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mends itself the least. For in 175xn invn, the onn is conceived of as adverbial. It is as one would say in Latin: gladiatim devorabimani, “Ye shall be sword-fashion devoured.” It is essential to this construction that the substantive so used be without suffix, or a genitive fol
xxii. 4; Gen. xxxiii. 18. According to that we must translate the expression in question: “appear before the presence of Jehovah.” It may be remarked, in passing, that Deut. xvi. 10, pp., " op-nons). x', is to be translated; “the face of the Jehovah is not seen empty,” i. e. without the presentation of a gift: where the passive, according to well-known usus loquendi, is construed as active. This latter form of expression is, as to sense, like those found Ex. xxiii. 15; xxxiv. 20, —Lastly, in two places, viz. Ps. xlii. 3 and in our text no with " '}a is found without ns. In both
places xia stands before the Niphal of mR". Here, without doubt, '" "25 is the accusativus locali. In itself, this accusative can depend on Nio as well as on the Niphal non). However, the original sense of the
formula favors' decidedly the last supposition. Thus the expression, as found in our text and in xlii. 3, is to be taken as a modification of the older formula, and as having the same meaning. "25 therefore is here
where else we read: vip sopp, “a holy convocation,” Ex. xii. 16; Lev. xxiii.3 sqq.; Num. xxviii. 18 sq.; xxix. 1 sqq. As regards the meaning of the phrase, it is not indictio sancti, i. e. the publication of a feast, but convocatio, the assembling of the nation to the feast. For only on the principal feast-days was the nation obliged to appear in the sanctuary, (comp. the citations immediately above, and Oehler in HERzog's R. Encycl. IV., p. 385). The three substantives stand before as casus absoluti, and represent a premise, to which opin x', ^l) forms the conclusion: as for new moon, Sabbath, solemn assembly, I can't bear them, etc. The word my; is found beside only in 2 Kings x. 20 and Joel i. 14. In the Pentateuch only the form nnsy (stat. absol. and constr.) is used: Lev. xxiii. 36; Num. xxix. 35; Deut. xvi. 8. It is absolutely parallel with sypn, wn “holy convocation;" comp. 2 Chron. vii. 5; Neh. viii. 18; Amos v. 21. The fundamental idea of oxy is cogere, conciere, continere, to draw together, to keep together. The noun, therefore, denotes coactio, concio. The fundamental idea of |s quo, spirare) is halitus, breath. It is thus synonym with on. Wer. 14. Of the verb s]ty only the Kal (comp. Ps. xi 5) partcps. occur in our book after this: lz.15; lxi. 8; lxvi. 5. n-ty, burden (from nop, fatigari, Job xxxvii. 11) is found also Deut. i. 12. Niphal msh; again in Isa xvi. 12; xlvii. 13. The infinitive xvi. is only found in Isa. again xviii. 3; comp. beside Gen. iv. 13; Ps. lxxxix. 10. Ver. 15. The spreading out of the hands for prayer (comp. HoeleMANN, Bibelstudien I., The Scriptural Form of Worship, p. 137, AEneid. I. 93, duplices tendens ad sidera palmas) is designated here by wns in the Piel, and so occurs also Jer. iv. 31; Lam. i. 17; Ps. cxliii. 6. Usually Kal is used. Ex. ix. 29, 33; 1 Kings viii. 22, etc.— Only the Hith pael of Boy occurs beside in our book, lviii. 7.—The meaning of to 'ay's is “not continually hearing," in distinction from jpt's so, Jer, vii. 16; xi. 14; xiv. 12.—Comp, this passage, vers. 11-15, with the similar one, Amos v. 21 sqq. Wer. 16. On account of the accent, *2n can only be Hith pael from m2), not Niphal of iP!: comp. GEsen., Thesaur., p. 413. The word is not used again by Isaiah ; and this Hith pael occurs nowhere else.—The expression propp ph (which occurs first Deut. xxviii. 20, and afterward especially frequent in Jer, iv. 4; xxi. 12; xxiii. 2; xxvi. 3; xliv. 22), calls to mind the Latin usus loquendi, that makes a conception prominent by designating it by means of the abstract idea hovering, so to speak, over the single, concrete manifestation of it: agricolae non dolent, practerita verni temporis su a vitate aestatem auctumnumque venisse (comp. NAEgelsbach, Stilistik, £74). Ver. 17. ~"ty"n i-Try", (inf nominascens like phs, ver. 16, because standing in the accusative).-As nouns of
1. This section refers to the future, as vers. 2–9 did to the past and present. For the theme is how to escape out of the misery of the present and attain a better future. The people had hitherto employed false means; outward ceremonies that were an abomination to the Lord, (vers. 10–15). Instead of these the people must bring the genuine fruits of repentance, (vers. 16, 17). Then conference may be held with the people; then will God's grace be greater than all guilt, (v. 18). This is the right road. If the people will go that road they shall find salvation; if they will not, they shall find destruction, (vers. 19, 20). It is seen that a simple and clear order of thought occurs in this section. Vers. 18–20 must not be severed and joined to what follows. For they contain exactly the indispensable conclusion, viz.: the promise of grace in case of obedience, on the other hand denunciation of wrath in case of disobedience.
2. Hear—Gomorrah, ver. 10.-As regards the verbs, “hear,<-hearken,” this beginning is like that of the preceding section, ver. 2. But the subjects are different: there heaven and earth, here the Sodom-judges and the Gomorrahnation. The dividing into judges and nation is
occasioned partly by the double idea Sodom and
Gomorrah, by which this section is connected with the foregoing one, partly by the contents of the positive demand, ver. 17. For, as regards its general contents, this is directed against the entire nation, but especially also against the princes and judges of the nation. Expositors correctly call attention to the fact that after ver. 9, the prophet supposes a reply on the part of the people to this effect; how have they deserved so hard a fate, seeing they had been so zealously diligent, to observe all the ceremonies of the worship of Jehovah. To this it is replied, that they are not unjustly become like Sodom and Gomorrah because for a long time they were inwardly like them. What Sodom-judges and a Gomorrahnation may be, can be learned from Ezek. xvi. “As I live, saith the LoRD God, Sodom thy sister hath not done, she nor her daughters, as thou hast done, thou and thy daughters. Behold this was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom, pride, fulness of bol. and abundance of idle
ness was in her, and in her daughters, neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy. And they were haughty, and committed abomination before me; therefore I took them away as I saw good.” Comp. Gen. xiii. 13; xviii. 20. Therefore, rude, violent selfishness, joined with sensual abomination was the sin of Sodom, and is the sin of Judah. Consequently, and in reference to our passage, the earthly. Jerusalem is called in Rev. xi. 8 Tvevuartkū; Xóðoua Kai Aiyvirroc., The prophet does not understand by n\ln "rnos, “the law of our God,” a simple'parallel with ^ nai, “the word,” etc., institutio, or moon (chastisement) in general, but the Mosaic “Law, especially, corresponding to the context, which treats of the difference between a true and a false observance of the law. Thus the second member marks an advance in reference to the first, and
Thon is to be construed synedochically. “Docebo
T vos,” &c., says VITRINGA, “I will teach you what is the sum of the law of Moses; not this, assuredly, which ye hypocritically exhibit, but to worship God with a pure heart, and manifest zeal for justice, equity, honor and every virtue.”
3. To what purpose—full of blood, v. 11– 15.-VITRINGA calls attention to a gradation in these verses. Bloody sacrifices, attendance at the temple, unbloody sacrifices, feasts, prayers, make the series of religious formalities which approach step by step to a truly spiritual worship. And et they may all of them not satisfy the Lord as }. observed them: for the nation, notwithstanding, does not rise above the level of mere outward ceremonial service. The Dorū; are a
comprehensive expression for bloody sacrifices, as is often the case in writers of later date than the Pentateuch, see 1 Sam. ii. 29; iii. 14. Isa. xix. 21; HERzog R. Encycl. X. p. 621, 637. This appears from the prominence of the word in ver. 11, and from its being made parallel with no ver, 13. That the discourse of Jehovah must not be regarded as the first and only one of the sort spoken in this matter, but as a member of a continuous chain of words of the same purport, is indicated by the Imperfect. Without exactly intending completeness, or an
p. 634). That only box noj are named, is accidental. For burnt-offerings were not presented only of rams, see Lev. i. nor were offerings of rams especially holy. In all enumerations of the sacrificial beasts rams are in the second place, after bullocks. Exod. xxix.; Lev. viii.; Num. vii. 15 sqq.; xxix. 2 sq., etc. In as much as, with the exception of the whole burnt-offering, only the fat and the blood were offered, (comp. Ol. IILER HERzog's R. Encycl. X. p. 632), Lev. iii. 16 sq.; vii. 23 sqq.; Ezek. xliv. 15, it is natural that these should have especial prominence in this place. By D's Yo we are not to understand a
Rio species of beast, as many have thought. he word is only found elsewhere in 2 Sam. vi. 13; 1 Kings i. 9, 19, 25; Isa. xi. 6; Ezek. xxxix. 18; Amos v. 22. The meaning is not made out with certainty. But in this place it seems to mean fed beasts in general. If the fat were all that was offered of the solid matter of the beast, then must a beast be the better suited for an offering according as it had more fat. Thence the being fat is named as a desirable quality in the sacrificial animal, Ps. xx.; Gen. iv. 4. A further proof that the prophet does not intend an exact classification is seen in the fact that he speaks only of the blood of bullocks, of sheep, (v33 the male sheep Lev. xiv. 10) and of he-goats (Tony the younger, no the older he-goat), although neither the blood of only these beasts, nor yet of these beasts was only the blood offered. Ver. 12. When ye come to appear, etc.— A grade higher than the rude bloody sacrifice, this personal appearance at the place of worship .. on the platform of spirituality. It also is an homage that is paid to the divinity. But it does not suffice. Hence it may be said of the mere bodily presence, that the Lord has not demanded that. Who hath required.—Jehovah does not require the mere bodily presence, so far as this is nothing but an useless wearing out of the courts by the feet of those that stand in them. The unbloody sacrifices and the solemn assembles represent again a different and still higher grade of worship. No more lying meat-offerings shall they bring, (Comp. v. 18; xxx. 28) i. e., such, in which the disposition of the one sacrificing does not correspond to the outward rite. I do not believe that the text has to do only with the performances of the Žaffo, “laity,” as DELITzsch supposes. For the prophet rejects the entire outward ceremonial service, which, in fact, the priests solemnized only in place of the nation which ideally was itself a priestly nation, Exod. xix. 6. Moreover, there would an omission in the enumeration of the parts of worship if that very important and most holy incense offering were left out (Exod. xxx., especially ver. 36). The Lord says, therefore, that incense, otherwise
so like the fragrant blossom of the sacrificial worship, was itself an abomination, when offered in the false way as hitherto. The new moon and Sabbath.-The observance of the holy days and seasons appointed . the Lord Himself was an essential part of the obedience...demanded from the nation, comp. Exod. xxiii. 10–17; Lev. xxiii.; Num. xxviii.; xxix.; Deut. xvi. Yet even such performance is of no account in God's sight, but, on the contrary, offensive and vexatious when it does not proceed from that disposition He would have. The new moons, “were so to speak the first born among the days of the month,” and the fixing of the other feat days that occurred in the month depended on them (“From the moon is the sign of feasts,” Ecclus. xliii. 7 ; comp. SAALscIIUEtz, Jsos. R., p. 402 sqq.). Concerning their celebrations, see Num, x. 10; xxviii. 11–16; 1 Sam. xx. 5, 18 sq. By mily is to be understood the
weekly Sabbath, as appears from the fact that, in what follows, the feasts and therefore the feast Sabbaths are especially mentioned; see HERzog's
R. Encycl. IV. p. 385, on is used here in the pregnant sense of “surmounting, enduring, being able to hold out,” like we too could say; “micht o ich Frerel und Festversammlung.” “I can't (stand) outrage and solemn assembly,” i.e., the combination of the two, both at once surpasses
my ability. In a similar sense o is used Hos. viii. 5; Ps. ci. 5 sq.; xiii. 5; Prov. xxx. 21. God cannot put up with this combination of concentration, and decentralization, of centripetal and centrifugal forces. He opposes to them a mon possumus. In the following verse the prophet repeats the same thought with still stronger expressions. For he names again the new moons. But what in ver. 13 he designates by the words, “Sabbath, calling assembly and solemn meeting,” he comprehends here in the one conception
Doo ("yip “the most general word for the
presses by three verbs. He explains his mon possumus in that he says he hates those ceremonies, that they are a burden to him and a subject of loathing.
But prayer, too, although it is the fragrant blossom of the soul's life (comp. Rev. v. 8; viii. 3 sq.), and therefore stands high above the previously named elements of worship in regard to immateriality and o is not acceptable to the Lord in the mouth of this people. For it also is only empty lip and hand service. Jehovah shuts His eyes at the caricature of prayer; comp. 1 Sam. xii. 3; Prov. xxviii. 27; and also much praying does not help the matter, for Jehovah does not go on hearing constantly.
Your hands are full of blood.”—In this short phrase, which is added emphatically without connecting particle, the reason is given why Jehovah cannot endure all the ceremonial observances of the nation. They are offered by hands stained with blood. It is thus a revolting lie, xxix. 13.
4. wash ye—plead for the widow, vers. 16–17.-Heart cleansing, turning away from evil, proper fruits of repentance,—such is the divine service that the Lord requires. There are nine demands made on the people; four negative, ver, 16, and five positive, ver. 17. The first two of the four negative expressions are figurative; rn" is indeed often used of bodily washing (and in a medial sense as here: Ex. ii. 5; Lev. xiv. 8; xv. 5 sqq. etc.). TPI is used only of moral
purity, but, according to its fundamental idea, must be regarded as a figurative expression. In what follows the prophet says the same i.; without figure of speech: they must let the Lo see no more wicked works, i.e., they must cease to sin. The five positive demands proceed from the general to the particular. For in advance stands the quite general “learn to do well.” Then follows the exhortation to “seek judgment,” (the phrase is found again only xvi. 5). The Qld Test. mo, “righteousness,” consists essentially in conformity to bāop, “judgment.” Whoever, under all circumstances, does what is right, even when he has the power to leave it undone, is a Pos, “righteous one.” When the powerful,
then, spite of his power, suffers the poor, the wretched, the widow and the orphan to enjoy their rights, then this justice |. subjectively as gentleness and goodness, objectively as salvation. Hence P-T3 has so often the secondary
5. Come now—hath spoken it, vers. 18– 20. As in ver. 15 the phrase “your hands are filled with blood” is loosely strung on without connecting particle, so also #. complex thought of vers. 18, 19, as to its sense, refers back to ver. 15 b. For the prophet evidently would say: your hands are indeed full of blood, but if ye truly become converted, all debts shall be forgiven, etc. Werse 18 therefore contains the necessary consequences of the premises laid down in what precedes. The discourse gains in brevity and vivacity by its members being strung together without conjunctions.—“Come, now,” etc., comp. ii. 3, 5. The prophet would say: when ye shall Hao. truly jo then come, and then we shall easily come to an understanding. GESENIUs and others would have the sense to be, not that Jehovah is represented as forgiving, but that the taking away of the blood-red guilt consists in an extirpation of the sinner. They support this view by remind
ing that bàto, and no Do não always designate God as the punitive Judge; comp. lxvi. 16; Joel iv. (iii.) 2; Jer. xxv. 31; Ezek. xx. 35, etc. But it is precisely for this reason that Isaiah does not employ the usual expression for “litigate,” but a word that does not elsewhere occur, in order to indicate that he has in mind a litigation altogether different from the usual sort. Besides, it contradicts not only the sense and the connection of our passage, but the spirit of the Holy Scriptures generally, for one to assume that pardon may not follow the fulfilling of the conditions proposed in ver. 16, or that this pardon may consist in the extirpation of the outrageous offenders and the “cleansing and clearing away” thus effected. No I just those, whose hands are full of blood, may, if they cleanse themselves, be pure and white; oomp. xliii. 24 sq.; xliv. 22; Ps. xxxii. and li-'3? and nyon are one and the same color, viz., bright red, crimson. Here, evidently, it means the color of blood. In many places, as Exod. xxviii. 5, 6; xxxvi. 8, etc.; Jer.
seems to me in both places to mean more probably “scarlet stuffs.” That sin is here called red, has its reason in the evident reference to the bloody hands, ver. 15 b. But that the righteous estate is compared to white color, happens according to the natural and universal symbolism of colors; comp. Ps. xxxvii. 6; Mal. iii. 20 (iv. 2); 1 Jno. i. 5, 7; Rev. i. 14; iii. 4; xix. 14, etc. If ye be willing, ver. 19. The exhortation vers. 16, 17 is followed ver. 18 by a similar promise, i.e., by one that similarly consines itself to the inward, spiritual domain. To this is now joined a twofold word of a) promise also of outward felicity, ver, 19; b) of threatening of bodily destruction, ver. 20. The conclusion “ye shall be devoured of the sword,” ver, 20, corresponds to “ye shall eat the good of the land,” not only as to sense, but also, as near as may be, as to sound. On the formula “for the mouth,” etc. comp., at ver, 2. [Ver. 13. “The last clause, meaning of course, I cannot bear them together, is a key to the preceding verses. It was not religious observance itself, but its combination with iniquity, that God abhorred.” J. A. ALEXANDER. Oblations, ninjo. “This word properly denoted a gift of any kind, (Gen. xxxii. 13), then especially a present or offering to the Deity. Gen. iv. 3, 4, 5-The proper translation wo
have been meal or flour-offering, rather than meatoffering, since the word meat with us now denotes animal food only. Lev. ii. 1; vi. 14; ix. 17.” BARNEs. Ver. 16. Wash.-" It is used here in close connection with the previous verse, where the rophet says that their hands were filled with blood. #. now admonishes them to wash away that blood, with the implied understanding, that, then their prayers would be heard.” BARNEs.
From before mine eyes. “As God is omniscient, to put them away from before His eyes is to put them away altogether.” BARNEs.
Ver. 18. “God has been addressing magistrates particularly, and commanding them to seek judgment, etc., all of which are terms taken from the law. He here continues the language, and addresses them as accustomed to the proceedings
of courts, and proposes to submit the ” (their) “case as if on trial.” BARNEs.
Scarlet.—“There is another idea here. This was a fast or fired color. Neither dew, rain, nor washing, nor long usage would remove it. Hence it is used to represent the sidues and permamency of sins in the heart. No human means will wash them out. No effort of man, no external rites, no tears, no sacrifice, no prayers are of themselves sufficient to take them away. An almighty power is needful to remove them.” BARNEs.
Like the wool.-Instead of the wool becoming like the crimson, the crimson shall become like the wool. Regarding the sequence of vers. 16, 17, and ver. 18; comp. Matt. v. 22–24.—TR.
Ver. 19. Ye shall eat.—“Instead of seein them devoured by strangers, as in ver, 7.” J. A. ALEXANDER).
4. COMPREIENSIVE SURVEY OF THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE.
CHAPTER I. 21–31.
21 How is the faithful city become an harlot
It was full of judgment;
Righteousness lodged in it; but now murderers.
22 Thy silver is become dross, Thy wine mixed with water:
23 Thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves: Every one loveth gifts, and "followeth after rewards:
They judge not the fatherless,
Neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them.
1 Heb. according to pureness. a chases.
• will melt out thy dross with lye. * lead.
* Or, they that return of her.