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28 And the destruction of the trangressors and of the sinners shall be together,
And they that forsake the LORD shall be consumed. 29 For they shall be ashamed of the oaks which ye have desired, And ye shall be confounded for the gardens that
have chosen. 30 For ye shall be as an oak whose leaf fadeth,
And as a garden that hath no water. 31 And the strong shall be as tow,
*And 'the maker of it as a spark,
4 Or, And his work.
? his work a spark.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL.
Ver. 21. Concerning the distinction between 1273, P.7Y| OP?, ultionem capere, Judg. xvi. 28 ; 1 Sam. xiv. 24; Jer. and oppo comp. Drechsler in loc. I will only remark xv. 15; xlvi. 10, etc. that the grammatical form P.73 requires as its primitive,
Ver 25. Whereas I Jon means either “ to draw fundamental meaning "the being righteous, integrity,” back the hand,” Gen. xxxviii. 29; Josh. vili. 26; 1 Sam. therefore the idea of the verb p?y in its abstract gen. xiv. 27; 1 Kings xiii. 4; Isa. xiv. 27; or “ to return the
hand to a place,” Exod. iv. 7, or “to bring the hand erality (. , ), although also abstract, signifies integrity as the moral repeatedly somewhere” Jer. vi. 9, by ma'un in most quality of a person, and as the prerequisite of right doing. places of its occurrence (Ezek. xxxviii. 12: Amos i. Comp. also Ewald, & 143 a ; 150 6.-oopp on the other 8; Zech. xiii. 7; Ps. lxxxi. 15; comp. 2 Sam. viii. 3) - to band, involves the idea of right per se, and in every respect
turn one's hand in a figurative sense, i. e., to turn in an of its concrete realization. It is thus at onco normal right, hostilo way against any one. Sono stannum or plumbum and also rightful claim, legal proceeding, verdict, and nigrum, only used this once in Isa. 13 - Mi vegejudgment. It is natural that in application the three table alkali, only here in Isa., comp. Job ix. 30. As the conceptions should blend with one another. -?, related alkali does not effect the smelting process, but only by root to say is properly pernoctare, then “to stay, to promotes it, 739 must not be construed as nominative, dwell" generally: comp. Ps. xxv 13; Prov. xv. 31; Job but as an accusative that supplies the preposition that IlI. 1.-The verb 737 does not again occur in Isaiah; is wanting after 3 (alkali fashion, comp. on 2717 vers. its participle Piel only 2 Kings vi. 32.- Regarding the
20 and 12), comp. GESENIUS, & 118, 3 Anm; the plural construction of ver. 21, '3 inxSo is not in a manner in bobina, lead pieces, is the only form of the word, which apposition with Ox), as one might be tempted to think, out of liking for the easier grammatical connec
occurs only here; comp. Ezek. xxii. 18, 20; xxvii. 12.tion, for tbe sense is decidedly against it.
Kindred passages, whose authors may have had our text .
in mind, are Jer. vi. 20 sq.; Zech. xiii. 7 sqq.
Ver. 26. The beginning with '0xi has almost the more correct than D'20, comp. Ezek. xxii. 18 sq.; Ps.
appearance of a rhyme in relation to the same word, ver. cxix. 119; Prov. XXV. 4; xxvi. 23; only in Isainh again, 25. Evidently the prophet intends to emphasize the ver. 25. Xab, only found again Hos. iv. 18, comp. Isa. difference of sense by the similar sound of the words. Ivi. 12, that with which one carouses, intoxicates himself, The construction is an adverbial prolepsis. For whereas in French, ce qui soule. Sarip år. dey., is kindred to
otherwise, in prolepsis that, which is the effect of the
transaction, is adjoined to the object in the form of ad583 circumcised, cut, comp. juglare Falernum, Martial
jective, the adjoining occurs here in adverbial form; fp. i. 18; castrare vinum, Plin. Hist. Nat.
(comp. Jer, xxxiii. 7, 11; and 1 Kings xiii. 6). Ver. 23. 1990 and 17710 (comp. xxx. 1; lxv. 2; Jer.
Ver. 28. As regards the sense, it does not matter vi. 28; Hos. ix. 15) is a play on words and indicates the
whether we take you (properly fractura xv. 5; xxx. 26) relation of those men to God (1. Table), as the following (lyn) does their relation to men (2. Table, comp.
as predicate, as Ilitzig does, or, like most others, as the Prov. xxix. 24)~The singular 15.9 embraces the dining object of an exclamatory phrase. As in this chapter
several such nominatives occur absolutely, and repre. as unity, as rank. Dispho is är dey. Ind is in Isa. senting a phrase (vers. 7, 13), the latter may be more 1.23; xxxiii. 15; xlv. 13.
Ver. 24. On 'in comp. ver. 4. The Niphal DN) is used Ver. 29. The singular of pobe occurs only once Gen. here in the gense“ to breathe again refreshed," l. e., "refresh oneself,” as lvii. 6; Jer. xxxi. 15; Ezek. xxxi. 16,
6 . etc. This meaning, however, changes to the kindred one (ver. 30) is always used elsewhere. The meaning “Tereof DP? to revenge, Niphal, to revenge oneself. For re- binth," which, parallel with meanings "strength," and venge is a refreshment. Therefore also is ond joined
“ram" (comp. the Latin robur), develops out of the funda
mental meaning torquere, is now admitted by all exposihere with j?, which construction is the usual one for
tors, whereas many of the older ones, following the LXX,
סוג because of the derivation from סִינִים .22
אֵלָה As singular אֵיל פָּארָן xlv.6 in the proper name
and Vulgate, took the word in the sense of “ Idols." | Kal of 42; becomes a noun both in the masculine and Isa, mentions the dig as objects of idolatrous worship, in the feminine. In that case it would be rendered ; a also lvii, 6, whereas, lxi. 3, he opposes to thes) idolatrous terebinth, foliage that falls, (are) its leaves. 7?y is to ones the pts ? x, trees (Terebinths) of righteousness. be taken collectively -- foliage. Comp. Jer. xvii. 8; Ps. with plainly a pregnant meaning.–The word niza only 1.3; Ezek. xlvii. 12. As the plural occurs only in the Isa., uses of the groves of idols, lxv. 3; lxvi. 17; comp. later Hebrew, (Neh. viii. 15), the reading 17ky is to be also IIERZOG's R. Encycl. V. p. 4. 4, Art. Haine." The ab- rejected rupt change of person in animated address cannot be
Ver. 31. The word jön occurs beside here only in thought strange. As 739 (xl.v. 9;) and ina (lxvi. 3
Amos ii. 9. According to this passage, and Ps. lxxxix, sq.; Josh. xxiv. 15, 22, etc.), are often used of religious 9 (where the form ; on occurs) and according to tho deciding, so, still more frequently via (xx 5; Jer. ii. 26; xlviii. 13, e c.), and non ixxiv. 23; Mic. iii. 7, etc.), jon (xxxiii. 6; Jeremiah xx. 5, etc.), whence the are used for the confounding results of the assurance Niphal foņ: (xxiii. 18), the meaning can only be opureposed in idols.
lentus, opibus validus. The punctuation yo does not Ver. 30. hy may be construed as the accusative of
conflict with our explanation ; see Ereg. and Crit. For, closer definition (a terebinth falling away in regard apart from the fact that it is not without analogy, the to its leaves), because kaj as feminine connects more
use of jóņ for idols would be quite unusual, and the easily with 71% than with the masculine n?y. Yet idea that the idolater plunges his idols in ruin would to me it seems more probable that had is to be joined not only be strange, but also wholly without motive in to ohy, not as adjective, however, but as substantive the context —— The formula 173377"*** occurs in Isa, For, as we see from xxviii. 1, 4; xxxiv. 4, the participle I only here; elsewhere Amos v. 6; Jer. iv. 4; xxi. 12.
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The prophet first looks back into the past. I the wilderness, as Hos. xi. 1; Jer. ii. 2, or the What were the people formerly? They were a period of David and Solomon? But as the propeople in whom faithfulness and righteousness flourished. But then he asks: what are they phet speaks here of the city. (77777) by which he now? A ruined nation, in which unrighteousness can only mean Jerusalem, so one can only think and violence hold the sceptre. (vers. 21-23). immediately of the beginning period of the kingThe Lord will subject this people to a severe dom. The prophet seems to have especially in process of purifying, (vers. 24, 25): whose conse- mind the early days of Solomon.
For this, quences will be a future, two-fold in form; a) the without doubt, was in respect to the administragood elements will attain their original su- tion of justice the golden age of Israel. For in premacy, Jerusalem will again become a city of answer to Solomon's prayer for "an understandjustice, and by justice become partaker of salva- ing heart, to judge the people and to discern betion (vers. 26, 27); b) but the bad elements, the tween good and bad,” the Lord had given him apostates that have forsaken Jehovah and served a wise and understanding heart, so that there idols, shall by their own works be pitiably de- was none like him before him, neither after him
be like him.” i Kings iii. 9, 12. stroyed (vers, 28-31). 2. How is the faithful city - widow dered (ibid ver. 16 sq.), the people saw that
And by the celebrated judgment Solomon roncome unto them.-Vers. 21–23. DELITZSCH the wisdom of God was in him, to do judgment justly remarks that ver. 21 calls to mind the tone
Solomon of the 1947, the Elegy. And I have myself, in (ibid, ver. 28); And, moreover, as
loved Jehovah” (ibid ver. 3), he was permitted the comnient on Lam. i. 1, pointed to the de- also to build the Lord “ an house," and thereby pendence of that passage on this. The tone of to join the Lord and the people together by an sament, the 772 (occurring four times in Lam.), important outward tie. Hence could Jerusalem, the archaic form nga made this passage appear in reference to that time, be justly named a to the author of Lam, a suitable prototype and
fixed city” (comp. 1PX) Dipp xxii. 23, 25; of departure.-By reason of many expres-3 na 1 Sam. ii. 35; xxv. 28), that "
was full sions in the Pentateuch, that designate idolatry of justice,” and in which righteousness had, not as whoredom (Exod. xxxiv. 15 sq.; Lev. xvii.
a transitory, but a permanent abode. It is there7; xx. 5 sqq.; Num. xv. 39; Deut. xxxi. 16). fore doubtful whether, in addition to this eleIsa., here calls Jerusalem 77311 on account of its vated point represented by Solomon, we may reapostacy from Jehovah by grosser and more re- gard the reign of Jehoshaphat, with its reformafined idolatry. Comp Hos. i. 2; ii. 6 sqq.; iv. tion of justice, 2 Chr. xix. 5 sq., that came an 10 éqq.; Jer. ii
. 23 sqq.; iii. 1 sqq.; Ezek. xvi. hundred years later, as referred to in this place. 15 sqq., etc.). It was become such, however, only for that effort can only be looked on as a moin process of time. For originally, so to speak, mentary check of the downward course that the in its paradisaical or golden age it was 773?$: nation began with Rehoboan. It may be asked faithful. It may be asked ; does the prophet by with more justice ; did not Isaiah have in mind this golden age mean the time of wandering in 'here also an earlier age than that of Solomon ?
frighteousness ,צדק ילין בה The phrase
If only the city, and not the nation, is in question | cially by employing in detail all the titles of the here, that age could only be Melchisedec's. This Lord. He uses the solemn DN), which is found occurred to VITRINGA, but with a
in Isa. much more seldom than in Jer., and Ezek. he left the matter in suspenso. I believe that the Also p7x7? occurs in Isa. relatively, not often; reference to Melchisedec's time is not to be rejected, and shall give the reason for this at ver.
comp. ver. 9, on “of hosts;" (???!" the mighty 26.
of Israel,” is found first Exod. xlix. 24,
one, , “
The latter lodged in it,” is only another turn and at the where however it reads apy * same time the establishing of the sentiment form appears in all the rest of the places where it "full of judgment." For if Jerusalem is full is used, xlix. 26; 1x. 16; Ps. cxxxii. 2, 5.of the concrete manifestation of a truly right
“Ah! I will ease," etc. The Lord announces His living, then this comes only from the fact that intervention in terms that make known His dethe idea of right has, so to speak, taken up its termination to obtain satisfaction. permanent abode in Jerusalem. The words " full I will turn, etc.- In the passages cited (see Text. of judgment,” therefore, belong to what follows, & Grum.) the hand of the subject is not said to have and stand absolutely, at the beginning (comp? been previously on the object namcd, and as little ver. 13), the one full of right,-righteousness is such the case here. The translation of UMBREIT, dwelt in her; but now murderers. The anti-therefore, “let come afresh” is not admissible. thesis is, of course, not quite complete. Either And for the same reason we must not, with Vi7859 must be wanting or else a corresponding the sanans et benefica manus, the healing and bene
TRINGA, who appeals to xi. 11, refer, 7' 2'07 to adversative be found. It must either say: as re-ficent hand of God. The totality of the nation gards justice, righteousness formerly dwelt in it
, shall be subjected to a purifying process which but now murderers,-or; full of justice, right- the prophet compares to the process by which eousness dwelt in it; devoid of justice, murderers silver ore is freed from the mixture of ignoble swarm in it. But the prophet, evidently influ- metal, and rendered solid silver .(7973 72? or enced by an effort at brevity, expresses in the second member of the adversative phrase only PP? Ps. xii. 7). The separation of the lead ore that thought that corresponds to the thought of is promoted by applying alkali, comp. WINER the first member, and easily joins on to it. That R. W. B., word, Netals. one may not translate, “it was full of justice"
4. And I will restore-with righteousarises from the absence of the pronomen separatum. ness:-Vers. 26, 27. With these words the proFor only in cases where this may be supplied of phet indicates the positive good that shall arise itself may it be dispensed with.
from this purifying process; such judges and Thy silver is become.-With these words counsellors as shall resemble those of the early the prophet passes from the region of the inward age (ver. 21) and by whose agency Jerusalem and general to that of the concrete outward ap- is seen that the prophet ascribes a decisive effect
shall become a righteous and faithful city. It pearance. The silver of Jerusalem has become
to the influence of the chiefs of the state. He dross, the noble wine mixed with water. The noble metal, the noble wine can only mean the in his times, how great must have been this in
must very well have known, by what he observed noble men. And it appears from ver. 23, which explains the figurative language, that the prophet fluence for evil. This place reminds us much of has the princes of the people in mind.
For as Isa, in Jer. xxiii. 3-6; xxxiii. 15, 16.
Dicitur argentum, etc. “The silver is said to be turned tion of a good administration that shall exercise
this place, so there Jer., promises the restorainto dross, and the pure wine to be mixed with water, when judges and senators turn from purity righteousness, and procure a name that shall be and grave manners, from integrity, sincerity and significant of that righteousness. Here as there, candor, and prostitute their own dignity." Vi- that name shall be an ideal one (not a name actTRINGA.
ually employed, comp. my comment on Jer. xxiii.
6). The glorious end shall correspond to the gloriAs dross is related to silver, the emblem of
ous beginning, (comp. "faithful city," "rightmoral purity (comp. LEYRER in Herzog's R. eousness lodged in it,” ver. 21). It is, moreover, Encycl
. xv. p. 111, 114) so the diluting with to me very probable that by the original and water to the strong wine. On the matter of the first times Isa. understands, not only Solomon's ver. comp. Jer. vi. 28; Ezek. xxii. 18 sqq.
time, but also Melchizedec's. For p.7} and Thy princes, etc.-By these words the prophet himself shows, as he often does, the meaning 2017? (city of righteousness and king of of his figurative language. On the change of righteousness) comp. Heb. vii. 2, look quite too number comp. Ps. v. 10. “It is not dihp, that X.; (comp. Adoni-bezek, Jud. i. 5; 1 Sam. xi.
much alike. Also the name Adoni-zeciec, Josh. they chase after, hut d'adu, not peace, but
proves that not only one king of Salem had a pa
name composed of Zedec. It can only be objected cifying their greed." DELITZSCH. Comp. ver. 236 that Melchizedec does not belong to the beginwith ver. 17 b, and the comment there.
ning of the Israel Jerusalem. Yet he does belong 3. Therefore-all thy tin.-Vers. 24, 25. to the beginning of the Jerusalem of the history From the contemplation of the past and present of grace. This city had not become the capital the prophet now turns to consider the future. city of Israel, had it not before that been the The transition to it shall be made by a grand act city of Melchizedec; and all the glory and signiof judgment and purifying. The prophet intro- ficance of the Israel Jerusalem is only a transiduces his discourse with solemn language, espe-| tional fact, that would restore that ancient glory
those) שָׁבֵי פִשָׁע by reference to the שׁבים This
of Melchizedec. (comp. my Art. Melchizedec in ing, Eng. vers. “converts ") had to suffer hitherto HERZOG's R. Encycl. ix. p. 300 sq.). We are so on account of the unrighteousness of their rulers. much the more justified in this reasoning as the ideal fact of the future that the prophet has in
, ( view is, without doubt, identical with the Mes turning from transgression) lix. 20 has been sianic future (comp. xi. 3-5; Ps. Ixxii. 1 sq.); translated converts;" [so Eng. ver.). But to the Messiah, however Ps. cx. 4 (comp. Heb. v.
me it seems more likely that Isa., whose manifold 6, 10; vi. 20; vii. 1 sqq.), is expressiy designated word, uses the word here in the double sense of
use of 10 is a prelude to Jeremiah's use of the as the antitype of Melchizedec. Ver. 27, is difficult. The question is; by whose has in Jer. (comp. my comment on Jer. xxxi.
the spiritual and bodily return, that it so often righteousness is Zion redeemed? To this three 22). To be sure Isa., does not, in what precedes, answers are given. Some say by the righteous- speak expressly of the Exile. But this notion is cially, “Because in it there shall be those who impliedly contained in ver. 25. For, of course exercise justice, it is redeemed from its iniqui- the exile belonged essentially to that mighty ties." RASCHI. But that conflicts with vers. 24, smelting and purifying process to which the 25; for according to these declarations the Lord people must be subjected. Let a comparison be Himself vindicates the cleansing and deliver- Messianic salvation, and it will
be seen ihat pre
made of the passages that give a survey of the ance of Israel as His own judging and sifting cisely the return to the holy land, which of course operation Others regard the judgment and
cannot be conceived of without the spiritual rerighteousness in question as God's. Against this idea there is, in itself, naturally nothing to ob- form, forms a principal element (see my comment ject, in as much as there are plenty of passages later passages like the germ to the developed
Jer. iii. 18). If therefore our text is related to in which saving effect is ascribed to the right- plant, then we are right in regarding the latter as eousness of God. DELITZSCH, who adopts this view, cites especially iv. 4; v. 16; xxviii, 17. the 1720 in the double sense of a spiritual and
a commentary on it, and accordingly in taking But then ver. 27 would, in substance, say only in other words what is already contained in vers. bodily return (Ezr. vi. 21; Neh. viii. 17). 24, 25. It is to be considered moreover,--and
5. And the destruction none shall therein is seen the third answer to our inquiry, quench them.-Vers. 28-31. The reverse side that in many passages, to which this is nearest of the smelting process, the fate of the "dross" kindred in its description of Messianic salva- is presented to us here. It is difficult to say what tion, the righteousness of the administration of difference there is between Diyos, (transgressors) justice forms an essential element of that glori; and Dixon (sinners). At all events the former order and support the kingdom of David with is the more particular, (see ver. 2), the latter the judgment and righteousness. Thus xi. 3-5 it is
more general word. Both words signify inimical said of the rod out of Jesse, that he shall judge conduct, the former more toward the person of the poor with righteousness, and that righieous- Jehovah, the latter more to the idea of the good. ness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithful. At the same time Non as Piel form, contains an ness the girdle of his reins. And xvi. 5 we read that upon the throne and in the tabernacle of intensive force in comparison with xun ver. 4.David one shall sit,“ judging and seeking judg: The aij, " they that forsake,” are related to ment, and hastening righteousness.”. Jeremiah's celebrated prophecies, xxiii. 5 sq. and
the transgressors," as negative to positive. Whoxxxiii. 15, it is emphatically said that the Lord
ever does evil conducts himself, in some fashion, will raise unto David a righieous Branch, and that aggressively against the Lord. But whoever dethis one shall restore judgment and righteousness serts from the Lord is an idolater. In this sense in the land, and shall procure to him the name the expression “-morp is often used ; so ver. Jehovah our righteousness. And, to prevent our 4; still more plainly lxv. 11, the sole place in thinking that this righteous government is to be Isa., beside this where the participle occurs in only the prerogative of the Messiah, it is said connection with !"; comp. Hos. iv. 10; Jer. ii. Isa. xxxii. 1, expressly of the princes” too, 13; xvi. 11; xvii. 13 (in which place Jer., had “they shall rule, in judgment.
our text before him); xxii. 9; 1 Kings ix. 5, etc. also, which does not at all mention the person of For yo shall be ashamed, etc. —The genthe Messiah, speaks of judges and counsellors in eral declaration that “the transgressors,” etc., the plural, which may remain undetermined shall be destroyed, is more particularly estabwhether the abstract pluralis generalis, is meant lished by two connected sentences, each of which or an actual pluralis multitudinis. In the former begins with "for," and the second is subordinated case the plural would include the Messiah, and to the first. Those that forsake the Lord would this is in the end, the more probable; in the not be destroyed if they found the expected help latter case the righteous judges and counsellors from those to who.n they deserted. But they are would be distinguished from the Messiah, who destroyed because they do not find in idols this is only presented in idea. In any case, by help; consequently are brought to shame in the our construction, ver. 27 is a corollary of ver. hopes they entertained in this direction. I un26. The righteous judges named in ver. 26, derstand, therefore, “the oaks” and “gardens" shall fulfil as the task set before them just to be synecdochical for the idols that were worthat which is mentioned ver. 27; by righteous shipped in them. It is past comprehension how rule they shall procure deliverance from the evils DRECHSLER can say that “nothing whatever in under which Zion and the Day (those return- | the text itself or in the context suggests the ex
DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL.
planation of idolatry." He could only say so because he has utterly disregarded the specific meaning of " 'aj, “they that forsake.”
1. On ver. 1. Concerning Judah and JeruFor ye shall be as an oak, etc.—This ex- salem. — JEROME here pronounces decidedly plains how the becoming ashamed ver. 29 shall against Chiliasm, in that he says : Scio quosbe realized. The “for" of ver. 30, is therefore dam Judaeam, etc. "I am aware that some not co-ordinate with the "for" of ver. 29, but explain Judah and Jerusalem of celestial things, subordinate to it. Thus the prophet retains his and Isaiah under the person of the Lord Jesus, figure of speach. Those that clung with their that He foretells the captivity of that province hearts to treacherous trees and gardens, and for- in our land, and the after return and ascending sook the living waters, (Jer. ii. 13; xvii. 13), the sacred mount, in the last days. Which things shall themselves become withered trees and dried- we make no account of, holding them to be wholly up gardens. The Terebinth is not evergreen, contrary to the faith of Christians.” as is commonly asserted (comp. ARNOLD in
Whether JEROME understands by these fidei HERZOG's R. Encyc. XI. p. 26). Therefore not Christianorum contraria, which the universa dethe normal falling of the leaves is meant, but spises, Chiliasm generally, or only the giving this their abnormal wilting. And the strong shall be, etc.-Ver. 31. For, on Jer. xix. 10, he saysin regard to the Jewish
passage a chiliastic significance may be doubted. But the idols are not only powerless, they are expectation of a restitution of Israel to the positively ruinous. For this sin against the first earthly Canaan ; Quæ licet non sequamur,” etc. commandment includes in itself all the elements
“Which we may not follow, nor yet can we of spiritual as well as bodily ruin. The prophet condemn it; for many churchmen and martyrs would say that the idolater, even if he be no have said that. And each is strong in his opinion poor, powerless man, resembling the withered and the whole may be reserved to the judgment tree, or the garden devoid of water, if, on the of the Lord.” We see from this he inclined more contrary, he is rich, and mighty, and like the
to reject Chiliasm. tree abounding in sap, or a well watered garden,
2. On ver. l. In the days of, elc.-Sciamus nevertheless
, by the ruinous influences of idolatry quoque, Ezechiam, etc. We know, moreover, that he shall be destroyed. He compares such an Hezekiah began to reign in Jerusalem in the idolater to the tow (Jud. xvi. 9); his work, how twelfth year of Romulus, who erected a city of ever, i, e., the idols to a spark (pix'? anchey.) | his own name in Italy, so that it is very apparent
(Ver. 21. The faithful city ("including the how very much more ancient our history is than ideas of a city and a state, urbs et civitas, the that of other nations. JEROME, comp. his Epist. body politic, the church of which Jerusalem was ad Damasum, where it is said: Regnavit Ozias the centre and metropolis.") “The particle at annis 52, etc."." Uzziah reigned 52 years, in the the beginning of the verse is properly interroga- time Amulias ruled among the Latins, and Agative, but like the English how is used also to ex- mester 12th among the Athenians. After whose press surprise, 'How has she become?' i. e., how death Isaiah the prophet saw this vision, i. e., in could she possibly become? How strange that that year that Romulus, founder of the Roman she should become !" J. A. ALEXANDER.
empire, was born." Ver. 23. They judge not — doth not 3. On ver. 2. THEODORET remarks that heaven come onto them.—“They are not simply un- and earth were qualified witnesses to the ingratijust judges, they are no judges at all, they will tude of Israel because the people “received not act as such, except when they can profit by through them the most manifold benefits. For it.” J. A. ALEXANDER.
heaven extended to them from above the food of Ver. 24. "I will ease me.—This refers to manna. For he commanded, says Ps. lxxviii. what is said in ver. 14, where God is represented 23, 24, the clouds from above, and opened the as bordened with their crimes.”—“It means that doors of heaven, and rained down manna upon He had been pained and grieved by their crimes; them to eat, and he gave them bread from heaven. His patience had been put to its utmost trial; But the earth brought them in the desert the and now He would seek relief from this by in- needed water, and in Palestine it afforded them flicting due punishment on them. Comp. Ézek. a superabundance of all sorts of fruits.". That 5. 13; Deut. xxviii. 63," BARNES.
heaven and earth, however, can actually bear Ver. 27. “This verse means that the very same their testimony he proves by reference to the events by which the divine justice was to mani- display at the death of the Lord; "for when the fest itself in the destruction of the wicked, should Jews had nailed the Saviour to the cross, the be the occasion and the means of deliverance to earth quaked mindful of the testimony; but Zion, or the true people of God," J. A. ALEX- heaven, unable to convey this sensation owing to ANDER.
its position overhead, displayed the sun in his “With judgment.-In a righteous, just course, robbed of his beams and brought in darkmanner. That is, God shall evince His justice ness as testimony against the impious deed.” in doing it; His justice to a people to whom so 4. On ver. 3. “There God tells them to go to many promises had been made, and His justice the beasts' school and uncover their heads before in delivering them from long and grievous op- the oxen and asses as their teachers, who though pression. All this would be attended with the the stupidest and slowest beasts, still submit to displays of judgment, in effecting their deliver their lords and drivers, and are therefore preance." “With righteousness.—'This refers sented to us by God that we may learn from their to the character of those who shall return. They example, how we should have reverence before would be a reformed, righteous people," BARNES).' our God. Is not that the greatest shame that, ac