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Judah's sins “Zion shall be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the mountain of the house as the high places Of the forests,” Micah iii. 12, the prornise is connected by way of contrast, that this desolation of the divine mount shall be superseded by a *...*** (comp. Gaspahi, Micah der Morasthite a. sqq.). It is most intimately connected with this that ITTY, Micah iv. 1, has a motive in what goes

r: before, whereas, Isa. ii. 2 it has no motive, and is without example in so abrupt a position (comp. DELitzsch). . In the third place the passage in £a. appears, in reference to what łos. as a motto, or a torso, prefixed theme-like, whereas in Micah it forms a well-rounded whole with two following verses. HENGstENBERG is wrong when he refers the words Mie. iv. 4 to the Israelites. The heathen, too, accordin to vers. 2 and 3 are Israelites, and thereby partakers o; the promise given to Israel (Lev. xxvi. 5). For (such is evidently the meaning of ver. 5), while Israel holds to its God forever as the rightful one, the heathen shall hold to their gods, only for a season, viz., until the revolution announced, over. 1, takes place. The im

perfect 135°, ver 5 a. is therefore not future, but sigtifies continuance in the lo. At present the prophet would say, all people walk after their gods, but they will not do this forever as Israel. For, vers. 1-3, he had expressly announced that all heathen shall flow to the mountain of Jehovah. As, therefore, ver. 4 completed the all-comprehensive portrait of peace in the old theocratic sense, according to passages like Lev. xxvi. 5; 1 Kings iv. 25, ver, 5 assigns the reason for the glorious premise made in vers. 1-4. Israel has already now the true way, therefore it needs only to persevere on its way. But the heathen, that are now in the false way, will one time forsake this false way and turn to the right way. The same construction proceeds, and the vers. 1-5 appear o as one work from one mould. In the fourth place, the characteristics of the language in several respects bear the decided impress of Micah. The expression “in the last days,” occurs in Isaiah as in Micah, only in this one place. The expres*ion * no onn is an evident connection with no an onn Mic. iii. 12, a designation that occurs only here, therefore is peculiar to Micah. 2 Chr. xxxiii. 15 " n in on

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- - r: comes from another root, kindred to "A), comp. Ps. xxxiv. 6. The word occurs in Jer. xxxi. 12; li. 44, with the meaning of “flowing, streaming,” but also only in regard to nations.

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EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

1. At the end of days shall the mountain of the house of Jehovah be higher than all mountains, and all peoples shall flow to it, (ver. 2). They shall encourage themselves to walk thither in order to be instructed in the law of Jehovah. For the law going forth from Zion shall be acknowledged as the right lamp of truth (ver. 3).

Then shall all strife among nations be decided by the application of this law, and therefore, so to speak, by the Lord Himself, so that there shall be no more war, but rather weapons of war, and warlike exercises, shall cease. 2. And it shall come to pass... from Jerusalem.—Vers. 2, 3. D'b's n'TN, last days,

which Isaiah never uses, is a relative conception, but always of eschatological significance, whence the LXX correctly translate , it by “év raic faxataw outpac,” or by “{T' &crátov Töv outpøv,” or by “{T' arárov Tów #utpøv.” It is therefore not = in the time following, but = in the last time. Yet it is to be remarked herewith, that, as OEHLER says: “Also the nearer future is set in the light of the last development of the divine kingdom.” Comp. the admirable exposition of this by OEHLER, HERzog's R. Encycl. XVII. S. 653.-In this last time now shall the mountain of the house of Jehovah (comp. Mic. iii. 12) for all time stand unmoved on the top of the mountains, and be exalted above all hills. The mountains are the protuberances of the earth, in which, so to speak, is embodied its effort upwards, its longing after heaven. Hence the mountains also appear especially adapted as places for the revelation of divinity, and as places of worship for men adoring the divinity. W. is great generally, in contrast with little human works, is conceived of as divine work, compare ox-on Ps. xxxvi. 7; lxviii. 16, on-Ins Ps. lxxx. 11, D-ribs, no", "y Jonah iii. 3). But there are mountains of God in a narrower sense; thus, Horeb is called Mount of God, Exod. iii. 1; xviii. 5; and Sinai, Num. x. 33. But above all the mountain of the temple, to which per synecdochen the name of Zion is given, is called the “Mount of God,” the “holy mountain of God,” Ps. ii. 6; iii. 5; xxiv. 3, etc.; Jer. xxxi. 23; Joel ii. 1; iii. 17, etc. But the idols compete with the Holy God for possession of the mountains. For the high places of the mountains are also conse. crated by preference to their worship, so that Israel is often reproached with practising fornication with the idols on every high mountain, 1 Ki. xiv. 23; 2 Ki. xvii. 10; Isa. lvii. 7; lxv.7; Jer. ii.20; iii. 6; xvii. 2; l. 6; Ezek. vi. 2, 3; Hos. iv. 13. But the Scripture recognizes still another rivalry between the mountains. Ps. lxviii. 16 speaks of the basalt mountains of Bashan with their many innacles that look down superciliously upon the † and inconsiderable Mount Zion. All these rivalries shall come to an end. It is debated, how does the prophet conceive of the exalting of Mount Zion over the others? Many have supposed he conceives of Mount Zion as piled up oyer the others, (aliis montibus veluti superimpositum, Vitr.), or thus, that “the high places run together toward it, which thus towers over them, seem to bear it on their heads” (HoFMANN, Weisz. *. Erf II. p. 101). But, comparing other passages, it seems to me probable that Isaiah would say: there will be in general no mountain on earth except Mount Zion alone. All will have become plain; only the mount of God shall be still a mountain. One God, one mountain. If, for example, we consider the words below, vers. 12–17 the prophet says there that divine judgment shall go forth upon all that is high in the world, and all human loftiness shall be humbled, that “the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day.” Just so, too, we read xl. 4, “Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low, and the crooked shall be made straight and the rough places plain.” When hills and vallies disappear, the land becomes even. To be sure,

it seems as if xl. treats only of a level road for
the approaching king. But this level road is pre-
pared for the Í. precisely and only thereby,
that in all the land, all high places shall disap-
pear upon which idols could be worshipped.
Zechariah expresses still more clearly the thought
that the sole dominion of the Lord is conditioned
on the restoration of a complete plain in the land.
He says, xiv. 9, 10. “And the Lord shall be
king over all the land; in that day shall be one
LoRD, and His name one. All the land shall
turn to lowness from Geba to Rimmon south of
Jerusalem; But this itself shall be lifted up, and
shall abide in its place,” etc. It may be ob-
jected to this explanation that ii. 2, the presence
of mountains and hills is in fact presupposed, be-
cause it says, “at the top of the mountains,” and
“higher than the hills.” But must the prophets .
in the places cited above, have thought of the re-
storation of a plain in a mathematical sense ?
Certainly not. The notion of a plain is relative.
There shall, indeed, remain therefore, mountains
and hills, but in comparison with the mountain
of the Lord, they shall no more deserve these
names; they shall appear as plains.

From this results that Usha is not = upon the head (this must be expressed by vsh by comp.

Exod. xxxiv. 2. 1 Sam. xxvi. 13; Isa. xxx. 17) but = at the top or head (comp. Am. vi. 7; Deut. xx. 9; 1 Sam. ix. 22; 1 Kings xxi. 9, 12). This latter however, cannot mean that the mountain of the Lord shall have the other mountains behind it, but under itself. Without doubt “the mountain of the house of the Lord,” and the oso" Dinn on andni, on of Ezekiel are identical, (Ezek. xvii. 22 sq.; xx. 40, xxxiv. 14; xl. 2). This high mountain shall be exactly the opposite of that “tower whose top may reach unto heaven” Gen. xi. 4, which, being a self-willed structure by the hands of insolent men, separated mankind. For our divine mountain, a work of God, reunites mankind again. They all see it in its glory that is radiant over all things, and recognize it not only as the source of their salvation, but also as the centre of their unity. Therefore they flow from all sides to it. These “Many people,” i.e., countless nations, which are essentially the same as the “all nations” mentioned before, shall mutually encourage one another “to go up,” (the solemn word for religious journies, comp. CASPARI, Micha, p. 140), for which a fourfold object is named: the mountain of Jehovah; on the mountain the house of the God of Jacob: in the house the instruction out of the ways of God (the ways of God are conceived of as the source of the instruction, comp. xlvii 13; Ps. xciv. 12); and, in consequence of this instruction, the walking in the paths of God. Only the words from “Come ye” to “his paths” contain the language of the nations. The following phrase “for out of Zion,” gives the reason that shall determine the nations to such discourse and conduct. Tyn, law, is neither the (Sinaitic) law, for it must then read minn, nor the law of the king

ruling in Zion. For what goes forth from Zion is just what the nations seek. They do not seek a political chief, however, but one that will teach

them the truth. nyin is therefore to be taken in the sense of the preceding oi", he will teach ws. It is therefore primarily doctrine, instruction in

general, but which immediately is limited as * † word of the Jehovah. But shall the nations,

turn toward Zion only because “law” goes forth from thence? Did not then, even in the Prophet's time and before that, law go out from Zion; and did the nations let themselves be determined by that to migrate to Zion ? We shall then need to construe “law” and “word of the Lord ” in a pregnant sense: that which deserves the name of divine doctrine in the highest and completest sense, therefore the absolute doctrine, which alone truly satisfies and therefore also irresistibly draws all men. This doctrine, i.e., the gospel of Jesus Christ is, true enough, gone forth out of Jerusalem, and may be called the Zionitic Tora, in contrast with the Sinaitic. (Comp. DELITZSCH in loc.). Therefore that “preaching repentance and remission of sins in the name of Christ to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem,” Luke xxiv. 47, is the beginning of the fulfilment of our prophecy. Comp. Zech. viii. 20 sqq.

3. And he shall judge—learn war any more.—Ver. 4. The consequences of this divine instruction, sought and received by the nations, shall be, that the nations shall order their affairs and compose their judicial processes according to the mind of him that has taught them. So shall God appear as that one who judges between the nations and awards a (judicial) sentence. The Spirit of God that lives in His word is a Spirit of love and of peace. . The God of peace sanctifies, therefore, the nations through and through (1 Thess. v. 23) so that they no more confront one another in the sense and spirit of the brute power of this world, but in the mind and spirit of the Kingdom of God. They are altogether children of God, brothers, and are become one great family. War ceases; the implements of war become superfluous; they shall be forged over into the instruments of peace. The exercises at arms, by which men in peace prepare for war, fall of themselves away. The meaning “plowshare” evidently corresponds best to the context, in which the contrast between Agriculture and war is the fundamental idea; at the same time it may be remarked that a scythe, mattock, or hoe, does not need to be forged over again to serve for arms, Joel 3:10–The Top (xviii. 5) is the vine-dresser's knife. A lance head may easily be made out of it. It is remarkable, that excepting this place, Isaiah, who speaks so much of war, uses, none of the words that in Hebrew mean “spear, lance.”

As regards the fulfilling of our prophecy, the Prophet himself says that it shall follow in the last time. If it now began a long time ago; if especially the appearance of the Lord in the flesh, and the founding of His kingdom and the preaching of the gospel among all nations be an element of that fulfilment, yet it is by no means a closed up transaction. What it shall yet bring about we know not. If many, especially Jewish expositors have taken the words too coarsely, and outwardly, so, on the other hand, we must guard against a one-sided spiritualizing. Certainly the prophets do not think of heaven. Plows and pruning hooks have as little to do with heaven, as swords and spears. And what has the high place of Mount Zion to do in heaven? Therefore our passage speaks for the view that one time, and that, too, here on this earth, the Lord shall appropriate the kingdom, (lx. 21; Matt. v. 5), suppress the world kingdoms and bring about a condition of peace and glory. That then what is outward shall conform to what is inward, is certain, even though we must confess our ignorance in regard to the ways and means of the realization in particulars. o: the question of ii. 2-4 being original to Isa. or Micah, J. A. ALEXANDER says: “The verbal variations may be best explained, however, by supposing that they both adopted a traditional prediction current among the people in their day, or, that both received the words directly from the Holy Spirit. So long as we have reason to regard both places as authentic and inspired, it matters little what is the literary history of either.” BARNEs says: “But there is no improbability in supposing that Isa., may have availed himself of language, used by Micah in describing the same event.” At ver. 2. “Instead of saying, in modern F.". that the church, as a society, shall ecome conspicuous and attract all nations, he represents the mountain upon which the temple stood as being raised and fixed above the other mountains, so as to be visible in all directions.” —J. A. A. Ver. 4. “Vol.NEY states that the Syrian plow is often nothing but the branch of a tree, cut below a bifurcation, and used without wheels. The plowshare is a piece of iron, broad but not large, which tips the end of the shaft. So much does it resemble the short sword used by the ancient warriors, that it may with very little trouble, be converted into that deadly weapon; and when the work of destruction is over, reduced again to its former shape.”—BARNEs.] Ş. W. o seen it—ploughing on Mount Zion.

2. THE FALSE EMINENT THINGS AND THEIR ABASEMENT IN GENERAL.

CHAPTER II. 5–11.

5 O house of Jacob, come ye,
And let us walk in the light of the LORD.

6 Therefore thou hast forsaken thy people the house of Jacob,
Because they be replenished 'from the East,
And are soothsayers like the Philistines,
And they "please themselves in the children of strangers.

7 Their land also is full of silver and gold,
Neither is there any end of their treasures;

Their kand is also full of horses,

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“Therefore forgive them not.

10 Enter into the rock, and hide thee in the dust,
For fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty.

11 The lofty looks of man shall be humbled,
And the haughtiness of men shall be bowed down,
And the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day.

1 Or, more than the East.

a repudiated.
a man is bowed down,
And thou wilt not forgive them.

* Or, abound with the children, etc.

* make covenant with foreign born.
* everybody humbled. eign

TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL.

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Ver. 6. toty) stands very commonly in the sense of re- r pudiate: Judg. vi. 13; 1 Sam. xii. 22; 1 Kings viii. 57; Ps. xxvii. 9; xeiv. 14; Jer. vii. 29; Ezek. xxix. 5; xxxii. 4. But especially the notion of totox appears signifi- r cantly as contents of the “burden of Jehovah,” and probably with reference to our passage; Jer. xxiii. 33: comp. xii. 7 and 2 Kings xxi. 14. In many of these places Dry stands parallel with toto). From that, and - -r from the impossibility of taking by – by Yo, way, fashion of the people, nationality, the inaccuracy appears of the explanation given by SAApia, TARG., J. D. Mich AELIS and others: “thou hast abandoned thy nationality.” topp *Nop, according to the comment below, is particularly to be maintained as the correct reading. Thus both the conjecture of BRENz and Böttch ER (Erra. Krit. AEhrenlese, p. 29) popp (comp. Ezek. xii. 24; xiii. * 1:

7), and that of Grsrsms (in his Thesau. s. v. D.T., p. 1193, though in his commentary he declares for the text). Depp (comp. Jer. xiv. 14; Ezek. xiii. 6, 23) are needless. Also the signification of old translations (as to in die

xis, LXX., ut olim, Vulg., ut antea, Peschit., sicut ab initio, Targ., Jon.) is incorrect, because the insertion of the particle of comparison and the leaving out of ac

count the Y before Doy are arbitrary. DRECHSLER has justly called attention to the fact that Rop with |p never means the same as Rop with the accusative. For the first does not so much name the matter with which one is filled as the source, the fund, the provision out of which the matter is drawn. Thus e. g. Exod. xvi. 32, upp npy: son is not: imple mesuram eo, but ex 20, i. e., fill the omer with the proper quantity taken from the whole mass. Comp. Lev. ix. 17; Jer. li. 34; Ezek. xxxii. 6; Ps. cxxvii. 5. It is different Eccl. i. 8. D'lly (Lev. xix. 26: Isa. lvii. 3; Jer. xxvii. 9; 2 Kings xxi.'s; 2 Chron. xxxiii. 6) or polyp (Deut. xviii. 10, 14; Mic. v. 11) according to the context of the passages cited,

are places of magicians or diviners. For the word stands parallel with Ag: sometimes, and sometimes with tiny, as, then, in substance both are nearly related. But the fundamental meaning is doubtful. FLEisch EB in a note in DELITzsch in loc. controverts the fundamental meaning maintained by FUERst, “tecta, arcana faciens,” and also the derivation from Ty (oculo maligno fascinans), and would derive it either from |:

r ciotod (weathermaker), or from the Arabic root anna (coercere, stop by magic).-As regards the construction, Daechsles has remarked that the absence of Dn must The verb poor in this sentence causes no little trouble. Dibby occurs in only

- r three places in the Old Testament: Job xxvii. 23; 1 Kings Xz. 10 and here. Beside that there is also the noun Pot. (PPP) Job xx. 22; xxxvi. 18.-Job xxvii. 23 we read the words in B5 phy pho. Here evi-- - -- : • dently Pag- PBP which often occurs for clapping - --r

the hands together, or for slapping on the thigh: Num. xxiv. 10; Lam. ii. 15; Jer. xxxi.19; FZek. xxi. 17. But 1 Kings xx. 10, the king Ben-Hadad of Syria says: “The gods do so unto me and more also, if the dust of Samaria shall suffice pao) for handfuls for all the people that follow me."' And with this agrees also the Aramaic PEP redundare, and the Pon “superfluere, satis esse" of the late Hebrew.—Also in regard to the substantive Peo the same division of meaning occurs. For while

job xx. 22 the context requires the meaning “abundantia," opinions vary a great deal in regard to Job xxxvi. 12. Still to me the weight of reason seems on the side of the meaning “explosio," (disapproval, insult by hand clapping, comp. Job xxxiv. 26, 27). And the explanations of our passage divide into two classes, in that the one bring out the fundamental idea of striking, the other that of superabundance, but each variously modified. The Hiphil occurs only here. It is to be construed in a direct causative sense (complosionem sacere).

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occasion no surprise.

Wer. 8. box from ox with intentional like sound to ‘’s, bribs, comp. Zech. xi. 17 ; Jer. xiv. 14; Isa. ii. 18, 20; x. 10 sq.; xix. 1,3; xxxi. 7. The singular suffix in )" and l'nyi,xx is to be noticed in grammatical respects. Expositors correctly construe the suffixes as distributive. Comp. v. 23 concerning the ideal number.

Ver. 9. At first sight the explanation (adopted, e.g., by LUTHER), commends itself, that takes the verbs nojo and *Evr as descriptive of the voluntary homage that the Israelites rendered to the great things depicted verse 7 sq. It appears to belong to the completeness of the mournful picture that the Prophet draws here of the condition of Israel, that also that recognition should be mentioned which those great things named, vers. 7, 8, received at their hands. Moreover the similarity of construction seems to point to a continuation of that strain of complaint against Israel already begun. Indeed the second half of ver. 9 “and forgive them not,” seems to form the fitting transition to the announcement of judgment, whereas these words, if the announcement of judpment begins with 9 a. already, seem to be an üa repov mpórepov. That nint; and "Bw in what follows (vers. 11, 12, 17) and especially v. 15, are used for involuntary humiliation would be no objection, in as much as a contrast might be intended. Nevertheless I decide in favor of the meaning approved by all recent expositors, viz., involuntary bowing. What determines me is, first, that already ver. 8 b speaks of the voluntary bowing to idols. Had the prophet meant to emphasize, not simply this, but also the bowing before the idols of riches and power, he would surely have joined both in a different fashion than happens if ver. 9 a. is referred to ver. 7. And then Isaiah must have said: on "x nnn", but thou forgive them not. That the antithesis is not marked in ver. 9 b, is proof that none exists. But then in this case ver. 9 a. itself must contain a threatening of judgment. It is no objection to this that it is expressed in narrative form with the vav. consecutivum; comp. DREclisler in loc. Ver. 9 b is then not antithesis but explanatory continuation. *s must then be taken in the weaker signification of Rh. Comp. 2 Kings vi. 27.-DTN and v's (comp. v. 15; xxxi. 8; Ps. xlix. 3; Prov. viii. 4) form only a rhetorical, not a logical antithesis. It is not - mean and great, but –

all and every. The idea of “man” is only for the sake of parallelism expressed by two synonymous words.

Comp. ver. 11. After styn must iy be supplied, comp.

gen. xviii. 24, 26; Hos. i. 6, coll. Isa'xxxiii. 24. Ver. 10. ." "ins, genitive of the object, comp. 1 Sam. xi. 7; 2 Chr. xiv. 13; xvii. 10 and below vers. 19 and 21.

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