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effect. The anarchy is the symptom of the people, and how much the state of things poroutward decay; bui the outward decay is the trayed mukes Him sorry for His people. The consequence of that which is inward."

With DRECHSLER I translate by "insult the eyes

word D'vaj, oppressors, is used of those whom the of his glory.”

It evident, that the Prophet people, for want of better, in consequence of that would indicate a direct antithesis between the oppression mentioned in ver. 5, had been obliged glory of Jehovah, and the bad tongues and to make chiets. By this is intimated that works, as also an antithesis between “the eyes

these supports of necessity shall hemselves of the loftiness of man” ii. 11 ; v. 15 and "the be no proper chiefs that merit the name, but eyes of the glory of Jehovah." The


of God only rude oppressors. Comp. ix. 3; xir. 2; who is God of light (lx. 19; Mich. vii. 8; 1 Jno. lx. 17. They are so, not in spite of, but just bei. 5) are insulted just by this, that they must see cause of their being children, boys. the works of darkness. It seems to me, on this TUR? qui rectâ ducit, comp. i. 17. The word account, clear that the divine majesty is desig- is meant ironically, for how else could the 1089 nated as glorious chiefly in respect to its purity be a nyna? Our passage as already remarked and holiness; therefore ethically. That, more over, the eyes of the glory of God, are not some

stands in evident connection with ix. 15. There thing different from the eyes of God Himself is too the leaders are called misleaders; there, too, just as clear as that the eyes of the glory must the word s'ha is used of those who mislead, for they themselves be glorious. They are here the organ of the manifestation of His glory (comp. Rev. are called o'ymar. We see by this that the Proii. 18), as in other places it speaks of the arm of phet has not in mind the same persons in the His salvation (xl. 10), of His holiness, (lii. 10) second half of the verse that he has in the first. of His strength (lxii. 8). Besides the expression He speaks in the second clause of the false prois only found here, as may be said also of the de- phets, as in ix. 14 sq. Like flies in honey, this fective writing of it.

vermin is ever found where there are bad rulers. The Prophet had (ver. 8) assigned the badness For they need false prophets to cover over their of the words and work as the cause of the fall. doings. These false prophets, however, devour But is this accusation well founded? Yes, it is, the path of the people. DELITZSCH (like JEROME, A double and unexceptionable witness testifies to THEODORET, LUTHER before him) understands its truth : 1.) the cognitio vultuum, knowledge of by “the way of their paths" the right way, the countenances. Thus we might translate: “

of the law. way

“ The prophets, that ought to

appearance testifies against thee.” (See Text. and Gr.) preach it, say mum, mum, and retain it swal

lowed. It has gone into oblivion by false pro2.) Their own declaration, though not made

phetic, errorneous preaching." But it seems to with this intention. “Out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.” The godless can

me as if then it must not read finns 777, the not lock


that of which his' heart is full. The way of thy paths. For this is just the way that mouth, as it were, foams over involuntarily with Israel actually treads, the direction that its life it

. The Sodomites, too, (comp. i. 9, 10) spoke path actually tends. It must then read way of out insolently the shameful purpose they had in Jehovah ^ 7.?.? as Ps. xviii. 22, or ADD I, or concealment of the evil they had in mind. nix? 't, as Ps. cxix. 30, 32, or Therefore their ruin is merited (comp. Gen. 1. Isa. xl. 14 or dibao 19 as lix. 8, or such like. I 15, 17) and just. The sentence : "woe to them, therefore agree with the explanation of those that for they have hurt themselves” which,.ver. 9 b, is especially applied to Israel, is established in take y'a in a metaphorical sense like that where what follows, by stating in its double aspect this word is elsewhere used of the destruction of the fundamental and universal truth that un

a city (2 Sam, xx. 19, 20) or of a wall (Lam. ii. derlies it, that a man must reap what he sows. 8); The expression only occurs in this place in First, the righteous is pronounced blessed because relation to a way, but it must mean nothing else he shall eat the (good) fruits of his (good) works. than to direct the path of one's life down into the As that universal truth of the causal connection depths of destruction in which the devourers between works and the fate of men is not ex

themselves are.

Comp. Job vi. 18. pressed, but assumed, so that aspect of it that re

6. The Lord standeth up-the Lord of lates to the righteous is not expressed in doctrinal Hosts:-Vers. 13-15. At first sight one might form, but, vigorous and life like, in the form of think these three verses bring the further expli

cation of a summons to declare the righteous blessed.

ne matter of moment in vers. 1-12, The happiness of the righteous will consist in viz., the more particular Jaying down of the judgthis, that he shall enjoy the fruit of his works ment against the chiefs of the nation which was (Prov. i. 31). To the wicked, on the other hand, only indicated in ver. 1, by no?" taking awaya woe is proclaimed. The happiness of the pious and in ver. 12 by the reproach uttered against is announced to every one; the vengence that them. shall overtake the wicked is announced to him But we see from the solemnity of ver. 13, esself alone.

pecially from the antithesis between D'ey and Ver. 12. Is a resumé. In these words the whole boy (py vers. 14, 15), “ the people and His peocourse of thought from vers. 1-11., is compre: ple” that we are introduced into quite another mohended again. The two halves of ver. 12 begin ment of time. For evidently vers. 13-15 depict with my “My people” put before absolutely, again the judgment of the world. “ The world's which shows how much the Lord loves His l judgment presents itself anew before his soul,"

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says DELITZSCH. “The people". ver. 13, re must be supplied. It is the same construction as calls distinctly “the nations” and “many peo- Ps. ii. 6. The premise to be supplied must be to ple” of ii. 2-4. However, it is not the judging this effect: “I have made you commanders that of the nations generally that is portrayed, but ye might administer justice. But ye,etc. The only the judging of the people of God as a part princes have regarded the nation as their domain of this universal judgment. Moreover, not of the which they might use up as they pleased. They nation in its totality, but of the destroyers of this have, therefore, themselves become the cattle froni totality, the princes and elders (ver. 14 a). These which they ought to have protected the vineappear, therefore, as the chief agents of that in- yard. The he-goat had become gardener (DEward and outward decay that has invaded the LITZSCH). Comp. i. 23; Mich. iii. 1-3. The nation. If, according to ii. 3, all nations are to l image of the devoured vineyard is at once exstream to the mountain of the Lord, because the plained ; robbery, plunder wrested from the poor law shall go forth out of Zion, then, evidently, is found in their houses. To the “but you Jerusalem itself must previously be cleansed and ver. 14 corresponds an equally emphatic

what filled with the word of God. This cleansing, ac mean ye” that begins ver. 15. The flow of words Lord will cast off from Israel head and tail. would follow the question (comp. xxii. 1, 16) is cording to ix. 13 sqq., begins with this, that the is so fast that even the 's for, that otherwise The elders are the head, the false prophets are wanting (comp. Jon. i. 6, where, however, the the tail. Here too, though a briefer, still a comprehensible, hint is given that indicates construction is somewhat different). To grind to the sort of purifying that Israel itself must un

pieces the face of a man appears to me to be the dergo in order to become what, according to ii. expression for beating to pieces the face (1 Kings 3, it ought to become. This hint makes on me The expression is exactly the opposite of

xxii. 24; Mich. iv. 14) in the intensest degree. the impression that iii. 1-12 does, viz., that a word

perspoken on some other occasion has been applied muclere faciem 's abn Ps. xlv. 13; Prov. xix. 6. to this purpose. Comp., the comment on ver. 16 The high significance of the declaration is, in sqq. Unmoved and unmovable (comp. Gen. conclusion, evidenced by the reference of it to xxxvii. 7) i. e., as one whom no one can crowd “the Lord Jehovah Sabaoth,” concerning which from this place, the Lord conducts the judgment; see the comment at i. 9, 24. and that standing, not sitting, therefore ready and prepared for instant execution of the judg

[On ver. 13. "Nations here as often elsewhere ment, He exercises the magisterial function, Ps. means the tribes of Israel. See Gen. xlix. 10; lxxxii. 1, which so far resembles our passage that Deut. xxxii

. 8; xxxiii

. 3, 19; 1 Kings xxii. 28 ;

Mich. i. 2."-J. A. A. it also describes the judgment upon the magistrates of the people, represents too, the Lord as On ver. 15. Grind the faces of the poor. a judge in standing posture. Elsewhere He is re- The simplest and most natural interpretation is presented as sitting in judgment: Ps. ix. 5; that which applies it to the act of grinding the ixix. 10; Joel iv. 12, etc.

face upon the ground by trampling on the body, The discourse of the Lord begins with the thus giving the noun and verb their proper second clause of ver. 14, with oral, “but ye,” meaning and making the parallelism more ex. thus with a conclusion to which the premise I act."-J. A. A.]

B.--The judgment upon the godless women.

CHAP. IIL 16-IV. 1. 16 Moreover the LORD saith,

Because the daughters of Zion are haughty,
And walk with stretched forth necks
And 'wanton eyes,
Walking and 'mincing as they go,

And making a tinkling with their feet:
17 Therefore the LORD will smite with a scab

The crown of the head of the daughters of Zion,

And the LORD will 'discover their secret parts. 18 In that day the LORD will take away

The bravery of their tinkling ornaments about their feet,

And their cauls, and their round tires like the moon, 19 The chains, and the bracelets, and the mufflers,

20 The bonnets, and the ornaments of the legs, and the headbands,

And the 'tablets, and the earrings, 21 The rings, and nose jewels, 22 The changeable suits of apparel, and the mantles,

And the wimples, and the crisping pins, 23 The glasses, and the fine linen,

And the hoods, and the veils.
24 And it shall come to pass, that instead of sweet smell, there shall be stink;

And instead of a girdle, a rent;
And instead of well set hair, baldness ;
And instead of a stomacher, a girding of sackcloth;

And burning, instead of beauty. 25 Thy men shall fall by the sword,

And thy •mighty in the war. 26 And her gates shall lament and mourn;

And she beingo 1odesolate shall sit upon the ground.

CHAP. IV. 1 And in that day seven women shall take hold of one man, saying,

We will eat our own bread,
And wear our own apparel :
Only "let us be called by thy name,
1?To take away our reproach.

1 Heb. deceiving with their eyes.
4 Or, networks.
7 Heb. houses of the soul.
10 Heb. cleanse.

2 Or, tripping nicely.

3 Heb. make naked. 6 Or, sweet balls.

6 Or, spangled ornaments. 8 Heb. might

9 Or, emptied.
11 Heb. let thy name be called upon us. 12 Or, Take away.

[For the different renderings of the commentator see the comment itself. On the importance of them 800 J. A. A.'s note on ver. 18 below.-TR.]

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. This section, too, has for its subject an event | Jehovah rise to the height which, according to that cannot possibly coincide with the last judg- ii. 2, it must attain, and only when Zion itself is ment to which ii., refers. For that great day, full of the Spirit of God can it becoine the emthe last of all, will not have to do with a mere bodied ideal for all nations. How this refining sinking down from the heights of luxury and is to take place in every respect and at different pride to the plane of poverty; it will not treat of times is described in what follows up to iv. 1. the exchange of a girdle for a rope, of a mantle In this description the Prophet makes use also for a sack, nor of a defeat in war, nor of mourn- of older utterances, which were perhaps too short ful sitting on the ruins of the city ; there will be to appear independently, and that might more nothing said of wives wanting nothing beside the suitably be joined in just here than elsewhere. prop of a man. For in that day all will be Thus there was a section of this sort that referred over; the old world generally shall be out and to the men, iii. 1 sqq; so now, too, we have one out destroyed in order to make room for a new. that has the women for a theme. The connectThus this section, too, makes the impression of ing formula, " and Jehovah said,” favors the being some declaration, meant originally to serve view that this is a joined on piece.' It would be some special object, but inserted here in order to quite superfluous if the discourse proceeded from complete the grand picture of the future in this one mould. Comp. on this the comment on ver. particular aspect. The Prophet had occasion 16. The order of thought is as follows: The once, and this may likely have been in the days luxurious pride of the women, too, shall be humof Uzziah or Jotham, to declare himself against bled (ver. 16, 17). In the day that this shall the irruption of pomp of dress and luxury. This happen all their splendid garments shall be declaration, or at least a part of it, he pieces in taken from them (vers. 18–23) and replaced by here to his comprehensive prophecy of judgment. wretched ones to correspond (ver. 24). Their And he may do this. For whenever this de- husbands, too, they shall lose in a brief space nunciation against the arrogance of woman may (ver. 25), lamenting and desolated, they shall have been fulfilled, such fulfilment always consti- sit in the gates (ver. 26); yea, their want tutes a part of the great whole of judgment which shall be so great that seven women shall atis to be completed with the judgment of the last tach themselves to one man, without demanding day. The Prophet assumes in the prophecy that support from him, only thereby to escape the stands at the head (ii. 2-4), that Israel itself, too, misfortune of being unmarried (iv. 1). must be subjected to a judgment. For only by [On ver. 16 sqq.

“ The Prophet here resumes a great process of refining can the mountain of l the thread which had been dropped or broken at

the close of ver. 12, and recurs to the undue pre to the second half of this chapter where the dominance of female influence, but particularly women are spoken of. That these, too, are called to the prevalent excess of female luxury, not only supports," staffs, refers evidently to the fact as sinful in itself but as a chief cause of the vio- that women, even in the commonwealth of Israel, lence and social disorder previously mentioned, played a considerable part. Let it be rememand therefore to be punished by disease, widow- bered that the Book of Kings expressly names hood, and shameful exposure. These two verses the mother of each king. Individual women are (16. 17), like the sixth and seventh, form one designated as enjoying political influence in a continued sentence. And Jehovah said (in addi- high degree; Deborah (Judg. iv.); Bathsheba tion to what goes before, as if beginning a new (1 Kings i.); Jezebel 1 Kings xvi. 31 sqq.); section of the prophecy), because the daughters of Athaliah (2 Kings xi.). We are expressly in: Zion (the women of Jerusalem, with special re formeil that Solomon's wives had a bad intluence ference to those connected with the leading over him (1 Kings xi. 3 sqq.). As long as a regumen," etc.)--J. A. A.

lar king ruled there must be a womau's court On ver. 18. “As in other cases where a variety household. If there were none such. then there of detached particulars are enumerated simply by would be surely no king. How closely kingdom their names it is now very difficult to identify and harem hung together, may be seen from the some of them. This is the less to be regretted, fact that the possession of the haren obtained as as the main design of the enumeration was to

a sign that the royal dignity had been reeeived. show the prevalent extravagance in dress, an ef- Therefore Absalom lay publicly with the coucufect not wholly dependent on an exact interpreta- bines of his father (2 Sam. xvi. 21). David, too, tion of the several items. The interest of the inherited the wives of Saul, and this is related in passage in its details is not exegetical but arch

a connection (2 Sam. xii. 8) that leads us to conæological.”—J. A. A.

clude that the fact must have been important to On ver. 26. “The gates of Ziou are said to being a rightful one. Adonijah, after David's

the recognition of David's succession to the thron mourn, by a rhetorical substitution of the place of action for the agent, or because a place filled death, begs for the hand of Abislag the Shunawith cries seems itselt' to utter them. She is de- mite, and we see from Solomon's reply that he scribed, not as lying, but as sitting on the ground. regarded this request as an attempt to use the So on one of Vespasian's coins, a woman is repre- (1 Kings ii. 22). Comp. MICHAELIS, Mos. Recht,

possession of the concubine as a step to the throne sented in a sitting posture, leaning against a | I. p. 207. SAALSCHUETS, Das Mos. Recht, p. 85. palm-tree, with the legend Judæa Capta.”—J. According to this the harem was, in some À A] 2. Moreover the Lord-secret parts.royalty as such, and in so far in a special sense

measure, a political institution, an attribute of Vers. 16, 17. The forinula " and the LORD

a support of the life of the state. Yet if Isaia' saith” occurs in Isaiah on the whole, relatively here has especially in mind the royal ladies, that not often. It occurs in all thirty-two times; of does not exclude the other noble and proud these, sixteen times in the historical chapters women from a share in his reproachs. IXXVI. xxxix., where it indicates the actual exchange of words in conversation. Beside that, it In pm the imperfect with vav. consec. is is only employed where the Lord appears actually not necessarily to be construed as aorist. The speaking, and speaks of Himself in the first word nippo is araç key. person (comp. xxiii. 12; xxix. 13; xlix. 3, 6; Ixiii. 8). But in our passage Jehovah is im

even does not again occur in all the Old mediately spoken of again in the third person. Testament. The Aramaic ? may be most "The Lord will smite, the LORD will uncover” suitable to compare

here, which rer. 17.

Moreover, in what follows, the Lord is not introduced again as speaker. It is thus

intueri, conspicari.” The Piel then may have seen that by this formula what follows is only the meaning "blinking, winking:" DIY stands in marked as God's word so far as its contents are the accusat., like pind. There is indeed a. 27 concerned, and not formally so. But as this is that means to color, to paint, whence also, the self-evident, it is further plain, that the formula CHALD., ABARBANEL and others express this is meant to serve as a transition, a link, a means

idea (LUTHER: with painted faces). But the of uniting.. We recognize, therefore, in it a sign custom of painting the eye-brows black is so unithat here is a piece of an address, already on hand, that has been skilfully strung on here: justly objected, Isaiah

versal a custom of the Orient, that it has been

uld hardly have spoken A, in ii. 11 it was said that all lofty looks shall out against it. Moreover the rest of the rebe humbled and all haughtiness of men be bowed proachful expressions relate to bodily, gestures, down, so the Prophet here with entire justice de- | Buxtorf in Lex. Chald., Talm, et Rabb., p. 1542 clares that also feminine arrogance must expect cites the talmudic dictum : "Non creavit deus its share in this judgment. Are proud, etc., mulierum ex capite Adami, ne caput suum nimium stands, therefore, in direct relation with the entire section ii. 6-17. What is said there in

ornaret and efferret ; neque ex oculo, ne esset n'????,

general of riches (ver. 7), of arrogance and haughti- oculis omnia observans." Hitzig, justly cites ness (vers. 11, 12, 17) of works of splendour (ver. Plaut. Aulul. I. 1, 2: “circumspectatric cum oculis 16), has its special application to the proud dis- tuis emissiciis," although this is spoken of an old play of the women. But our passage stands in tramp with thievish propensities. Also 729 still closer connection with npyön supportress iii. (from which 79 Toppler, Tripler, Child) is an. 1. We showed there that this expression points I dey. The tripping short steps are the necessary

שָׂקַר The root



a sun.



consequences of the step-chains which zn.tive of schems, the sun), the letters m and 6 fastened by means of a ring (op, ver. 18, again being interchanged, as is common between these only in Prov. vii. 22) surrounding the leg above two kindred letters: SCHROEDER proves, besides, the ankle joint. The little chains themselves from Theoph, hist. pl. IX. 4 and PLIN. H. N. were called nigy} ver. 20. The verb Day, which XII. 14, aßış to have been a name of the sun occurs only here, is denominative. According be little suns i. e., a metallic ornament shaped like

among the Arabians. The meaning then would to the context the meaning can be nothing else than ; rattling the rings to make a noise, to clink. ing nu, crescents, as generally to the words that

That would suit very well to the followComp. Herzog's R. Encycl. VII. p. 731. chastisement for such arrogance the daughters of precede and follow, all of which designate metal Zion shall be punished with disgraceful disorders. ornaments. In as much as in the following list Their proud head shall become scurfy, covered occur. several expressions borrowed from the with scabs, thus loathsomely unclean (Lev. xiii. Arabic (comp. DRECHSLER on ii. 6), and this 2, 6-8; xiv. 56). now, (which, written with w, word in Hebrew is an aɛy., and even the root occurs here only), is according to some a denomi- way does not again occur, so that word and thing native from onab, nned?, scab. scurf (vid. Lev. both appear to be of foreign origin, I prefer this xiii. xiv.) Still it is possible naiv means, to make view. The other view takes Day in the sense flow, suppurate, and thus deprive of the hair

, of rand (Aram,) van plectere, to braid," and and that, so derived, nned means the fluid Dis therefore, for opus reticulatum (LXX {um scab or scurf. Comp., at xxxvii. 30. Their kla) network, hair net: (DELITZSCH, “ribbons for shame, to whose impure pleasure those luxurious the forehead worn underneath the hair net, and gestures were meant to minister, shall be disgrace- braided of gold or silver thread :" BUXTORF, fully exposed (xlvii. 3; Jer. xiii. 22, 26; Ezek. Lex. Chald., p. 2315, Ornamentum,etc., a peculiar xvi. 37, etc.). The singular ria (from nua,

ribbon ornament, extending in front from one ear

to the other"). The D'I776 are lunulo, unvíokni, nnpona, pat-ere) occurs only here; the plural moonshaped, or rather half-moon shaped decora1 Kings vii. 50 of the cardo femina from an ob- tions. They are mentioned Judg. viii. 21, 26 as vious resemblance.—77, (from which 777?. and neck ornaments of camels. That they had ning loca nuda (xix. 7) which does not occur

a moon shape appears from this, that sahro in the Kal, means nudum esse, hence Piel to make

in the Syriac, schahr in the Arabic mean the bare, (in Isaiah again only xxii. 6); Hiphil,

Here, too, therefore word and thing are (because what has been hitherto concealed, when certainly of foreign origin. 1- is a diminutive it is laid bare, is at the same time poured out) ending, comp. pivX; Ewald & 167, a. —

? effundere, (liii. 12), Niphal, effundi (xxxii. 15). (Judg. viii. 26) from 991 to drop (comp. Ex.

Without excluding the literal rendering of XXX. 34, dropping resin, and Job. xxxvi. 27) are ver. 17, we may still construe the language first

a drop shaped ornament, as they were likely in an inexact sense and generalize it. In the day worn as pendants from the ears (ear drops). of judgment loathsome uncleanness shall take ninu (án. 20,) from 770 torquere, to twist, is torthe place of the splendor of Zion's daughters; disgrace and shame the place of their prond dis-ques, a collar, chain, not for the neck, however, play. The Prophet has in this expressed some but an armlet, bracelet, as is to be seen from the thing in general which he proceeds to specify in dialects. ONKELOS, e. g., translates, Gen. xxiv. what follows. Feminine interest revolves chiefly 22, 30, 47, the Hebrew word 7pp (the proper around two poles: the decking out of the body word for bracelet for the arm) by T'O. Comp., therefore about dress and husbands. Therefore too, name and human chains Exod. xxviii. 14, the disgrace of the daughters of Zion in what 22.-niby? (ár. 28y.), from Sy? to tremble, wave, follows is portrayed in these two respects. And

are veils, and that, as appears, of a costly kind: first it is shown of what they shall be deprived viz. HERZOG, R. Encycl. VII. p. 728.-o'rixo are in the way of dress (ver. 18-23), and what shall diadems, tiarę, that are also elsewhere named as be given them instead (ver. 24).

3. In that day-instead of beauty.- part of the head ornament of the priesthood Vers. 18-24 “ In that day,” refers back im- (Exod. xxxix., 28; Ezek. xliv. 18), or of the mediately to ver. 17. But we showed above that dress of a bridegroom (Isaiah Ixi. 10). What pot the day of the last judgment is meant here, part of the head covering or what sort, is not but only a prelude to it, which, of course, how- clear.—773 from 7ş, to march, pace, on acever, combines with the last judgment to make a

count of the etymology seems most naturally unity of divine world-judgment. In that day, to mean the step chains (comp. on 7DDY'A, ver. then, the Lord will take away the adornment 16). But 2 Sam. v. 24 and 1 Chr. xiv. 15, where (177807)All that follows is summed up under the word occurs, it seems to mean

" the stepping, this word. The word is found often in both parts walking along; and Num. xxxi. 50; 2 Sam. i. of Isa. iv. 2; x. 12; xiii. 19; xliv. 13; lii. 1; 10 077% designates arm bands, arm clasps, as lxii. 3; lxiii

. 14, etc.). Concerning the prod one sees clearly in 2 Sam. i. 10 from the lymp-by comp.

, at ver. 16. Concerning the O'D'30 there Hence many expositors, both old and new, (among are two views held. From SCHROEDER down a

the last, EWALD), translate arm clasps." And number of expositors (ROSENMUELLER, WINER, EWALD, KNOBEL, DRECHSLER) have taken the yet it is only 777? that has this meaning. The word for a kindred form of the Arabic schumeisa circumstance that 77yy occurs twice in the sense

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