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here again ascribes to Himself maternal love and in Jerusalem suggests the only means by which maternal conduct (comp. xlii. 14; xlvi. 3 sq.; these blessings are to be secured, viz., a union of xlix. 15). Is the term ü x to be pressed ? I be affection and of interest with the Israel of God to lieve that it ought, for it contains a fine climax. whom alone they are promised.” ALEXANDER. A mother who comforts her child is an affecting D. M.]. The beginning of ver. 14 recalls 1x. 5. image. But a mother's love is still more glori- In this place, too, the meaning of the Prophet is, ously displayed when it shows itself to be strong that what Jerusalem shall see is the manifestaenough to raise up again the son, the strong man, tion of the power of Jehovah on His friends and who is bowed down by misfortune. [“ The E. V. foes. For the aim and scope of all divine trainhere dilutes a man to one. The same liberty ing is that God may be known from all nature and is taken by m:iny other versions. But comp. history as the supreme good (comp. xli. 20; xlii. Gen. xxiv. 67; Judges xvii. 2; 1 Kings xix. 19, 12 sqq. ; xliii. 10 sqq.; xlv. 3 sqq. et saepe).' The 20, and the affecting scenes between Thetis and heart, the centre of life, shall rejoice, the Achilles in the Iliad." —ALEXANDER. “ The bones, the parts forming the periphery, will Prophet now thinks of the people as one man. shoot as young grass, i. e., they will feel themBefore he had thought of them as children. Is- selves excited to fresh, vigorous manifestation of rael is as a man returned from a foreign country, life (comp. xliv. 4; lviii. 11; lxi. 3). [The latter escaped from bondage, full of sad recollections, part of the verse is “in accordance with the Prowhich are wholly obliterated in the maternal phet's constant practice of presenting the salvaarms of divine love yonder in Jerusalem, the tion of God's people as coincident and simultanedear home, which even in a strange land was the ous with the destruction of His enemies.” ALEXhome of their thoughts.”—DELITZSCH. “The' DER.-D. M.].
9. GENERAL PICTURE OF THE TIME OF THE END AS THE TIME OF JUDG.
MENT TO LIFE AND TO DEATH.
CHAPTER LXVI. 15-24. 15 For, behold, the Lord will come with fire,
And with his chariots like a whirlwind,
And his rebuke with flames of fire. 16 For by fire aud by his sword
Will the LORD plead with all flesh:
And the slain of the LORD shall be many.
'Behind one tree in the midst,
Shall be consumed together, saith the LORD. 18 •For I know their works and their thoughts :
It shall come, that I will gather all nations and tongues ;
And they shall come, and see my glory. 19 And I will set a sign among them,
And I will send those that escape of them unto the nations,
And they shall declare my glory among the Gentiles.
Out of all nations
In a clean vessel into the house of the LORD. 21 And I will also take of them
For priests and for Levites, saith the LORD.
22 For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make,
Shall remain before me, saith the LORD,
So shall your seed and your name remain. 23 And it shall come to pass, that b'froin one new moon to another,
And from one Sabbath to another,
Shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the LORD. 24 And they shall go forth, and look
Upon the carcases of the men that have transgressed against me:
1 Or, one after another.
: Or, coaches. 3 Heb. from new moon to his new moon, and from Sabbath to his Sabbath. . For by fire Jehovah contends and by his sword with all flesh. b for the gardens behind one in the midst. . But their works and their thoughts- -it is come that they gather all nations, etc. d report: o dromedaries.
! to Jerusalem. & And also of them will I take to (as an addition to the priests, to the Levites. 5 monthly ai new noon, and weekly on the Sabbath.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL Ver. 15. The words and no 79101 occur exactly , lonian heathenism. Such an allusion is suspicious. It as here Jer. iv. 13. There, too, they stand as second cannot be explained from the stand-point of Isaiah. For
subject of the verb 7'y', which is first in order. Jere- Isaiah sees into the distant future, it is true
, but he does
miảh quotes there Hab. i. 8 also. 72.979 is never used
not see as a person standing near. He does not distin.
guish specific, individual features. [In his remarks on by Jeremiah elsewhere; he employs the word 27. Ixv. 4 DR. NAEGELSBACH admits that there is no evidence Axvii. 25; xxii. 4; xlvi 9; xlvii. 3; I. 37; Ji. 21). But outside the book of Isaiah that the Babylonians either Isaiah uses 772017 three times, namely ii. 7; xxii. 18, offered swine in sacrifice, or used them for food. There in addition to the present case. 1970, too, is never is really nothing mentioned in this verse which can be elsewhere used by Jeremiah. He employs always in- proved to be specifically Babylonian. The gardens stead of it nyo (xxiii. 19; XXV. 32; xxx. 23) and 77 7o were connected with idolatrous worship practised by
the Israelites at home. See Isa. i. 29. The statement (xxiii. 19; xxx 23). But Isaiah has 2010 five times, including the present place, v. 28; xvii. 13; xxi. 1; xxix.
that the Prophet could not foresee the practices here
mentioned depends on the erroneous theory of pro6. On these grounds we can maintain that the words in
phecy which DR. NAEGELSBACH has adopted, and which Jeremiah are a quotation from the place before us.
is animadverted on in the Introduction, pp. 17, 18, footVer. 16. nx is not the sign of the accusative, but a
note.-D. M.). 3) The words are very appropriate in preposition as 1 Sam. xii. 7; Jer. ii. 35 ; Ezek. xvii. 20; the mouth of an exile who thought that he must apply xx. 35 sq.; xxxviii. 22; Jer. xxv. 31. This last place re- particularly to the renegades of his time the threatencalls forcibly the one before us.
ing of judgment contained in vers. 15 and 16. [But the Ver. 17. I hold this verse to be interpolated by the
words are quite appropriate in the mouth of the Prophet same hand which inserted lxiv. 9 sqq.; 1xv. 3-5, 11; Isaiah, and we are not warranted to assume that these Ixvi. 36-6. My reasons are, 1) The special mention of
forms of idolatry were practised by the exiles in Baby. the Israelites who had apostatized to heathenism is not lon. Unless Isaiah is supposed to testify to this fact, at all necessary in this connection. For vers. 15 and
we have no evidence of it. In the Babylonian Captivity 16 speak of the general judgment extending to all flesh the people were cured of their propensity to gross ido(ver. 16). For what purpose then this particular specification of a single class of men ? [Criticism of this kind latry.-D. M.). 4) The singular phrase yung TON 10x is not worthy of our author. We might apply it to es clearly betrays a foreign, later hand; and the manifest tablish the spuriousness of the greater part of the dis- corruption of the text in the beginning of ver. 18 is also course recorded in Matt. xxv. 31-46. There, too, is an
to he regarded as an indication of changes in the origiaccount of the judgment of all nations. Yet only a class
nal text. The occurrence of the singular phrase reof persons guilty of a particnlar sin of omission is con ferred to is no sign of the hand of an interpolator, who demned by the Judge. It is enough to say that our would rather be careful to avoid saying what would be Lord and the Prophet had their reasons for particularly obscure and ambiguous. An interpolator, too, who unspecifying a certain ciass of men as the objects of divine judgment.--;;. M.). 2) This verse, as lxv. 3, 11,
derstood Hebrew, would hardly have left the difficulty contains clear allusion to foreign, in particular, to Baby. complained of in the beginning of ver. 18.-D. M.).
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The Prophet here, too, represents the future I wicked. [On ver. 17 see under Text. and Gram.]. under the forms of the present. He sets forth its The Prophet surveys together the beginning and leading features, and again brings together what end of the judgment. As we see from ver. 19, the is homogeneous without regard to intervening beginning of the judgment of the world is for him rpaces of time. He begins, vers. 15. 16, and 18, the judgment on Israel. He, therefore, vers. 19 by describing the judgment of retribution on the sqq., tels what shall take place after the destruc
,התקדשׁ and הטהר a place latent in the verbs
tion of the visible theocracy. He beholds a sign of the world, the destruction of Jerusalem, fire set in Israel. We clearly perceive here in the was not wanting comp. JOSEPH. B.J. VI. 7, 2; o, light of the fulfilment what he only obscurely, as 5). With fire and sword, igne ferroque, the LORD through a mist, descried. He intends Ilim who judges. [“What is here said of fire, sword and is set for a sign that is spoken against. After slaughter, was fulfilled not only as a figurative this sign has appeared and been rejected, the prophecy of general destruction, but in its strictest judgment begins on the earthly Jerusalem. Per sense in the terrific carnage which attended the sons escaped from this great catastrophe go to the extinction of the Jewish State, of which, more heathen to publish to them the glory of Jehovah emphatically than of any other event outwardly (ver. 19). And the heathen world turns to Je- resembling it, it might be said that many were hovah, and in grateful love brings along with it the slain of Jehovah.” ALEXANDER. D. to the holy mountain the scattered members of M.]. Ver. 17. Here people are spoken of, who Israel that had been visited with judgment. These make a religious consecration of themselves by are as a meat-offering which Jehovah receives sanctifying (comp. xxx. 29; Ixv. 6; Ex. xix. from the hand of the Gentiles as willingly as He 22; Numb. xi. 18 et saepe) and purifying themwelcomes a pure meat-offering from the hand of selves (1703 in Isaiah only here, comp. Lev. an Israelite (ver. 20). And then from Gentiles xiv. 4, 7, 8 et saepe ; Ezra vi. 20; Neh. xii. 30; and Jews a new race arises. The wall of separa- xiii. 22). They do this nigan-% (comp. i. 29, Levites indiscriminately from both ® (ver. 21). 30 ; Ixi. 11; Ixv. 3). The preposition he might The new life which throbs in men, as well as be taken, with Hahn, as a case of constr. praegnans, in heaven and earth, is eternal life. Hence the if it were possible to find the idea of motion to new race of men stand on the new earth and under. the new heaven eternally before the LORD (ver.
a . 22). And all flesh will then render to the Lord We must, therefore, take 1x in the sense of “in true worship forever (ver. 23). But the wicked, relation to, in respect 10," i. e.=
for (comp. e.g., of whom the Prophet had declared at the close of (1 Sam. i. 27; Ezek. vi. 10). [In performing the first and second Ennead that they have no their lustrations they have respect to the gardens peace, will be excluded from the society of the
as places of worship. Translate: that purify blessed, to be a prey of the undying worm and themselves for the gardens, not in the unquenchable fire, and an object of abhorrence.
gardens as in the E. V.-D. M.]. The words 2. For, beholá, the LORD my glory. ina inx TN are very obscure. The old trans
Vers. 15-18. The Prophet sees the LORD come to judgment in flaming fire, and he beholds His lators (LXX., TARG., SYR., ARAB., THEODORET, chariots rush along as a tempest
. The image is SYMMACHUS, HIERONYMUS) were evidently puz? here, as Ps. xviii. 9, 13, borrowed from a thunder- zled with the text, and conjectured its meaning rastorm. It appears to me better to regard in ther than explained it according to certain princias second subject to **; than to supply in the ing to what they understand by TņN (Tas, TX
ples. The laterinterpreters can be classified accordtranslation the substantive verb. For the chariots their rolling is compared with the rushing of a the trees, or of a reservoir in the garden, behind are not in themselves like a stormy wind, but the last is the reading of the K'ri). SEB. SCHMIDT
and BOCHART think (after SAADIA) of one of tempest. The plural is certainly the proper plural. For as an earthly commander of an army refer 10x to an idol. A BENEZRA thinks that
or in which the lustration was performed. Others is accompanied by many chariots, so too is the nnx (K’ri) is Astarte. Very many interpreters “ LORD of hosts." KLEINERT justly observes on Hab. iii. that the elements, clouds and winds, (after SCALIGER) take thx to be the name of a as media of manifestation, are compared with Je Syrian divinity, 'Adwdos, who is called in EUSEhovah's horses and chariots. In Ps. civ. 3 the BIUS (Praep. Ev. I. 10) King of gods. And LORD is expressly described as He who “maketh this explanation has been the rather adopted, bethe clouds his chariot.” 78 g'un cannot possibly meaning of this name "unus ;” a statement which
cause MACROBIUS (Saturn. I. 23) gives as the denote here as Job ix. 13; Ps. lxxviii. 38, to take is manifestly owing to his want of knowledge of away wrath. Here retribution is the subject of the language. CLERICUS sees in nnx the name discourse. We must, therefore, compare places ‘Ekátn. BEN. CARPZOV, who is followed by such as Hos. xii. 3, where I'vn standing alone Hahn and MAURER, understands an idol of some means to recompense, and Deut. xxxii. 41, 43, kind. Stier, not satisfied with Antichrist, who where it is joined with 07? in like signification is thought of by NETELER, understands under the
one the “idol of the world in the strictest sense, In the day of judgment they who have sown evil whose place of concealment is the tree of knowmust reap the wrath of God as necessary harvest ledge in the midst of the garden.” MAJUS (comp. Gal
. vi. 7). God will render his anger icon. p. 984) takes yns nå in the sense of to them in the form of opn, i. e., of burning praeter unum, i. e., beside the only true God fury (comp. xlii. 25; lix. 18), and his rebuke (Deut. vi. 4) they follow an idol set in the midst. (comp. xxx. 17; 1. 2; li. 20), in flames of fire But this meaning the words will not bear. That (comp. xiii. 8; xxix. f; xxx. 30). Fire must serve explanation has most in its favor, which refers not only to indicate the violence of the divine na to a human being. Here we must set aside wrath, but also as a real instrument of judgment. as philologically untenable the view which, after For the first judgment of the world was accom- the Targ. Jon., and the Syriac, would in any plished by water (Gen. vii.), the second will be ef- way bring out the sense alius post alium. After fected by fire. At the first act of the second judgment the example of PFEIFER in the Dubia Vexata, it is
better to understand a person placed in the midst | all give such translations that they evidently supwho acted as leader, initiator, or hierophant. So pose the present Masoretic text. They all use GESENIUS, Hirzig, HENDEWERK, BECK, UM- the first person in the rendering of $3. But BREIT, KNOBEL, DELITZSCH, SEINECKE, RoHl- this does not justify our inferring a difference of ING. 1.3 is understood by Hitzig, HENDE- text. It is merely a free translation. The prediWERK, BECK, UMBREIT, Ewald of the middle cate to 'IJX) is wanting. Some would supply of the house, the impluvium, the court. But Kno: MYT; (as the E. V.], or (DELITZSCH), as BEL, DELITZSCH, SEINECKE, ROHLING think of the hierophant standing in the midst, so that is it possible that the writer omitted the predi
was done in some manuscripts of the LXX. But ons is not to be understood in the local sense, cate? ["The ellipsis is like that in Virgil Quos but in that of acting after, or imitation. EWALD ego (Aen. I. 139), and belongs to the rhetorical proposes instead of ynx nx to read a double tigure of aposiopesis : and I, their works hne: BOETTCHER would strike out the words and thoughts-(will know to punish).” DE
CHEYNE regards the place as quite Litzsch. If an ellipsis is to be supplied, there corrupt. It seems to me that the words ins is none more facile than that assumed in the jina 'ins are either a corrupt reading, or a later English version, and which can plead the support expression current in those Babylonian forms of of the Targum. But it seems to me better to reworship. But we have not hitherto been able to tain the aposiopesis of the original, with Kno explain their meaning satisfactorily. [That Baby- BEL, EWALD, ALEXANDER and Kay. The last Jonian rites are here referred to is a gratuitous mentioned has this remark: “ The sentence is assumption. Of the interpretations put upon the interrupted; as if it were too great a condescenstatement that purify themselves for the sion to comment on their folly,--s0 soon to be gardens after one in the midst, the one most made evident by the course of events. And I entitled to our acceptance is that which regards -as for their works and their thougbis, it as descriptive of a crowd of devotees surround the time cometh for gathering all naing their priest or leader, and doing after him tions.”—D. M.]. So much can be seen from the rites which he exhibits for their imitation. ver. 18, that God's judgments will rest on a bringDelitzsch is so satisfied with this explanation ing to light not only of the works, but also of the that he declares that it leaves nothing to be de thoughts of the heart (Hebr. iv. 12). 783 is acsired. The use of inx, one, has its reason in cording to the accents to be taken as a participle. the opposition of the one leader of the cere The feminine is to be understood in a nenter monies to the many repeaters of the rites after him. D. M.]. 1907.705 box is one of the sub- for the arrival of the right moment: it is come
sense [i. e., it is used impersonally). x stands jects of 1915'. Comp. on Ixv. 4. IP stands to this that all nations, etc., comp. Ezek. xxxix. 8. frequently in Leviticus parallel with Yme, reptile
, The words D'120-53-1* rap seem to be bore. 9., Lev. xi. 20, comp. ibid. vers. Probably, then, reptiles, such as the snail, lizard rowed from Joel. iv. 2. On the other hand, the and the like, are here chiefly intended. 17 this place of Isaiah before him. The expression
Prophet Zephaniah (iii. 8) seems to have had is the mouse (comp. Lev. xi. 29 ; 1 Sam. vi. 4 sqq.). On edible nice, or rats iglires) see De- nuobai d'un-5 does not occur exactly elseLITZSCH, Comment, in loc., Bochart, Hieroz. II. where. We can compare, on the one hand, Gen.
432 sqq., HERZ. R.- Encycl. XIV. p. 602. X. 20, 31 (comp. ver. 5), on the other, Dan. iii. * The actual use of any kind of mouse in the 4, 7, 29, 31: v. 19; vi. 26; vii. 14. Comp. Zech. ancient heathen rites has never been established, viii. 23. If this expression really belonged to the modern allegations of the fact being founded a later age, we should find in it a confirmation on the place before us.” ALEXANDER. This of the supposition that the text of ver. 18 also commentator contends that the Prophet is still has been corrupted by an interpolator. (" The treating of the excision of the Jews and the vo use of the word tongues as an equivalent to na. cation of the Gentiles. And although the gen- tions has reference to national distinctions springeration of Jews “upon whom the final blow fell ing from diversity of language, and is founded were hypocrites, not idolaters, the misdeeds of on Gen. x. 5, 20, 31, by the influence of which their fathers entered into the account, and they passage and the one before us, it became a phrase were cast off not merely as the murderers of the of frequent use in Daniel, whose predictions turn Lord of Life, but as apostates who insulted Je so much upon the calling of the Gentiles (Dan. hovah to His face by bowing down to stocks and vi. 4, 7. 31; v. 19). The representation of this stones, in grovce and gardens, and by eating form of speech ag an Aramaic idiom by some swine's flesh, the abomination, and the mouse." modern critics is characteristic of their candor." Isaiah would naturally make prominent, in as ALEXANDER. Some suppose the glory of Je signing the causes of divine judgment, the most hovah which all nations will be assembled to see flagrant transgressions of the law that prevailed to be a gracious display of His glory, and others in his own time. We have had many examples think that a grand manifestation of judgment of his practice to depict the future in the colors is here referred to. In the preceding part of the present.-D. M.). Ver. 18 is very diffi. of the chapter a revelation of both grace and cult. It appears to me impossible to obtain an judgment is foretold. We can take the espresappropriate sense from the text as it stands. I sion in a general sense for the revelation of must therefore hold it to be corrupt. The old Jehovah's perfections. But here a difficulty versions do not enable us to detect any corruption arises. If 'in this verse all nations are repre that has taken place since they were made. They sented as gathered, as having come to see the
glory of the LORD, where are the distant nations and see my glory. (But if we regard the ! who are to be visited according to the following at the beginning of ver. 19 as explicative or cauverse by those that have escaped from the judg- sal, this objection falls away.-D. M.). EWALD, ment? The seeming inconsistency is removed, UMBREIT, DELITZSCH, SEINECKE think that the if we regard ver. 19 as describing the way in escape of some from the all-destroying slaughter which the nations will be brought to see the glory is itself the miracle. But is it something so exof God, and take the ! as causal : For I will set traordinary and wonderful that individuals should a sign, etc. For this causal force of ! comp. escape from a slaughter, be it ever so bloody? I on lxiv. 3. This is better than to suppose, with would not say with the Catholic interpreters that
But I think that DELITZSCH, that all nations and tongues in this nis is the sign of the cross. ver. 13 are not to be understood of all nations Luke (Simeon) when he, ii. 34, speaks of Him without exception.-D. M.).
who is set for a sign which shall be spoken 3. And I will set--all flesh.–Vers. 19– refer the sign of the Son of man (Matth.
And I would
against had our place before him. 24. [This verse explains the gathering of all na- xxiv. 30) to the same source. It was the purpose tions mentioned in the previous verse. The He- of God, which Isaiah here announces without brew often employs the simple connective and where we would use for.-D. M.]. The mention knowing how it should be fulfilled, that out of the
ashes of the old covenant the phenix of the new of 09:59, ver. 19, implies that the judgment should arise. [ALEXANDER, who sees in the from which they have escaped is not the general d'oro who go to the nations the first preachers judgment. After it there will remain no nations of the Gospel, who were escaped Jews, saved from on the earth to whom the messengers could come that perverse generation (Acts ii. 40), thinks that to announce Jehovah's glory. That judgment, the sign to be set denotes “ the whole miraculous then, from which the messengers have escaped, display of divine power, in bringing the old dismust be only the first act of the general judg- pensation to a close and introducing the new, inment, i. e., the judgment on Israel. If we consider this place in the light of fulfilment, we must cluding the destruction of the unbelieving Jews, take the destruction of the theocracy by the Romans on the one hand, and, on the other, all those signs for this first act of the general judgment, which and wonders
, and divers miracles and gifts of the the Prophet views together with its last act or last Holy Ghost (Heb. ii. 4), which Paul calls the acts, just as our Lord does in His oratio escha- signs of an apostle (2 Cor. xii. 12), and which tologica, Matth. xxiv. They who have escaped from Christ Himself had promised should follow them that dreadful catastrophe which befalls the church that believed (Mark xvi. 17). All these were of the Old Covenant are the church of the New signs placed among them, i. é., among the Jews, Covenant, for whose flight and deliverance the and to the salvation of such as should be saved."
to the greater condemnation of the unbelievers, Lord has so significantly cared in that discourse But if we compare Isa. xi. 10 and its connection (Matth. xxiv. 16 sqq.) 'If this is the case, what with the place before us and the context, it would opinion have we to form regarding the sign, which the LORD, according to the words, com- D. M.]. The following names of nations repre
that Messiah is the sign here spoken of.-mencing ver. 19, will set among them," i. e., among those on whom that first great act of judg- signedly mentions the names of the most remote
sent the entire heathen world. The Prophet dement has fallen? The expression nix Div occurs Gen. iv. 15; Ex. x. 2; Jer. xxxii. 20; Ps. lxxviii. nations to intimate that to all, even the most distant 43; cv. 27. It alternates with 12x 'or nix ne peoples
, the joyful message (einyyéluov) should
come. Respecting Tarshish (comp. on ii. 16.) (Deut. xiii. 2; Josh. ii. 12; Judges vi. 17; Ps. The name Pul occurs as the name of a people lxxxvi. 17 et saepe). Of these forms nix D10 is only here (as name of a person, comp. 2 Kings the most emphatic. It denotes, we might say, xv. 19). In Jer. xlvi. 9; Ezek. xxvii
. 10; xxx. setting a sign as a monument for general and per- 5, the name was is mentioned in conjunction manent observation. To regard this sign as a with 735. The LXX., too, have in our place signal to call the nations does not suit the context boud. In the places in Jer. and Ezek. just cited the [?], for the nations are not called to the judgment LXX. have Aißveç for $13. BOCHART understands upon Israel. The announcement is rather borne by Pul the island Philae. Most scholars hold on them," namely, on the elect for their deliver the identity of 519 and 249, and assume either an ance, is justified
by the language; but the suffixes error in writing, or an interchange of 0 and in one and on? refer to those who are judged, (HITZIG). Regarding 610, it is pretty generally and not to those who are saved. The old ortho held, after the LXX., to be Libyia. EBERS, indox explanation, according to which the “sign” Punt or Put always denotes a country east of
deed, affirms that on the Egyptian monuments is the Spirit poured out upon the disciples as evidence of their divine mission, is exposed to the Egypt, namely, Arabia. We must in regard to sanie objection. When, on the other hand, Hit this point defer a decision. It is not quite cerzig and KNOBEL consider as the sign, the judg. 135. In Gen. x. 13 D'7'S is named as the first
tain what people we have to understand under upon the heathen, a great slaughter, there is this objection that it is to the heathen that they son of Mizraim; but there, too, in ver. 22 the who escaped the judgment go. And when STIER fourth son of Shem is called Lud. EBERS holds, refers the sign to the judgment upon Israel, it with ROUGEMONT (L'age du bronze), the son of seeins strange that mention should be made of the Shem for the Lutennu, i. e., Syrians, while accordsign after the description of the judgment and its ing to him the Ludu or' Rutu are the native happy consequences, and they shall come Egyptians in opposition to the non-Egyptian ele