory cannot last without the outward, which is expressed iv. 2 by the terms “beautiful and glorious, excellent and comely,” and plainly enough in vers. 5, 6. When now we read in chap. v. of a vine. yard that produces wild grapes instead of grapes, and when v. 7, this is expressly interpreted to mean that Jehovah has found in the field of the hearts of Israel bloodshed and the cry of woe instead of judgment and righteousness, and when, after that, this evil fruit is more particularly characterized in the following sixfold woe, can we then in the least doubt that the section that treats of the bad fruits of the present stands in the same relation to the section immediately preced

ing which describes the glorious fruits of the last time, that the section ii. 5–iv. 1 concerning false great things does to the section that immediately precedes it, and that describes the true divine greatness. I do not suppose that this would ever have been doubted, did not chap. v. appear so inde: pendent, so peculiar, so distinct in itself and well rounded, and were not suddenly ver. 1, a totally different tone assumed; I mean the parable tone. But we must not overlook the relationship of the contents because of the difference in the form. This relationship will appear plainer as we contemplate the particulars: but we must at this point draw attention to one thing. As ii. 5–iv. 1 the outward decay appears as symptom and consequence of the inward, so in chap. v. the inward decay appears as the root from which the outward develops by an inevitable necessity. According to this the two dominant passages ii. 2–4 and rv. 2–6 stand in an analogous inverted relation, like the sections governed by them ii. 5—iv. 1, and chap. v. Finally let it be noticed here, what we shall prove in particular further on, that in iv. 2–6, as a matter of course, there occur back looks or reserences to what has preceded. (Comp. e. g. ver. 4.) This cannot be otherwise, in as much as iv. 2-v. 30 is the second organic half of the great second portal of Isaiah's prophecies. But noticing this does not in the least hinder the assertion that section iv. 2–6 in the main looks forward and not backward. 3. In that day,+spirit of burning.—Vers. 2–4. By the words “in that day” the prophet refers back to “in the last days” ii. 2. For aco; to all that we have just laid down, iv. 26 stands parailel with ii. 2–4, both as to time and subject matter. This last time may have begun since the birth of Christ, but it is not finished; it is fulfilled by degrees through many a rising and subsiding. In this last time, therefore, shall “the branch’” and “the fruit of the earth” be for beauty and honor, splendor and glory to the saved ones of Israel. What is " no “branch 7” The word means germinatio, the sprouting, and means first of all, not a single sprout, but sprouting in general, and the total of all that sprouts. Thus it means Gen. xix. 25: “And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground” (no Toys)). So again we read, Ezek. xvi. 7: “I have caused thee to multiply as the bud of the field' (non 7233) i. e. I have made thee like the vegetation of the field. Again Hos. viii. 7: “It hath no stalk, the bud (T23) shall yield no meal.” The word has the same meaning also Isa. lxi. 11; Ps. lxv. 11. In Ezek. xvii. 9, 10, the abstract meaning germinatio predominates. If now we compare Jer. xxiii. 5 and xxxiii. 15, we find that there “righteous Branch” (n23 PTX) means a single personality. “I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and he shall reign as King, and shall prosper, and execute judgment and justice in the land; in his days,” etc. Notice the singular after Branch. So too, Jer. xxxiii. 15. In Zechariah, however, we find

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