Obrazy na stronie

b. The judgment against the falsely eminent things in the human sphere.

CHAP. II. 22-IV. 1.


CHAP. II. 22-III. 15. 22 Cease ye from man, whose breath is in his nostrils :

For wherein is he to be accounted of?

1 For, behold, the LORD, the LORD of hosts,

Doth take away from Jerusalem and from Judah
The stay and the staff,

The whole stay of bread, and the whole stay of water, 2 The mighty man, and the man of war,

The judge, and the prophet, and the prudent, and the 'ancient, 3 The captain of fifty, and lethe honorable man,

And the counsellor, and the cunning artificer, and the "eloquent orator. 4 And I will give children to be their princes,

BAnd babes shall rule over them.
5 And the people shall be oppressed,

Every one by another, and every one by his neighbour:
The child shall behave himself proudly against the ancient,

And the base against the honourable. 6 When a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father, saying,

Thou hast clothing, be thou our ruler,

And let this ruin be under thy hand : 7 In that day shall he sigwear, saying,

I will not be a 'healer;
For in my house is neither bread nor clothing :

Make me not a ruler of the people.
8 For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen :

Because their tongue and their doings are against the LORD,

To provoke the eyes of his glory. 9 The show of their countenance doth witness against them;

And they declare their sins as Sodom, they hide it not.

Woe unto their soul! for they have rewarded evil unto themselves. 10 Say ye to the righteous, that it shall be well with him:

For they shall eat the fruit of their doings. 11 Woe unto the wicked ! it shall be ill with him;

For the reward of his hands shall be Øgiven him. 12 As for my people, children are their

oppressors, And women rule over them. O my people, they which lead thee cause thee to err,

And destroy the way of thy paths. 13 The Lord standeth up to plead,

And standeth to judge the people. 14 The LORD will enter into judgment

With the ancients of his people, and the princes thereof:
For ye have beaten up the vineyard ;
The spoil of the poor is in your houses.


15 What mean ye



my people to pieces,
And grind the faces of the poor?
Saith the LORD God of hosts.
1 Heb. a man eminent in countenance.

* Or, skuful in speech. 3 Heb. lift up the hand.

4 Heb. binder up. 6 Heb. done to him.

. Or, they which call thee blessed. 1 Heb. swallow up.

8 Or, burnt. Supporter and supportress.

cvery supporter.

o diviner.

d elder. the favorite.

Perpert enchanter.

8 and childishly shall they rule. shall use club law.

lift up (his voice).

j trample.

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the הצאצאים וְהצפְעוֹת of comparison is


TEXTUAL AND GP.AMMATICAL. Ver. 22. The verb san occurs sereral times in Isa. Ver. 5. (Faustrecht.) Such is the sense of way. The 1. 16; xxiv. 8, coll. liii. 3. The construction with the word is used of the violent oppression of the Egyptian dative of the person addressed (Dat. ethicus) has here taskmakers (Exod. iii. 7; v. 6 sqq.), of the creditor (Deut. the meaning that this ceasing is in the interest of the xv. 2, 3), of a superior military force of an enemy (1 Sam. person addressed himselt.-yon with je?: Exod. xiv. xiii. 6), also of overpowering fatigue (1 Sam. xiv. 24) or 15; xxiii. 5; Job vii. 16; Prov. xxiii. 4; 1 Sam. ix. 5; 2

of an unsparingly strict judicial process (Isa. liii. 7). In

our passage the Niphal, as one may see from following Chr. xxxv. 21.

120 vix] vix, appears intended in a reciprocal sense. Chap. III. Ver. 1. 17 yonsa por: logically consi

Moreover Isaiah uses the word often: ver. 12; ix. 3; xiv. dered there can be no difference between these two 2; lviii. 3; 1x. 17. 377 tumultuari, insolenter tractare: words, which moreover occur only here. But the Pro- comp. xxx. 7; li. 9. —

??? contemtus, vilis; comp. phet designs by the words only a rhetorical effect. With xvi. 14; 1 Sam. xviii. 23. sententious brevity he sketches thus the contents of the chapter whose first half treats of the male supports,

Ver. 6. '3 is rendered by many expositors “when ": whose second half of the female.-Examples are not VITRINGA, Hitzig, Ewald, DRECHSLER, DELITZSCH. They few of concrete nouns which, placed along side of one therefore take the phrase as protasis io ver.7. The conanother, designate the totality by the masculine and sideration that vers. 6 and 7 evidently portray, not the feminine endings: xi. 12; xliii. 6; Jer. xlviii. 19; Nah. reason, but rather the consequence of ver. 4, determines ii. 13; Zech. ix. 17 It is doubtful about opp? 777?), me also to adopt this view. By '>, then, a possibility is 1 Samuel xv. 9. But abstract nouns are very few signified that may often ensue.

occurs again that

at the same time differentiate the idea as only in the plural, Zeph. 1. 3, where it means offendicuto gender by the gender endings. The most likely lum, orávdalov. Besides it is synonym of .

The , T::11

present situation therefore is manifestly designated as malo ard female branches (xxii. 24). It is doubtful

a scandalous one, as a subject of offence. about 7o?? ??! Mich. ii. 4 (comp. Caspari, Micah, p. found elsewhere only 2 Sam. xxii. 19 (Ps.

Ver. 7. van part. occurs only here. Other forms of xviii. 19). The feminine forin occurs more frequently healing wounds : i. 6; xxx. 26 ; lxi. 1. He repels the

the verb occur in Isaiah in the sense of binding and mg'ur: Num. xxi. 19; Ps. xxiii. 4; Isa. xxxvi. 6, etc.

allegation that he still has clothing and bread, and deVer. 4. D Sahyyn occurs only here and lxvi. 4. The

clines therefore the honor of becoming judge of his , , . , a . signify the abstract, and this abstract may possibly only twelve times in the Old Testament; three of these stand pro concreto; the plural may also have a simple in historical books: Josh. x. 24; Judg. xi. 6, 11. Isaiah concrete meaning. All these constructions are gram

uses it four times, viz., here, i. 10; xx. 3. matically possible and have found their defenders. As regards the meaning of the word, the questions arise, Ver. 8. Sop, stumble, totter, fal, Isaiah uses often : whether the word contains the notion of child” (comp. v. 27 ; viii. 15; xxviii. 13; xl. 30; lix. 10, 14, etc.skiy, Shrym) or the notion, " inflict, bring upon, mis- Isaiah uses only i. 16 and iii. 8, 10. -5x in an inimical handle,” (comp. Skynn, Judg. xix. 25; 1 Sam. xxxi. sense, as ii. 4; Gen. iv. 8, etc.—The form ning is

etc., notions, and whether it is to be taken as subject or as 12; Ps. Ixxviii. 17. 777 and Hiph. 77977 occur very acc. adverbialis to designate the manner and means.

often with " '9-n8: Num. xx. 21; xxvii. 14; Deut. i. That the notion “ childlies in the word appears very 26, 43, etc. Once the Hiph. occurs with the following conclusively from the preceding On? and

from , ver. 12. But it is not at all necessary to exclude nun ng Ps. cvi. 33, with following ” 137 Ps. ev. 28 the notion veratio which is decidedly demanded, lavi. S 'NON Ps. cvii. 11; once with yovina Ezek. v. 6. 4. One may easily unite both by translating as DELITZSCH And so here, too, with following ". In Isaiah the does, “ childish appetites,” or “childish tricks, childish construction with the accusative does not again occur: follies.” But the personifying of this idea, or construing 777 alone with the meaning “rebellem, contumacem it as abstr. pro concreto (puerilia pueri, GESENIUS) though grammatically possible, is still hard. I agree

esse," occurs again i. 20; 1.5; Ixiii. 10. therefore with Hitzig, who translates by "with tyranny, Ver. I. 177.77, which only occurs here, can, in union arbitrariness." Comp. Dimen, nixti, b'x59, etc.

have no other meaning than the adverbial

משְׁעָן (117

is principaly a poetic word . It occurs קָצִין ,ete

. The plural can people הַחֲנוּנִים תַּעֲנוּנִים form is like

opping, syp, 5253_n, lxvi. 4), or both syncopated from ringa) (Ewald, $ 244 ). comp. i.







.Jer . vi) עוֹלָל

form of speech D'?????? (Deut. i. 17; xvi. 19; Prov. no passage we can ciie in which y? means infelix, as xxiv, 23; xxviii. 21), which means dignoscere facies, we can for bio mearing felix For Ps. cvi. 32, and distinguish the countenances, i. e, make a partial dis. Gen. xlvii. 9 yn is both times not used of personal tinction” (comp. D'UP NO). The notion of partial subjects. And there are no other places to cite. One ity indeed does not suit here, although not a few Jew

must therefore say, that the prophet in respect of the ish and Christian expositors understand the words in meaning of in has in ver. 11 a imitated the corresthis sense. The context constrains us rather to go ponding part of ver. 10.- -5232 is performance, product, hack to the simple fundamental meaning of close ob- desert. Comp. Judg. ix. 16; Prov. xii. 14. The word is servance, particular notice, which is the preliminary found in Isaiah again xxxv. 4; lix. 18; 1xvi. 6. What the of partial distinction. We are the more justified in this

hands of the wicked have themselves produced shall as 731 elsewhere too (lxi. 9; Ixiii. 16; Gen. xxxi. 32, be joined to, put on them. ete.) is used in a sense that proceeds from this fundamental meaning. io non is therefore the magiste- and hence represents an ideal plural. Comp. jxe's nzyn

Ver. 12. The singular Sharp has general significance rial, so to speak, the juristic, exact observance and insestigation of countenances. anty, which is likewise 7??? Gen. xlvii. 3. As regards the form of the word, a legal term, also favors this view. For it is used as much which occurs here only, Shiyo is the root form for of the judge that takes cognizance (Exod. xxiii. 2) ns of Shiy ( 1 Sam. xv. 3; Isa. xiii. 16, etc.) or (. the witness that deposes to the interrogation of the

11; ix. 20). judge: Deut. xix. 16; 2 Sam. i. 16: "thy mouth hath

Ver. 13. 383 (in Isaiah only again xxi. 8) expresses testified (173) against thee.” occurs in Isaiah

the opposite of movement. 39) and oppy along side again only Ixiii. 7. The form of sentence in ver. 10 a is owing to the well known attraction, common also in

of each other occur 1 Sam. xix. 20. -' and

? Greek, by means of which the subject of the dependent though not seldom interchanged (comp. i. 17), still stand phrase becomes the object of the principal verb. There here side by side. But comp. Jer. xv. 10; Heb. i. 3.is no need, therefore, of taking 138 in the sense of The expression pound xia “enter into judgment "

occurs only here in Isaiah. Comp. beside Job ix. 32; prædicare. But it is simply “say, speak out loud, be

xiv. 3; xxii. 4; Ps. cxliii. 2; Eccl. xi. 9; xii. 14. bot silent, that the righteous is well off." There is, thus, no need of referring to passages as Ps. xl. 11; cxlv. Ver. 14. The Piel y occurs in this sense in Isaiah €, 11. That Jio may mean not only bonus, but also bene only again v. 6; comp. Exod. xxii. 4. It is depascere, kabens, tell off, is shown beyond contradiction by pas- grazing of cattle. Elsewhere it is used of fire (vi. 13; sages like Am. vi. 2; Jer. xliv. 17; Ps. cxii. 5. Ver. 11. According to our remarks at i. 4 concerning xl

. 16 ; xliv. 15; 1. 11). abra only here in Isaiah, Sua 1x, it is agreeable to usus loquendi to connect it with puh. Besides in the best editions they are so bound Ver. 15. X37 to stamp, trample (xix. 10; lili. 5, 10) 18 (comp. DELITZSCH in loc.). Tberefore yn is to be taken intensified by Inun 'y '9. pro is to grind, pound in the same way as diu ver. 10. To be sure, there is fine, xlvii. 2.

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lxi. 8.

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. Chap. iii. connects quite easily and simply these pillars, the great and mighty (vers. 2, 3), is Fith chap. ii. so far as it continues the idea of because they on their part share the blame, still the judgment, and to this effect, that it is now ex- that is not the principal thought. But the chief tended to the sphere of human existence. Chap. matter is that from the nation, which (ver. 8) ii

. 22 makes the appropriate transition. For had “provoked the eyes of the glory" of the therein the Prophet warns against trusting in Lord, shall be taken away the indispensable supmen, who are only weak transitory creatures. port of its customary and natural rulers. In conChap. iii., also, with this fundamental idea, sub- nection with chap. ii. one expects a specifying divides into two parts, of which the first (1-15) of the contents, that as the sub-human and sutreats of the men, the second (16-iv. 1) of the perhuman magnates must be humbled so, too, Fomen. And yet we at once receive the impres- must the human magnates be. But this thought sion that in chap. iii. he is treading ground do comes up only at vers. 13-15. Hence vers. 1-21 minated by other sentiments. For while chap. ii. make on me the impression of a discourse that discourses quite evidently of the judgment that originally did not belong in this connection, but in the last time, the great day of Jehovah, shall be which was inserted here because it still in some pazzed on sub-human and superhuman creatures, measure suits the context. It is possible that chap. iii. seems only to speak of acts of judgment originally these words were directed against the that do not bring the continuation of human kind bad government of Ahaz, who came to the throne into question. Moreover, in as much as an or as a young man of 20 years (2 Kings xvi. 2), aldered government is essential to the very exis- though, taken strictly, they portray conditions that 3nce of such continuance, the removal of those really never occurred either under Ahaz or in in power enumerated in vers. 2, 3 does not appear any other stadium of Jewish history. to be a panishment of these themselves for their Because iii. 1., presupposes the destruction of loftiness, but of the people. Those authorities human magnates, that were for themselves and appear as a benefit that is withdrawn from the others an object of unjustifiable confidence (ii. sinful nation, and in their stead they are aban- 22), the discourse as regards its matter fits the donet to the miseries of anarchy, or of a boy and context (comp. ii. 11). But it fits in also in chrowujn govera:nnt. If now the removal of nological respects, so far as all acts of divine

judgment constitute a unity; consequently all here (ver. 8) it is said “ Jerusalem and Judah." visitations that precede the last judgment belong This is not without meaning, and we are perhaps essentially to it as precursors. But that the Pro justified in finding therein a support for the conphet notwithstanding makes a distinction appears jecture expressed above, that our passage did not from vers. 13-15.

originate at the same time with what precedes The order of thought in our passage, then, is and what follows it, but is inserted here. The as follows: After the Prophet had signitied by ii. following words : "the whole stay of bread and 22, that now he would proceed to the judgment the whole stay of water" appear to interrupt the against every high thing among men, he classic connection. For when, vers. 2, 3, the different ties in advance iii. 1 the contents of what he has categories of kinds of human callings are enumto say, in that he announces that Judah and Jeru- erated, and ver. 16 sqq., the proud, aristocratic, salem shall be deprived of every support, male and decked out ladies are portrayed, is that not the female. The male supports he then enumerates specification of the ideas pyun and njün, stay vers. 2, 3. If these are removed, of course only and staff? And what have bread and water to children and women remain as supports of the do here, seeing everything impersonal has already commonwealth. The misery of boy rule, that been noticed above ii. 13-16? It is conceivable gradually degenerates into anarchy, is portrayed that a reader, who did not understand the relavers. 4-7 in vigorous lines. This misery is the tion of the two words to what follows, had made symptom of prevalent ruin in Judah and Jeru- a gloss of them in this sense, and that this gloss salem, and the consequence of those crimes com then had crept into the text. Such is the conjecmitted against the Lord (ver. 8), that are publicture of Hitzig, KNOBEL, MEIER, and—though and not at all denied. These, therefore, are the afterwards retracted of GESENIUS and UMself-meriting cause of that misery (ver. 9); for BREIT. The expression “stay” might call to as the righteous reap salvation as fruit of their mind the expression “comfort your hearts with a works (ver. 10), so the wicked destruction (ver. morsel of bread" (Gen. xviii. 5; Judg. xix. 5, 11). Thus it comes that children and women 8; Ps. civ. 15) and the expression “staff of rule over the nation and that these bad guides bread” (Lev. xxvi. 26; Ezek. iv. 16; 5, 16). lead it into destruction (ver. 12). But this self-That just bread and water are named as cormerited temporal misfortune is only the prelude responding to yo) and nuyor might have its of that still higher judgment that Jehovah shall

reason in this, ihat they recognized in bread the conduct in proper person which, according to female principle and in water the male. But it chap. ii., shall take place at the end of days, and is always doubtful to assume an interpolation only by which the Lord shall finally rescue the pith on internal gr inds. EWALD and DRECHSLER of the people, but will drag their destroyers to a understand the words in a figurative sense. The merited accountability.

stay of bread and of water signify the supports 2. Cease ye---accounted of ?-ii. 22. As, that are necessary as bread and water. But in what precedes, the trust in things falsely emi- KNOBEL justly remarks that this were an unnent, in money, in power, in idolatry, was demon-heard of trope. May not all those be called strated as vanity, so the same occurs here in re “staffs of bread and water” that provide the gard to men. “Cease from men,” says the Prophet. state with bread and water, i. e., with all that perHow shall man be an object of trust, how shall tains to daily bread ? Call to mind the explanahe be a support, seeing the principle of his life is tion of the fourth petition in LUTHER's catechism, the air that he breathes in and out of his nostrils, wherein “pious and faithful rulers” and “good thus the fugitive quickly disappearing breath ?

government are reckoned as daily bread too. Thence man himself is called so often an? breath; Staff of bread, etc., would be therefore

, not the Ps. xxxix. 6, 7, 12; Ixii. 10, etc., comp. Gen. bread and water themselves as supports' for preiv. 2.-The expression “whose breath is in his serving life (Genitive of the subject), but the nostrils” calls to mind Gen. ii. 7; vii. 22; Job supports on which bread and water, i. e., the nexxvii. 3.—“For wherein is he to be accounted cessities and nourishment of life depend (genitive of ?" Man as such, i. e., as bearer of the divine of the object). image in earthly form (07x) is of course of great remarks, the instructors and military profession

In the following enumeration, as DRECHSLER value before God. Comp. Ps. viii. 5 sqq.; Job

are especially represented. Even the entire apvii. 17. In these passages the inquiry "what is reminds one very much of the inquiry of tioned. But as all that are named are designated

paratus of state machinery of that day is menour Prophet. But as helper, saviour, defender,

as those that the Lord takes away, it is seen that support, man counts for little, yea less than noth- they are all regarded as false supports. They ing, according to Ps. Ixii. 10. For as one knows at once from iii. 1 sqq., human props may in a

may even be that per se in so far as they ought

not to exist at all among the people of God; as twinkling all of them be taken away. The preposition stands here as elsewhere (comp. vil. 2) e. g., the Dop, diviner and the vins 1'??, expert enas sign of the price that is regarded as the means chanter, (Deut. xviii. 10-14). wnis the murfor purchasing the wares or work.

muratio (magia murmurata Apul.), the muttered 3. For behold-eloquent orator.-Ch. iii. 1-3. The solemn accumulation of the names of

repetition of the magic formulas (xxvi. 16); God that occurs here, occurs in like manner i. pas occurs again v. 21; xxix. 14. 24; x. 16, 33; xix. 4. The subject addressed Even the «'? may, according to the context appears here also the chief city and the chief and the kindred passage ix. 14, be only prophets tribe of the people of Israel. But while, i. and that propresy falsely in the name of Jehovah. ii., it is always said “Judah and Jerusalem,” | The use of the rest of the callings named is


indeed legally justificd, but nevertheless they are geon," he says, by which he calls the state life subject to abuse. One may indeed cast a doubt sick. (« The sick man,” as modern designation on the legality of the DNU (comp. ix. 14) for the Turkish Empire.-TR.). the amicus regis, the preferred favorite, but not on

[On ver. 4. “I will give children.". "Some apply that of the others. 'Especially the men of war this, in a strict sense, to the weak and wicked appear to be indispensable, whence each of the reign of Ahaz, others in a wider sense to the severses 2 and 3 begins with the naming of such. ries of weak kings after Isaiah. But there is no 7102 seems to mean 'the warrior proved by need of restricting it to kings at all. The most

probable opinion is that incompetent rulers are deeds; nonho vix the man of war in general ; called boys or children not in respect to age but d'onn-n the rank of captain ; while the voic character.–J. A. A. Similarly BARNES. = state officer and 1P.! = officer of the congrega

On ver. 6. " The government shall go a beg

ging. It is taken for granted that there is no tion. Ahithophel and Hushai (2 Sam. xvii.) are

way of redressing all these grievances, and bringpractical illustrations of 1991, counsellor. The

ing things into order again, but by good magisDUIT? Oon is the engineer, master of the pre-trates, who shall be invested with power by comparation of warlike weapons and military na mon consent, and shall exert that power for the chines (comp. on Jer. xxiv. 1).

good of the community. And it is probable that 4. And I will give a ruler of the this was in many places the true origin of governpeople.- Vers. 4-7. When a state trusts to an ment; men found it necessary to unite in a subarm of flesh, and puts its trust solely in its princes jection to one who was thought fit for such a and men of might, in its diplomats and generals, trust, - being aware that they must be ruled or in a word, in the strength of its men, and the ruined.”—M. HENRY. Lord takes away these strong ones as false sup On ver. 7. “The last clause does not simply ports, then, of course, a condition must ensue in

mean do not make me, but you must not or you shall which weak hands manage the rudder of state. not make me a ruler.”—J. X. A. No earthly state has continuously maintained a

“The meaning is, that the state of affairs was position strong and flourishingOne need only so ruinous and calamitous that he would not atcall to mind the world-monarchies. That gradualtempt to restore them as if in the body, disease weakening of the world-power. indicated.. in should have so far progressed that he would not Daniel's iinage of the monarchies (Dan. ii.), undertake to restore the person, and have him takes place also within each individual kingdom. die under his hands, so as to expose himself to Call to mind the vigorous Assyrian rulers, a the reproach of being an unsuccessful and unskilTiglath Pileser, Sargon, Sennacherib, and the in- ful physician." —BARNES. glorious end of the last of their successors, what On ver. 9. "The sense is not that their looks erer may have been his name: think of Neba- betray them, but that they make no effort at conchadnezzar, and Belshazzar, of Cyrus and Darius cealment, as appears from the reference to SoCodomannus, of Augustus and Romulus Au- dom. The expression of the same idea first in a gustulus, etc. In Judah, too, it was not differ- positive and then in a negative form is not unent. Zedekiah was a weakling that perpetually

common in Scripture, and is a natural if not an wavered between a fear of Jehovah's prophet English idiom. MADAME D. ARBLAY, in her and of his own powerful subjects. It may, there memoirs of DR. BURNEY, speaks of Omiai, the fore, be said that not some quite definite histori- Tahitian, brought home by Capt. Cook, as utcal fact is prophesied here, but a condition of tering first affirinatively, etc.

, then negatively all punishment is threatened such as always and the little sentences that he atterupted to utter.”everywhere must ensue where the strength of a J. A. A. national life is exhausted, and the end approaches

On ver. 10. " The righteous are encouraged (comp. Eccl. x. 16). When weak hands hold the reins of govern- not be indiscriminate. The object of address

by the assurance that the judgments of God shall ment a condition of lawlessness ensues, and of

seems to be not the prophets or ministers of God, defencelessness for the weak. The strong then but the people at large or men indefinitely.”—J. do as they wish. They exercise club law. A A. A. further consequence of that anarchical condition

“Whatever becomes of the unrighteous nation, is that those of lower rank no longer submit to let the righteous mun know that he shall not be the higher ranks, but, in wicked abuse of their lost in the crowd of sinners: the Judge of all the physical strength, lift themselves above them. earth will not slay the righteous with the wicked (Gen. The misery of that anarchical condition, how- xviii. 25); no, assure him, in God's name, that ever, stands out in strongest relief when at last it shall be well with him. The property of the no one will tolerate any government. Although trouble shall be altered to him, and he shall be the inhabitants would gladly, make a ruler hidden in the day of the Lord's anger. - M. of any one that rises in any degree above the

HENRY.] aniversal wretchedness (say any one that has still a good coat), yet every one on whom they such a condition of anarchy is only a symptom

5. For Jerusalem-thy paths.-Ver. 8-12. would put this honor will resist it with all his of the outward and inward decay, 'It is never might.“ Under thy hand, comp. Gen. xli. blameless, but always blameworthy misfortune. 35; 2 Kings viii. 20. With loud voice will the As the second hemistich of ver. 8, evidently dechosen man emphatically protest. This is indi- scribes the inward decay, the first must consecated by the expression Nig! to which Sup must quently be referred to the outward. But hemibe supplied (xlii. 2, 11). ""I will not be sur- stich 2 is strung on with '? with a chain-like

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