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EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The Prophet's glance has penetrated into the

3. Therefore thou hast-strangers, ver. 6. farthest future. There he gazes on the glory of The words "thou hast repelled thy people” seem Jehovah and his people. In the words of his to me to indicate the fundamental thought of the fellow prophet Micah, to whom he thereby ex- whole address to the end of Chap. v. From vers. tends the hand of recognition and joins himself, 2-4, where Jehovah is named the God of Jacob, he portrays how highly exalted then the Lord and Zion the place where God's word shines só and His people shall be. That is the true emi- gloriously that all nations assemble to this shinnence to which Israel is destined, and after which ing, it is seen that Israel in this last time shall it ought to strive. But what a chasm between live in most intimate harmony with its God. that which Israel shall be and what it actually is! That it is not so now he proceeds to describe

The Prophet calls on the people to set them- For God has repudiated His people. Jehovah, selves in the light of that word of promise, that however, has not arbitrarily repudiated His peopromise of glory (ver. 5). What a sad picture ple. He could do no otherwise. For the nation of the present reveals itself! The people in that had forsaken Him, had abandoned itself to the glorious picture of the future, so one with its spirit of the world. They accorded admittance God that it does not at all appear in an indepen- to every influence that pressed on them from East dent guise, appears in the present forsaken of and West. Such is the sense of the following God, for it has yielded itself entirely to the in- words. "From the east," means primarily, influences of the world from the East and West, deed, those parts of Arabia bordering on Palesand all sides (ver. 6). In consequence of this, tine (Judg. vi. 3, 33; vii, 12; viii. 10), but here, much that is high and great has, indeed, towered in contrast with Philistines, it signifies the lands up in the midst of them. But this highness con- generally that lie east of Palestine. That desists only of gold and silver, wagons and horses, structive influences, especially of a religious kind, and dead idols made by men (vers. 7-8). For that, proceeded irom these lands' to Israel, appears in the day of judgment, they shall be bowed down from the instance of Baal-Peor (Num. xxv. 3; so much the lower and obtain no pardon (ver. 9). Deut. iv. 3), and of Chemosh (1 Kings xi. 7; 2 For in that day they must creep into clefts in the Kings xxiii. 13) of the Moabites, and Milcom of rocks and holes in the ground, before the terrible the Ammonites (1 Kings xi. 5, 7) the altar in appearance of Jehovah (ver. 10), and then shall Damascus (2 Kings xvi. 10), and the star worship every false, earthly eminence be cast down, that of Manasseh (2 Kings xxi. 5; Jer. vii. 18; xliv. Jehovah alone may appear as the high one (v. 11). 17 sqq.; Ezek. viii. 16). But DRECHSLER, in

2. O house of Jacob-light of the Lord. loc, has proved that not only religious influences, -Ver. 5. “House of Jacob,” so the Prophet ad- but also social culture of every sort penetrated dresses the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem Israel from the East (comp. on iii. 18 sqq.; 1 Kings (ver. 1), in that he connects what he says in this v. 10; x. 1-15; xi. 1 sq. If, then, we translate address, and in the second half of the verse with “ for they are full from the East,” we would the prophetic address uttered in what precedes, thereby indicate the Prophet's meaning to be that in which (ver. 3) the temple was named “the Israel has drawn from the Orient that of which house of the God of Jacob." The expression it is full, in the sense of intellectual nourishment.

house of Jacob" for Israel is besides frequent But the West, too, exercised its destructive inin Isa. viii. 17; x. 20; xiv. 1; xxix. 22; xlvi. Aluences. The Philistines are named as repre3; xlviii. 1; lviii. 1.-As the Prophet at once sentatives of it, and especially they are indicated expresses what he has to say to the house of as Israel's examples and teachers in witchcraft. Jacob in words that are taken from the prophecy It is true that we have no express historical evithat precedes, he intimates what use he intends to dence that the Philistines were especially given make of these words.

to witchcraft. Yet 1 Sam. vi. 2 mentions their Expositors understand, ( 7 partly of the “diviners,” and 2 Kings i. 2, refers to the sanctufavor and grace of the Lord (for which otherwise ary of Baalzebub at Ekron, as a celebrated oracle. often" ? Ps. Ixxxix. 16; iv. 7; xxxvi. And in the children, etc. Excepting Targ. 10), partly of the instruction through the law of JONATHAN (et in legibus populorum ambulant) all the Lord (lur Jehovæ lex Dei, Vitr.). But neither the ancient versions find in our passage a accusathe one nor the other meaning seems to me to tion of sexual transgression. The LXX, suit the context. For in what follows there is PESCHIT, and Ar. understand the words to refer neither a promise of divine grace, nor exhorta- to intercourse of Jewish men or women with the tion tɔ holy walk. I am therefore of the opinion, heathen, and the generation of theocratic illegitithat the prophet by." light of Jehovah,” under- mate posterity. JEROME, however, understands stands that light which Jehovah Himself extends the "et pueris alienis adhæserunt" of Pederasty, to the people by the prophetic word that just as he expressly says in his commentary. The precedes. In the light of that word ought Israel translation of SYMMACHUS, too. which JEROME to set its present history. The Prophet shows, in quotes, “et cum filiis alienis applauserunt,” is to what follows, how infinitely distant the present be understood in the same sense. For JEROME reIsrael is from the ideal that, vers. 2-4, he has marks expressly: “Symmachus quodam circuitu et shown, and which shall be the destiny of this de- honesto sermone plaudentium eandem cum pueris turgenerate Israel in the last time.” Ñow if Israel pitudinem demonstravit.” GESENIUS in his Comwill apply the measure of that future to its pre- mentary p. 18 has overlooked this. It is seen sent, it may escape the judgment of the last time. that LXX.(tékva rokāà állóovha éyevhun auroic), On this account the Prophet summons his people PESCHIT. (plurimos exterorum filios educarunt), to set themselves in the “light of Jehovah.” | Arab. (nati sunt eis filii exteri permulti) have found

are the chil- will immediately appear that the matter of both ילדי נ. בָּחַר אָחַז הֶחָזִיק דָנָק נָגַע

the notion of “fulness, superfluityin pov'. But | animation the prophet summons men, in view of JEROME and the Hebrew scholars that after him the terror that Jehovah prepares, and before the translate coonvúð noav (wedging oneself in, in majestic appearance of His glory, to creep into the an obscene sense) proceed evidently from the fun- cleits of the rocks, and rock chasms (comp. ver. damental meaning "striking.” The later ex- 19 and ver. 21), and in the depths of the dust i.e., positors divide into these two classes. Still the holes or caves in the earth, (comp. ver. 19). The majority decide in favor of the meaning, “strik- terror, therefore, shall be like that which spreads ing into, i. e., the hand, as sign of making a cove- before an overpowering invasion of an enemy nant,” and refer to the construction ? yap (Gen. (Judg. vi. 2; 1 Sam. xiii. 6). Then shall the xxii. 2; Josh. xvi. 7; xvii. 10, etc.), to illustrate lofty eye be cast down and, --- which is the reason

for the former-all human highness shall be huthe construction with ? here. Still better is it to miliated. Jehovah alone shall be high in that compare the construction with ; of the verbs, day, just as all mountains shall have disappeared

before the mountain of Jehovah (ver. 2). It , ?; ?, , dren of strangers (Psalm xviii. 45, sq. ; Isaiah these verses shall be more exactly detailed in lx. 10, etc.), with only the difference that in what follows. gipso the idea of a profane birth is more promi

[Ver. 5. “From this distant prospect of the dent. The expression is to be understood as gen- calling of the gentiles, the Prophet now reverts to erally comprehensive of the eastern and western his own times and countrymen, and calls upon nations named immediately before, word to them not to be behind the nations in the use of

their distinguishing advantages. If the heathen itself, it occurs not seldom in Isa. ix. 5; viii. 18; were one day to be enlightened, surely they who xi. 7; xxix. 23; lvii. 4, 5.

were already in possession of the light ought to

make use of it.” In the light of Jehovah; (in 4. Their land-have made.-Vers. 7, 8. the path of truth and duty upon which the light Neither the having abundance of children of of revelation shines). The light is mentioned as strangers (Ew.), nor the contenting oneself with

a common designation of the Scriptures and of such (DRECHSLER) explains to us why the land | Christ Himself.” (Piov. vi. 23; Ps. cxix. 105; of Jacob was full of silver and gold, of horses Isa. li. 4; Acts xxvi. 23; 2 Cor. iv. 4). J. A. A. and wagons. But it is very easily explained if

Ver. 6 C.

And with the children of strangers Israel had treaties and a lively commerce with foreign nations. But this was contrary to the they abound.-The last yerb does not mean they Law and the covenant of Jehovah. For according please themselves, but they abound. - Children of to that Israel should be a separate people from

strangers.-Means strangers themselves,-foreignall other nations: “And ye shall be holy unto and therefore alien from the commonwealth, of

ers considered as descendents of a strange stock Me; for I the LORD am holy, and have severed

Israel.”—J. A. A. you from other people, that ye should be Mine.”

[See comment on i. 4 Lev. xx. 26. Commerce with the world, of binny? 0???--Tr.] course, brought the Israelites material gain, in Ver. 7. “The common interpretation makes gold and silver, horses and wagons, so that, in this verse descriptive of domestic wealth and fact, there was a superfluity of these in the land. luxury. But these would hardly have been But by this growth in riches and power the placed between the superstitions and the idols, divine prohibition (Dent. xvii. 17,) was trans- with which Judah had been flooded from abroad. gressed. It is plain enough now how necessary Besides, this interpretation fails to account for this prohibition was. For with the treasures of gold and silver being here combined with horses this world the idols of this world are drawn in. and chariots.—But on the supposition that the This prohibition would guard against that, for the verse has reference to undue dependence upon subtile idolatry of riches and power would serve foreign powers, the money and the armies of the as a bridge to coarser idolatry, because it turns latter would be naturally named together.- The the heart away from the true God, and thereby form of expression, too, suggests the idea of a reopens a free ingress to the false gods. Thus is Israel, cent acquisition, as the strict sense of the verb is, in consequence of that being full, of which ver. not it is full, nor even it is filled, but it was, or has 6 speaks, also outwardly become full of that which been filled.—J. A. A. parzes for great and glorious in the world. But,

Ver. 9 "They who bowed themselves to idols regarded in the light of Jehovah, this is a false should be bowed down by the mighty hand of eminence. On the subject matter comp. Mich. God, instead of being raised up from their wilful

self-abasement by the pardon of their sins. The 5. Enter into-in that day.--Vers. 10 and relative futures denote, not only succession in 11. These words stand in an artistic double re- time, but the relation of cause and effect.”lation. First, they relate to what precedes (ver.

J. A. A. 9) as specification. Second, to what follows (as Ver. 10. And hide thee in the dust. “May far as iii. 26) as a summary of the contents. For there not be reference here to the mode prevailthe brief words of ver. 9 express only in quite a ing in the East of avoiding the Monsoon, or general way the human abasement, and indicate poisonons heated wind that passes over the dethe sole majesty of Jehovah only by ascribing to sert ? Travelers there, in order to be safe, are Him the royal right of pardon. These words are obliged to throw themselves down, and to place now in both these particulars more nearly de- their mouths close to the earth until it has termined in vers. 10 and 11. With dramatic passed.” — BARNES.]

F. 9 sqq.

a. The judgment against the things falsely eminent in the sub-human and super

human spheres.

CHAPTER II. 12-21.

12

•For the day of the LORD of hosts shall be Upon every one that is proud and lofty,

And upon every one that is lifted up; and he shall be brought low : 13 And upon all the cedars of Lebanon, that are high and lifted up,

And upon all the oaks of Bashan, 14 And upon all the high mountains, And upon

all the hills that are lifted up, 15 And upon every high tower,

And upon every fenced wall, 16 And upon all the ships of Tarshish,

And upon all 'bpleasant pictures. 17 And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down,

And the haughtiness of men shall be made low :

And the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day.
18 And the idols 'he shall utterly abolish.
19 And they shall go into the holes of the rocks,

And into the caves of 'the earth,
For fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty,

When he arises to shake terribly the earth.
20 In that day a man shall cast this idols of silver, and his idols of gold,

Which they made each one for himself to worship,

To the moles and to the bats;
21 To go into the clefts of the rocks,

And into the tops of the ragged rocks,
For fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty,
When he ariseth to shake terribly the earth.

8 Heb. the dust.

1 Heb. pictures of desire.
4 Heb. the idols of his silver, etc.

2 Or, shall utterly pass away:
6 Or, Which they made for him.

. For the Lord of hosts has a day on cvery thing proud, etc. b spectacles of desire.

fissurc8.

TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. Ver. 12. nxin Isaiah only here. Op is often found : 1 in the singular. But then som must be taken as adverb vers. 13, 14; vi. 1; x. 33 ; lvii. 15. On Xuy comp. above Yet wherever this word occurs (only this once in Isa.; ver. 2.-50w1 is to be construed as future, since or 12 comp. Lev. vi. 16 sq.; Deut. xiii

. 17; xxxiii. 10 ; Judg. rah must be regarded as a determination of time that xx. 40; 1 Sam. vii. 9; Ezek. xvi. 14, etc.) it is adjective or

substantive: entire or entircty. I agree therefore with points to the future.

Maurer, who takes 529871 as casus absolutus put Ver. 16. Tidvis är. dey. It comes from 777 before, and long as subject : et idola (quod attinet, eorum) certainly, which, although unused itself, is kindred to universitas peribit.—The fundamental meaning of an nyw, to behold, is only now identified in the substantive

seems to me to be " to change." Out of that develope Navr. According to this etymology 7991 must the apparently opposite meanings "revirescere” (Ps. xc. mean Oéaua, show piece, thus every work of art that is 6; Job xiv. 7; Isa. ix. 9; xl. 31; xli. 1) and “transire, præfitted to gratify the beholder's eye.

terire, porire” (Isa viií. 8; xxi. 1; Ps. cii. 27). The last Ver. 18. I do not deny that Dibob is taken as ideal

is proper here. singular, and may accordingly be joined to the predicate

Ver. 19. 7777? (in Isaiah ngain xxxii. 14) is the natu

.לערץ הארץ in

sure as one word.

ral rock caves, nanp (än. dey., comp. Syyn, pihn), Ixi. I, and 1799-919: Jer. xlvi. 20 would separate what is the cave hewn out by art. Notice the paronomasia was to be united. We must then read onorons as

one word. But how it is to be pointed is doubtful. AcVer. 20. The Prophet might have written here and cording to the analogy of nip???? nisp?py: XII. 22; IXXI. 7,1 702 r, his idols of silver. But nipants, nipspin, we might point it mignons he has chosen the common construction, which rests on this, that nomen rectum and nomen regens

from a singular 1779.99. The meaning of this word are construed as one notion, and thus in some mea can only be digger. But what sort of burrowing animal

is meant, is doubtful. JEROME translated it talpa, mole. - Ir in after 10y is taken in a re

GESENIUS and K NOBEL object to that, that the mole does dexire sense, the enallage numeri would certainly not live in houses : Drechsler that the Hebrew has anbe very strong. Therefore most expositors justly regard the artificers as subject of 107.—The words

other word for mole, i. e., 755. But regarding the forning 1995, as they stand, can only present an infini- mer, as Delitzscu remarks, the mole does, true enough, tive with the prefix, and object following, for there is burrow under buildings, and in regard to the latter no noun 19n. But an infinitive does not suit here, consideration of Drechsler, man also occurs only once and besides there is no noun 1779. Therefore the ren (Lev. xi. 29), and two words for one thing are not undering "hole of the mice,” for which expositors have usual in any language. Yet the foundation for a positive gone to the Arabic, is only an arbitrary one. Evidently opinion is wanting.—Roy, is the bat (Lev. xi. 19; the Masoretes, according to the analogy of nip npoDeut. xiv. 18).

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. With this section the Prophet begins his ex- | as soon as it pleases Him, He can produce it for plication and specification of what he has pre- His purpose (comp. xxii. 5; xxxiv. 8, and espeviously vers. 9-11 said in general. That last cially Ixiii. 4; Jer. xlvi. 10; Ezek. xxx. 3). time, vers. 2-4, which the Prophet described This day is a day of judgment, as already even above in its glorious aspect for Israel, coincides the older prophets portray it: Joel i. 15; ii

. 1, 2, with the time when the Lord shall sit in judg. 11; ii. 4; iv. 14; Amos v. 18, 20. Obad. 15. ment on everything humanly high, that is hostile Indeed the notion of judgment is so closely to Him. And even all impersonal things, thus identified with “ the day of Jehovah” that Isaiah creatures beneath man, on which, in proud arro- in our text construes D1 a day directly as a word gance, men put their trust, shall the Lord make small and reduce to nothing; the cedars of Le-signifying "court of justice,” for he lets by debanon, the oaks of Bashan, the high mountains pend on it. Once more in ver. 12, the notion of and hills, the towers and walls, the ships of high and proud is generally expressed before Tarshish, and all other pomp of human desire (ver. 13) it is individualized. (vers. 12–16). All this shall be abased that the 3. And upon all-in that day.–Verg. 13Lord alone may be high (ver. 17). But the same 17. The judgment of God must fall on all proshall happen to the beings above men, viz.; to the ducts of nature (vers. 13, 14), and upon human idols (ver. 18). That is the idolaters shall hide art (vers. 15, 16) It may be asked, how then themselves in terror before the manifestation of have the products of nature, the trees and mounthat Jehovah whom they have despised (ver. tains become blameworthy? KNOBEL, to be sure, 19); they shall themselves cast their idols to the understands by the cedars houses made of cedar unclean beasts, in order, mindful only of their (comp. 2 Sam. vii. 2,7) and by oaks of Bashun own preservation, to be able to creep into the hol houses of oak wood ( Ezek. xxvii. 6) such as Uzlows and crevices of the rocks. (21).

ziah and Jotham constructed partly for fortifying 2. For the day-brought low.-Ver. 12. the land, partly for pleasure, and by, mountains The Prophet had used for the first time ver. 11 and hills “ the fastnesses that Jotham built in the the expression “ in that day” that afterwards oc- mountains of Judah (2 Chr. xxvii. 4).” But, curs often (comp. v. 17, 20; iii. 7, 18; iv. 1, 2; though one might understand the cedars to mean v. 30). He points thereby to the time which he houses of cedar, (for which, however, must not had before designated as “the last days.” Of be cited ix. 9; Nah. ii. 4, but Jer. xxii. 23 comp. coarse he does not mean that this last time shall Isa. lx. 13) still the mountains and hills can comprehend only one day in the ordinary sense.

fortified places.” 2 Pet. iii. 10, The day that Isa., means is a prophetic day, for seems to me to afford the best commentary on whose duration we must find a different measure than our human one. With the Lord one day is

our passage.

As sure as "7890, angel of the an a thousand years and a thousand years as one

LORD of the Old Testament, is identical with the day. (2 Pet. íii. 8; Ps. xc. 4). But the chief ayyeros kupiov of the New Testament so is also the concern is whether there is really such a day of Di', day of the Lord identical with the the Lord. This the Prophet asserts most dis- népa kvplov (1 Cor. i. 8; 1 Thess. v. 2, etc.). Now tinetly. For precisely because there is such a day of this day of the Lord it is said, in the above ("? før, ver. 12) Isaiah could ver. 17 refer to it. the works that are therein shall be burned up."

passage in Peter, that in it, “the earth also and But this day is a day for Jehovah Sabaoth (comp. If now this last great day has its preliminaries, too, i 9), or more correctly : Jehovah has such in like, on the contrary, the revelation of glory ver. preparation, so to speak, in sure keeping, so that, 12 sqq., has, then we are justified in regarding all

never mean

degrees of God's world-judging activity as parts of His majesty. If the gods were anything, then of “ the day of the Lord.” If then the prophet they would now appear and shield their folhere names only the high mountains and the lowers. But just because they are 0%, nothhighest trees growing on them as representatives of nature, he evidently does so because it is his ings; they cannot do it. We see from this that idea, according to the whole context, to make the enter into the rock and hide thee in the prominent that which is high in an earthly dust” ver. 10, refers especially to the bringing sense, especially what is wont to serve men as

to shame these illusory superhuman highnesses. means of gratifying their lust of power and pomp.

In Rev. vi. 12. sqq., when at ver. 15 our passage But the mountains and the trees on them could is alluded to, the shaking of the earth appears not be destroyed without the earth itself were de- as the effect of a great earthquake. Regarding stroyed. Therefore the high mountains and trees the usus loquendi comp. viii. 12, 13; xxix. 23; are only named as representatives of the entire xlvii. 12. terrestrial nature, of the yī as it is called by Peter, Therefore men shall cast their idols away to the as also afterwards the towers, ships of Tarshish, gnawing beasts of the night in their unclean holes, etc., are only representative of the épya, the human not that their flight may be easier, but because the works, thus the productions of art. The oaks of idols belong there. May there not be an alluBashan, beside this place, are mentioned Ezek. sion in the words to the demon origin of the xxvii. 6; Zech. xi. 2. A parallel is drawn be- idols (1 Cor. x. 20 sq.)? In the description of tween Lebanon and Bashan also xxxiii. 9; Jer. “ A liitle excursion into the Land of Moab,” conxxii. 20; Nah. i. 4.-High towers and strong tained in the Magazine Sueddeutche Reichspost, walls were built by others as well as by. Uzziah 1872, No. 257 sqq., we read in No. 257 the foland Jotham; comp: 2 Chr. xiv. 7; xxxii. 5, etc. lowing, in reference to the discovery of a large -Tarshish is mentioned by Isaiah' again : xxiii. image of Astarte. “ The Bedouins dig in the 1, 6, 10; lx. 9; Ixvi. 19. It is now generally numerous artificial and natural caves for saltacknowledged that the locality lay in south Spain petre for making gunpowder. In this way they beyond the Pillars of Hercules. It is the Tapinosos find these objects that in their time were buried Tartessus of the Greeks; not a city, likely, but the country that lay at the mouth of the Bætis those that understand such 'matters, belonged all

or just thrown there, which, in the judgment of (Guadalquiver): comp. HERZOG, R. Encycl

. X V. of them once in some way to heathen worship, p. 684. Ships of Tarshish are thus large ships and on which the prophecy of Isa. ii. 20 has been fitted for distant and dangerous voyages (Jon, i.

so literally fulfilled.”—Thus they cast their idols 3; iv. 2; 1 Kings x. 22 ; xxii. 49; Ps. xlviii. 8). away, they entertain themselves no more with All this must be destroyed and so must the the care and worship of them, all trust in themi arrogance of men be humbled, that Jehovah is also gone. They only hasten to save themalone may be high in that day. So the pro: selves by flight into the caverns (9777? see Exod. phet repeats, with some modification, the words of ver. 11, to prove that the specifications just xxxiii. 22 from 123, to bore,) and crevices of the given are only meant as the amplification of rocks (comp. lvii. 5). We are, moreover, rethat general thought expressed in ver. 9. For minded of the words in Luke xxiii. 30. these verses 12-16, refer as much back to vers. shall they begin to say to the mountains fall on 9 as do ver. 18 sqq., (especially vers. 18, 21,) to

us; and to the hills, cover us." For what wish ver, 10 a.

can be left to those that have fled to the rocks, 4. And the idols—the earth.–Vers. 17-21. when the rocks themselves begin to shake, except The judgment against the sub-human creatures to be covered as soon as possible from the tumbis followed by that against the superhuman, the ling mountains. idols. As verses 13-16 refer back to ver. 7, 80 ver. 18 sqq., does to ver. 8. But the judgment against the idols is most

[Ver. 20. Idols of silver and idols of gold. “Here notably accomplished when the worshippers of named as the most splendid and expensive, in idols, now visited by the despised, true God, in order to make the act of throwing them away still all His terrible reality, see themselves the noth- more significant. ingness of their idols and cast them away in Moles and bats are put together on account of contempt. Jehovah appears in the awful pomp their defect of sight.”—J. A. A.]

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