Obrazy na stronie


of " walking along” is no obstacle to its meaning | 12 sq.; Prov. xxxi. 24.-Nid'}} (from 723, tegere, step-chainlets. For the abstract word could easily velare) are the heud-band, turban. The word bands, be taken in a concrete sense; the walking in the turbans, occurs lxii. 3; Job xxix. 14; Zech. iii.5.sense of the instrument of walking.DP (from T'?? (from 777 spread, spread under

, spread out, 102 to bind) are, according to Jer. ii. 32, comp. xlv.1; Ps. exliv. 2; 1 Kings vi. 32) is the wide veil Isa. xlix. 18, mentioned as pieces of a bride's that covered over the rest of the clothes (Arab. rida outfit. But whether the girdle is meant or band- ridat) Song of Sol. v. 7.—But not only shall all ages (perhaps the breast band, ornódeouos LXX. DOXOM adornment, ver. 18, be taken away, they in Jer. ii. 32) is uncertain.—UDIO na are smell- shall also be replaced by worse things. Instead ing bottles. For no often stands for recep- of DWI, balsam, (product of the balsam bush, vid. tacle, place of storage generally (comp. Exod. Exod. xxx. 23; Ezek. xxvii. 22 ; 1 Kings x. 10) xxvi. 29; Job viii. 17; Ezek. xli. 9, and for the very pp shall be given. This latter word is only common use of this word in Aram, and Rabb, lan- found again v. 24, where, however, it is written guage, see BUXTORF, Lex. p. 301 sqq.). W9., how

P?, which has no effect on the meaning. The ever is breath, scent (comp. Niphal Wh!?? respirare, root ppo, difluere is used of the flowing of matto breathe out, Exod. xxiii. 12; xxxi. 17. hoy, ter from a wound; e.g. Ps. xxxviii. 6. p? seems UÐ3 fragrant wood, Prov. xxvii. 9; and the ori- therefore rather to mean matter than the dry deginal passage Gen. i. 20, 30; Job xli. 13). The cay. In place of min (apron, Gen. iii. 7; girexpression occurs only here—D'vn (comp. ver. dle, Isa. xxxii. 11; 1 K. ii. 5) shall be a rope, 3; xxvi. 16) are instruments of magic, amulets.--7? The word is år. dey. There is conflict renyzo from yan, imprimere, is the ring, gener

garding the meaning. Some derive it from 121 ally, and especially the signet ring. Comp. Gen. percutere, to strike (x. 34; xvii. 6) and take it in xli . 42; Exod. xxv. 12, 14, and many places be the sense of vulnus (so the CHALD. and the most of

the Jewish expositors). But this meaning does side in Exodus.-7897 ??? are the nose rings not well suit the context. It is better to derive which are in use in the East to the present day, it from 721=circuire, gyrare, circle, gyrate (see Comp. Prov. xi. 22; Ezek. xvi. 12; WINER R. xxix. 1; Hiphil 7?.??). ??? would be, then, W. B. the word, nose-ring. So far the prophet has named articles of em

feminine of 1??? or ??=turning around, i. e., bellishment made of metal. In what follows he that resulting from twisting. DELITZSCH derives chiefly enumerates articles of clothing proper.- it from 1977, contorquere, but this does not occur The nishing, according to Zech. iii. 4, are such in biblical idiom, which uses only 97; to contract, as are the opposite of filthy garments, therefore congeal. stately, splendid clothes. According to the funda

Instead of the artistically curled hair, shall

baldness be given. hep? (år, dey.,) in apposition mental meaning (jar, extrahere, exuere) they are with nupp is synonymous with me? Exod. clothes that one takes off at home, comp. nibyn. xxv. 18, 31, 36; Jer

. x. 5, opus tornatile

, twisted, The expression appears to be one of general mean- turned work. Baldness, compare 2 K. ii. 23; for ing, and occurs only here, and in the passage cited women it is doubly disgraceful. And instead of from Zech.-nippyp (properly covers, from 99

a splendid mantle, shall be given a girding of operire) are mentioned only here. The word in sackcloth. Soy'ng, år. ney., is of uncertain derivaArabic signifies the second tunic, broader, longer tion and meaning. Expositors waver between and provided with sleeves, that corresponds to the the derivation from ing amplum esse, with affix Roman stola, the garment peculiar to women.

- () nneur from nou espandere (xlviii. 13) is the great wide over all , shawl (Ruth iii. 15, the only tance

, sa festival joy, and between the meanings place beside that the word occurs). Want is found fascia pectoralis (Vulg.) and broad mantle; yet beside only 2 Kings v. 23, from which place it the grammatical and hermeneutical grounds for 13 seen that it means a bag or pocket that may Girding with sackeloth, as is known, is often

the latter overbalance. Dins, too, is år. dey. serve to carry money.—0">??, according to LXX. mentioned as sign of the deepest mourning and would be durdavi Aakwviká, i. e., Lacedæmonian humiliation: Gen. xxxvii. 34, Isa. xv. 3 ; xxii. gauze dresses that expose the body more than 12; Jer. vi. 26, &c. cover it. But , viii. 1, is the smooth, po- changes is made by the phrase: “Branding for

The conclusion of this list of mournful exlished tablet. Such served for mirrors, as the an- beauty." The words are strange. They appear cients knew nothing of glass mirrors. Travellers assure us that such mirrors in the form of small wanting which connects all the preceding mem

disjointed and unsymmetrical. For ?, and, is plates set in a ring are worn to this day. Comp. bers, and thus this small member of the sentence HERZOG, R. Encycl. XIV., p. 666.—D'?'? are stands independent, and by its inversion (the cerdoves, i. e., garments of fine India linen. It is thing given stands first) in contrast with all that debated whether undergarments, such as shirts, goes before. It appears to me as if the prophet are meant, or some sort of light thing to throw recalled a passage of the law wherein a number

The word is found again Judg. xiv. of exchanges or recompenses are defined by means

-dia פְתִי and that from (כְּרֶס from כַּרְמִיל like) -יל

Over one.


of the preposition instead of.” Such a passage For Jer. xlix. 3.5 there is no reason for taking it is Exod. xxi. 23–25. Among these specitications in any other than the usual abstract sense, occurs, “burning for burning." 7'12 nnn 179. strength. The Prophet, however, was not speaking of jus

And her gates, etc. Ver. 26. 12X, to sigh, talionis, therefore the idem per idem or idem pro groan, occurs only here and xix. 8, where, too, it eodem, " like for like," did not suit his purpose. stands with Sax. The latter word is in general He speaks of the recompense that threatened the

more fr nt, and common, too, in Isaiah: xxiv. daughters of Zion. Among the things to be taken 4,7; xxxiii. 9; Ixvi. 10. Most expositors transfrom them he had not mentioned beauty, the di- late; and her gates groan and lament.”. With rect gist of nature, which to wornen is of the that'nne gate, is personitied and used by me greatest price. He had to this point spoken only of productions of art. Now as beauty is 'o tonymy for the assemblies in the gate, which is

grammatically allowable. But I would make (in Isa. again only xxxiii. 17), he might easily three objections: 1) It is surprising that we do happen to think of 179 as a suitable rhyme for

not read, then, yo, gate. For nne is only the it. However, ???? itself does not rhyme, but a door opening (hence so often running, door word of kindred root, properly its simple masculine of the gate, Josh. xx. 4; Judges ix. 35, 44; 2 Sam. form, '!?, which appears only to have been used x. 8; Jer. i. 15; xix. 2; Prov. i. 21, etc.), while in the contracted form ? (comp. 'X, 'P, '>,?!?). Yo'stands for gate in its emphatic, and also its Thus too the inversion explains itself. For as comprehensive meaning. 2) Does it not seem we find the words, they most resemble the pass- strange in this exposition, that the discourse sudages in Exod.; much more than if they read“ in- denly turns from the women to speak of the tostead of beauty burning.” ? or "?? is år. ney. Its tality of the people? For the gates do not repreroot is 1771" to burn,” and means, like 7"!?, and sent the women alone, but the entire people; like the Arabic kej, the branded mark, oriypa. fact that this exposition occasions" something

whence DRECHSLER justly calls attention to the If even it cannot be proved that it was customary fluctuating in the connection of ideas.” 3) ning to mark captives by branding them, that does not affect the matter. It was also not customary to times without number, stands as acc. localis to the offer them pus instead of balsam. Such traits of question where? or whither? without a preposipoetic speech must not be pressed. Enough if tion, vid. Lexicon and Concordar.ces. It comes the thought in itself affords a suitable meaning. very natural therefore to translate ; " and they I think, therefore, the established meaning "brand (the women) groan and sigh at her gates.” There mark,” which indicates a strong contrast with they await, and there they receive the mournful "beauty," is not to be departed from, and we

intelligence. The suffix in 17'ning relates natneed not with KNOBEL understand "scratchings.” urally to Zion addressed in the verse before. 4. The women-our reproach – Ver. 25

The following words are obscure. P?? can --iv. 1. But the misery of the daughters of Zion be nothing else than Niph. perf. 3 pers. fem., is not yet exhausted. Worse things yet must from 17.7 purum esse. Niphal often occurs in the happen to them. They shall be robbed, too, of sense of culpa vacuum, immunem esse, which gives the men.

From the singular suflix, it is seen that no sense here. Purificari here can only mean the Prophet ver. 25 now addresses Zion itself, thus swept out, cleared up, emptied, desolatod.'' In not "the daughters of Zion,” ver. 16, but “daughter this sense the word does not again occur; only of Zion.” The loss of splendid garments is not Zech. v. 3, may in some degree be compared. to be understood as if only articles of luxury HOFMANN (Schriftbeweis II. 2, p. 503) translates : would be taken from the women of Zion. It is “ on the bareness, off on the bare ground sits she.” seen from ver. 25 that the blow is to be universal, But onpa is neither participial nor nominal form. falling upon all. Therefore all shall suffer under If now' we translate: “and she was emptied, it: but the rich and noble most of all. The loss desolated, on the ground she sits,”—we must first of the men, however, shall concern all in equal remark concerning the construction, that DRECHmeasure. For this reason the Prophet no longer SLER is right in connecting the two verbs so that addresses the daughters, but the daughter of the first contains an adverbial qualification of the Zion. D'np does not appear to involve the no- second. Sitting on the ground is the posture of tion of strength, manhood. For it is wont to those mourning: xlvii. 1; Job ii. 13; Lam. ii. 10. stand where inferiority, lowness are predicated The subject of inps as well as of Jün is Zion, to of the subject man. ??? 'n?, people of number, which also the suffixes in vers. 25. 26, refer. a fcu, Gin. xxxiv. 30, and often. Qy?' Deut. Therefore if the widows of Zion weep at the gates, xxvi. 5; xxviii. 62. Xining Ps. xxvi. 4; PIN oZion itself appears desolate and lies on the Job xxii. 15. Dia Isa. v. 13: and xil14 ground. Yet I confess that this exposition is

not entirely satisfactory, although it fits the ex? . .

worm Jacob. It stands then as the anti At all events, according to ver. 25, a great thesis of 1979 the troops, and designates not the scarcity of men exists. For the Hebrew woman manhood with emphasis, but only masculine in-ancient parts the Old Testament knows no other

that was the greatest misfortune. For in its most dividuals (people). 77031 (a word of frequent genuine life than that on this earth, and thus no occurrence in Isa. xi. 2; xxviii. 6; Ixiii. 15, &c.) other continuation of living after death than by only here stands in a concrete meaning=troops. means of children. To be childless was, then,

נקרה isting text . Perhaps the text is corrupt in | תּוֹלַעַת stands directly parallel with מְהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל


." T:

the same as being deprived of continuance after | tiful parallel from Lucan, Pharsal. IJ. 342, which death. It corresponded to the being damned of

was first adduced by GROTIUS. the New Testament.* Physical reasons, there

-da tantum nomen inane fore, were not all that made marriage appear as Connubii, Liceat tumulo scripsisse : Catonis a pressing necessity. It is now said here that

Marcia * * * * * * * seven women (notice the sacred number) shall - Give only the empty name of marriage. Let my lay hold of one man and, renouncing all claim monument be inscribed: Cato's Marcia. of support and clothing, beg only the right to be called his wives.-Only let thy name, etc.

70 with the meaning "auferre, demere," bear As the temple was called the house that bears the away, like xvi. 10; lvii. 1. As a parallel exprespame of Jehovah, without however the temple sion comp., too Zech. viii. 23. The division of being called Jehovah Himself, so, among the chapters is evidently incorrect here. That the Hebrews, the wives were not called by the same words “ seven women,” etc., were carried over to name as their husbands, which would be to trans- chap. iv., as VITRINGA remarks, happened befer modern customs to the ancients; but the name cause it was supposed that the seven women reof the husband was named on her, when she was presented the seven graces of the Holy Spirit called this or that man's wife. Comp. “Sarai, (xi. 1, 2), thus JEROME and Cyril-or the Abram's wife," Gen. xii. 17, “Rachel, Jacob's believing women under the one man or Christ, wife," Gen. xlvi. 19. GESENIUS quotes the beau- the Branch, ver. 2.

. (This extreme statement of the Author cannot pass without challenge. He repeats it substantially p. 259, 14, p. 606, p. 610, 23. As he does not support it by any more texts than Gen. xxx. 23; 1 Sam. 1. 5 sqq; ii. 1 sqq.; Luke i. 23, the reader may judge for himself how little foundation there is for the statement. See in the Vol. on Exodus, p. 17, the Translator 0.'s note on the kindred notion that among the Israelites "the reward of the good and the punishment of the wicked was not expected after death, but here on earth.”—TR.)

C.-The second prophetic lamp, which, in the light of the glorious divine fruit of

the last time, makes known the bad fruits of the present.

CHAPTER IV. 2-V. 30.




2 In that day shall the branch of the LORD be beautiful and glorious,

And the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and comely

For them that are escaped of Israel,
3 And it shall come to pass, that he that is left in Zion,

And he that remaineth in Jerusalem,
Shall be called holy,

Eren every one that is written Ramong the living in Jerusalem ;
4 When the LORD shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion,

And shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof

By the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning.
5 And the LORD will create upon every dwelling place of Mount Zion,

And upon her assemblies,
A cloud and smoke by day,
And the shining of a flaming fire by night:

For *upon all the glory shall be ba defence.
6 And there shall be a 'tabernacle for a shadow in the day time from the heat,

And for a place of refuge, and for a covert from storm and from rain.

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.occur again together only xiii תפארת and גאון-5

present no strongly לילה to וּבָרָא sentence from | ,ל in this sense is nowhere else construed with כָּתַב


v. 3.

TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. Ver. 2. "28 vid. xiii. 19; xxiii. 9; xxiv. 16 ; x xviii. 1, +, , 1x. 3, 19; Ixii. 1; comp. ix. 1; xiii. 10. So too anh flame 6.. never occurs in the Pentateuch, except in Num, xxi. 19. — 10:59 abst., pro concr., comp. iii. 25; x. 20; xv.

28, where it is not used of the pillar of fire. But it is

found in Isaiah v. 24; x. 17; xliii. 2; xlvii. 14. He in9; xxxvii. 31 sq.

timates by it that one must picture to himself, not an Ver. 3. Niph. 738is a peculiarity of Isaiah. It is even, steady gleam of fire, but an agitated flaming fire. found in no book of the Old Testament, relatively so 109 7123-59-by's. I join these words to what fol. often as in our prophet: xix. 18; xxxii. 5; Ixi. 6; lxii. lows, as Hitzig also does. The Masoretic division is 4 (bis.). --The construction prob zid is dubious, probably occasioned by the fact that the preceding

, unless perhaps xliv. 5 (wh. see) may be compared. marked point for setting an Athnach. But this, as is O'n may be abstractum (vita) or concretum (vivi).

well known, is not at all necessary; comp. ver. 4 and Ver. 4. 1717 occurs again in Isaiah only i. 16.—

And besides, if one disjoins these words from 77xy in Isaiah again only xxviii. 8, and xxxvii. 12, K'ri.

the following, he must conceive such a verb as decet sup-The verb 1977 is found only in the Hiphil; in plied, or at least a 77n, shall be. But this is hardly Isaiah it occurs only here; it is found elsewhere only admissible, which those, too, maintain who take 1199 in Jer. li. 34; Ezek. xl. 38; 2 Chr iv. 6. As the parallel as Pual (“For all that is glorious 'shall be defended": passages show, it means : "wash away, rinse away." GESENIUS ; KNOBEL somewhat differently.-- Procand thereby cleanse. It is therefore synonymous with curs beside this place only in Ps. xix. 6, and Joel ii. 16 .

in the sense of “bridal chamber, bridal canopied bed." Ver. 5. ??? which occurs here and i. 13 in Isaiah, And so it means here a protecting cover, and sheltering

baldachin. and in Neh. viii. 8 (where it seems to mean “lecture"), occurs elsewhere only in the Pentateuch. There, too, Ver. 5. On 7pp booth, see i. 8, the only other place with the exception of Num. x. 2, where the 77y??? where it occurs in Isaiah.—The expressions ha convocatio coetus is indicated as the object of the use of and 09-17 nono recur xxv. 4–58 vid. xvi. 3; xxv. 5; the trumpets, it is always joined with Hyp: Exod. xii. xxx. 2; xlix. 2 etc.-274 xxv. 5; Ixi. 4.16; Lev. xxiii. 2 sq.; Num. xxviji. 18, 25 sq ; xxix. 1, 7, 12. xxviii. 16, 17. — (. It is therefore a liturgical term, and means the assem nindo xlv.3) is är. dey.— is word of frequent bling of the congregation.-17 occurs again in Isaiah

recurrence in the first part of Isaiah. Besides the only xliv. 22. But wy he often uses: vi. 4; ix. 17; xiv. passages already cited see xxviii. 2 (bis.); XXX. 30. 31; xxxiv. 10; 11. 6; 1xv.5. Moreover mal, which does side those only Job xxiv. 8, and Hab. iii. 10.—70p not occur in the Pentateuch, is peculiar to Isa. I. 10; ' again in Isaiah v. 6; xxx. 23.

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xxxii . 2 and סֵתֶר זֶרֶם .comp) מכְתּוֹר


EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. Just at that time, i. e., at the time to which , morally impure and ungodly elements. Whatever the parallel passage ii. 2-4 refers, the rescued personal life remains in Zion is a divine scion, ones of Israel shall partake of a glory that shall and therefore whatever the land produces must appear as fruit of the life that Jehovah Himself be glorious divine fruit. And as in the wildershall produce (ver. 2). _In consequence of that ness the cloud by day and the appearance of fire all that still remain in Jerusalem shall be called by night was over the Tabernacle, so shall every holy, all whose names shall be written in the single house in Israel and the whole congregabook of life (ver. 3). But the ones left remain- tion in its entirety be marked as the holy abode ing are those that shall be present when all moral of Jehovah by the glorious signs of His presence filth and all blood-guiltiness shall have been warding off every hostile storm.

This is the cleansed away by the tempest of the divine judg- second prophetic lamp with which the prophet, ment (ver. 4). Then shall Jehovah hover over so to speak, stretches his arm far out and illueach house and over the assembled total of the minates the distant future. But as in ii. 5-iv. dwellers of Jerusalem, as formerly over the 1 he sets the present that lies between (we comtabernacle, with a cloud by day, with smoke and prehend all that precedes that last time as preappearance of fire by night (ver. 5), for the pre- Bent) in the light of that prophetic word ii. 2-4, sence of the glory of Jehovah shall be protection and by this means makes manifest the immense and shelter against every attack (ver. 6). difference between the present and the future, so

2. I regard this section as parallel member to he does likewise here. I am of the opinion thereii. 2-4. Like that, it transports us into the last fore that v. has the same subordinate relation to time; like that, it sets before our eyes the glory iv. 2-4 that ii. 5-iv. 1 has to ii. 2-4. That v. is not that Israel shall then enjoy. Only there is this independent, but integral part of the prophecy difference, that, whereas ii. 2-4 describes the out- that begins with ii. 1, has already been asserted ward eminence and exaltation of Zion, as the by FORERIUS, VOGEL, DOEDERLEIN, JAHN, HITcentral point of dominion over all nations, iv. zig, EWALD (comp. CASPARI, Beitr, p. 234). I 2-6 rather describes the inward glory of Zion as maintain the same, only I have other grounds one that is now purified and sanctified. For the for it than they. If one were to assume with tempest of judgment has cleansed away all | CASPARI (int. al. p. 300) that the passage ii. 2-4,

“is not in the proper sense prophecy; they are ing which describes the glorious fruits of the last repeated, quoted, recited by Isaiah, as a prophecy time, that the section ii. 5-iv. 1 concerning false given to Israel by another prophet, for the pur- great things does to the section that immediately pose of joining on to it the warning and reproof precedes it, and that describes the true divine of i. 5-8," – then indeed must iv. 2-6 be regarded greatness. as the promise appertaining to ii. 5-iv. 1.

I do not suppose that this would ever have But that assumption of CASPARI is as unnatural been doubted, did not chap. v. appear so indeas can be. The glorious words of Micah must be pendent, so peculiar, so distinct in itself and well no prophecy! But they are so per se. This can- rounded, and were not suddenly ver. 1, a totally not be controverted. They must serve only as different tone assumed; I mean the parable tone. "points of departure and connection !'' That But we must not overlook the relationship of the would need to be indicated. Then Isaiah must contents because of the difference in the form. have presented them in a form that would reveal This relationship will appear plainer as we conat once that he employs the words only as intro- template the particulars: but we must at this duction to his address proper. They must be point draw attention to one thing. As ii. 5-iv. separated from the discourse of Isaiah, and be i the outward decay appears as symptom and expressly designated as a citation by some sort of consequence of the inward, so in chap. v. the historical reference. But such is not the case. inward decay appears as the root from which the Isaiah makes the words entirely his own. He outward develops by an inevitable necessity. does not say that they are borrowed from another: According to this the two dominant passages ii. those informed know it and draw their own con- (2-4 and iv. 2-6 stand in an analogous inverted clusion; but that is another thing. The main relation, like the sections governed by them ii. thing is that the LORD has so said, and therefore 5-iv. 1, and chap. v. Isaiah too may use the words and found his dis Finally let it be noticed here, what we shall course on it.

prove in particular further on, that in iv. 2-6, as It is clear as day and undisputed that Isaiah a matter of course, there occur back looks or reffrom ii, 2 to iv. I shows the false estimate of hu- erences to what has preceded. (Comp. e.g. ver. 4.) man glory in the light of the divine. But just as This cannot be otherwise, in as much as iv. 2-v.30 clear, it seems to me, is it that Isaiah, in iv. and is the second organic half of the great second porV., also contemplates, as it were, the condition of tal of Isaiah's prophecies. But noticing this does the fruits in the field of the hearts of Israel in the not in the least hinder the assertion that section present in the light of the fruitage that, in the iv. 2–6 in the main looks forward and not backlast time, shall be produced on the soil of the ward. judged and purified Israel. For iv. 2, "the 3. In that day,-spirit of burning.–Vers. Branch,” and “Fruit of the earth” are evidently 2–4. By the words “in that day” the prophet the main ideas. These both shall become glori- refers back to win the last days” ii. 2. For acous. This, however, is explained ver. 3: all cording to all that we have just laid down, iv. 2that then remain in Zion shall be called holy, be- 6 stands parailel with ii. 2-4, both as to time and cause the tempest of judgment has removed from subject matter. This last time may have beZion all pollution and all guilt. Then shall both, gun since the birth of Christ, but it is not fineach individual and the totality, be fully as se- ished; it is fulfilled by degrees through many a cure a dwelling-place of Jehovah as once the Ta- rising and subsiding. In this last time, therebernacle was.

fore, shall “the branch” and “the fruit of the Therefore the prophet speaks iv. 2-6 also of a earth” be for beauty and honor, splendor and glory indeed, but of a different one from ii. 2–4. glory to the saved ones of Israel. What is In the latter place he has in view more that glory 13 “branch ?!? The word means germiwhich in tbat time Israel shall develop externally: it shall as the solitary eminence of the earth natio, the sprouting, and means first of all, not shine far around, and all nations shall flow to

a single sprout, but sprouting in general, and this eminence. But iv. 2 sq. speaks of that glory xix. 25: " And he overthrew those cities, and all

the total of all that sprouts. Thus it means Gen. that is identical with holiness, the notion holy" the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, taken in the sense of sanctus and sacer: this glory, and that which grew upon the ground” (13?? however, is first of all inward. But as that outward glory takes the inward for granted, which is 2778?). So again we read, Ezek. xvi. 7:"I have indicated ii. 3 by the terms out of Zion shall go caused thee to multiply as the bud of the field" forth the law,” etc., 50, too, the inward glory can-|(7.7kyn 1.93?) i. e. I have made thee like the not last without the outward, which is expressed vegetation of the field. Again Hos. viii. 7: “It iv. 2 by the terms“ beautiful and glorious, excel- hath no stalk, the bud (13) shall yield no lent and comely," and plainly enough in vers. 5, meal.” The word has the same meaning also 6. When now we read in chap. v. of a vine- Isa. Ixi. 11; Ps. Ixv. 11. In Ezek. xvii.

9, 10, yard that produces wild grapes instead of grapes, the abstract meaning germinatio predominates. and when v. 7, this is expressly interpreted to If now we compare Jer. xxiii

. 5 and xxxiii. 15; mean that Jehovah has found in the field of the hearts of Israel bloodshed and the cry of woe in- we find that there “righteous Branch” (nor stead of judgment and righteousness, and when, P'73) means a single personality. “I will raise after that, this evil fruit is more particularly unto David a righteous Branch, and he shall characterized in the following sixfold woe, can reign as King, and shall prosper, and execute We then in the least doubt that the section that judgment and justice in the land; in his days,” treats of the bad fruits of the present stands in the etc. Notice the singular after Branch. So too, same relation to the section immediately preced-1 Jer. xxxiii. 15. In Zechariah, however, we find

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