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עֲלִי לָךְ as in

comp. vii. 7.

.xiii הרים קוֹל

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thought," as “an ejaculation of a reader," only prove sqq.), that more precisely explains the notion

. thereby how little they have understood the sense and

-17 is properly Dat. commodi, not mere Dat. eth icus connection of the prophetic discourse.

ver. 9, which is, moreover, to be seen from Ver. 8. The words 731 wa' are taken verbatim from

the masculine 1). For were it Dat. ethicus, then, corXV. 6, like you had from xxviii. 1, where we find my saj. The expression Dip' 127 occurs in Isa. viii. 10, responding to the gender of jy 77, it nuust read 175

Ver. 11. It is remarkable that the verb nimis never Ver. 9. Piel va is exclusively peculiar to part used in part first in the sense of “to pasture,” the acgecond : xli. 27; lii. 7; 1x. 6; Ixi. 1, a fact that need oc tion of the shepherd, although our " shepherds” OCcasion no surprise. For it is natural that the word,

curs xxxi. 4 (Xxxviii. 12), (comp. v. 17; xi. 7; xiv. 30; which means evayyen selv, should be found chiefly in

xxvii. 10; xxx. 2;). In part second, also, the word the evayyedcov of the Old Testament.

. means “pasture" in the active sense only once: 1xi. 5, 2, lviii. 1.—No comp. 'T' 133 x. 13. With that ex

three times " pasture 'of beasts : xliv. 20; xlix. 9; 1xv. ception ni occurs only in the second part : (xxxvii. 25.-7yn “shepherd" in part second: xlir. 28; lvi. 3); xl. 26, 29, 31 ; xli. 1; xliv. 12; xlix. 4; 1. 2; Ixiii. 1. 11; Ixiii. 11.— " the flock" found again xvii. 2;

-978 -The expression xy be is very frequent not only

xxxii. 14,

in Isaiah but also in the whole Old Testament; vii. 4;

Isaiah only here (comp. 1 Sam. xv. 4). Beside this viii. 12; z. 24; XXXV. 4; xxxvii. 6; xl. 9; xli. 10, 13, 14; ao lxv. 21:-pin occurs again only liv. 6, 1.xliii. 1. 5; xliv. 2; li. 7; liv. 4, 14.

, .

and strongly reminds one, and just by reason of what fol-pa; is used therefore of sucking beeves and sheep, lows, of xxxv. 4. Comp. beside xxv. 9. The expression 1 Sam. vi. 7, 10 of sucking beeves alone, Ps. Ixxviii. 71 is found in no other Prophet.

as here used of both without addition. The word ocVer. 10. ?

essentiae.

pin
occurs again xxvii.

curs only here in Isniah. But comp Say, the suck1; xxviii. 2. -1777 1978 occurs ten times in the first' ling” xlix. 15; Ixv. 20—7:), which has in Gen. xlvii. part: iii. 15; vii. 1; X. 21, etc., and thirteen times in the

17 the meaning “ to bring through," sustentare, 2 Chr. second part: xlviii. 16; xlix. 22; I. 4, 5, 9, etc.—The

xxxii. 22, the meaning “ to protect, hedge about," and clause is ozbora ynny is not co-ordinate with the fore- also lsa. li. 18 the meaning " careful guiding," occurs in going chief clause, but subordinate to it. It is a clause Isaiah beside here and the passage just named, only expressive of situation (comp. Ewald, & 306, C; 341 a, xlix. 10.

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EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

1. We have here before us the Prologue both number but also their contents. That there is a of the first discourse and of the entire prophetic correspondence in respect to number can hardly cycle of xl. 12-lxvi. 24. For the representation be doubted. But that the contents corresponds to of Jehovah as the comforter after protracted suf- the three times three corresponding degrees can fering (vers. 1, 2), as the true One, whose word only be made out by great ingenuity. abides when all that is earthly is destroyed (vers. After the prologie of the prologue, there fol6-8), and as the true shepherd that leads His peo- low, as remarked, three calls, each of which comple with paternal care (ver. 11) corresponds to prises three Masoretic verses. But by the similar what follows (xl. 12 and onwards), wherein Jeho- Beginnings of the three calls, and by their intervah is portrayed as the infinite, incomparable, na! arrangement, it appears certain that the Maalmighty God, and the restorer of His people, so soretic division into verses corresponds in general that we find in our passage the keynote of the here to that division into periods intended also whole of part second of Isaiah's prophecies. Their by the author. Only in regard to the first 737 contents are predominantly consolatory; but our (behold) at the close of ver. 9 (comp. below) there passage is like the outline of the thoughts of peace may be a divergence. Each of the three calls therein unfolded. The outward form of the dis- begins with a vivid dramatic announcement. And correspondence. The entire second part is domi- first call is introduced by the simple 87p hop course, moreover, bears the imprint of this inward here, in fact, occurs a remarkable gradation. The nated by the fundamental number three. For it is composed of three subdivisions, of which each (“Hark! a call ”). The second call begins with consists of three times three, therefore nine dis- the extended formula, containing a summons to courses. But our Prologue consists first of an in- call 8778 770 Da xap pax Sup. The third ye," cry”) it is announced that the Lord has a bers: 1) go up on a high mountain erangelist Zim; three imperatives, namely (" comfort ye," "speak call

, finally, begins with a still more comprehen

sive formula of summons. It contains three memcomforting message for His people, and by three 2) raise with might thy voice erangelist Jerusalem; clauses, each of which begins with '? (* that,” 3) raise it, fear not

, say to the cities of Judah. Here" that,” “for”) is stated what is the contents of with it is worthy of notice that the third member this joyful message (vers. 1. 2). Hann was the itself has again three verbs (“ raise, “be not first to maintain (what DELITZSCH, too, finds afraid," "say"). There follows then on this “not without truth," p. 408) that these three threefold formula of summons a threefold 77777 clauses beginning with ? correspond to the three (behold) vers. 9, 10. Here, perhaps, the Masocalls that follow (vers. 3-5, 6-8, 9-11) and to the retic division into verses may not quite corresthree parts of the book, not only in respect to pond to the meaning of the Prophet. For if the

for her ") כי נרצה עונה The second clause

את אֲשֶׁר לֹא-שָׁבְתָה בְּשַׁבְּרֹתֵיכֶם בְּשִׁבְתְּכֶם עָלֶיהָ |

-.in the second introduction and in chap

.
xxiv

a

first 07307 corresponds to the two that follow, then general the trials and troubles of this life can be the clause introduced by it ought rather to be re set forth as conflicts (comp. Eph. vi. 11 sqq.; 1 ferred to what follows. Verse 9, accordingly, Tim. vi. 12; 2 Tim. ii. 3 sqq.; iv. 7), so here the ongkt to end with the word Judah. The con- whole time of Israel's afliction and suffering and cluding verse (11) also contains three members: especially the exile is designated as a time of 1) he shall feed his flock like a shepherd; 2) he shall conflict. gatheri bosom ; 3) shall gently lead

with

) J (" young. According to this the division into threes guilt is thoroughly tasted”), is difficult. First is not absolutely carried out in the prologue, but of all it must be noted that the Prophet has here only just so far as it could be done without spirit- in mind the passages Lev. xxvi. 34, 41, 43. It is less, outward mechanism, and tiresome monotony, said there that when the judgment of exile shall and with such delicacy that it reveals itself only

come upon the people Israel the land will be deto close observation and not at all in a disagree; sert, and by that means shall enjoy the rest able way. Thereby the Prophet has proved which it could not enjoy so long as the land was himself to be a real artist. Moreover this tri: inhabited by a disobedient people that would partite division has its complete analogy in Isai- not observe the prescribed Sabbath seasons ah's style in that twofold division that we noticed in . xxvii.

Lev. xxvi. 35). The land will then enjoy its time In regard to the order of thought, the three of rest (qenhau-də 1737 ver. 34). 1737 with eral announcement of salvation contained in vers. the accusative is to have pleasure in something, 1 and 2. The first call (vers. 3-5) expresses the enjoy something, delectari aliquare." The Hiph. thought that now is the time to get out of the way ?? that stands parallel with 773? is nothing every outward and inward obstacle that may ob- else than a direct causative Hiphil which means struct the promised revelation of glory. The se delectationem agere, to pursue pleasure,” thus sigcond call (vers. 6-8) declares that all earthly glory nifies continued, undisturbed enjoyment; as e. 9.

even of the elect people-must be destroyed "ppy is not merely quietum facere but quietum before and in order that Jehovah's promise of glory may be fulfilled in its complete sense. The agere (vii. 4), and like expressions, such as third cals, finally, (vers. 9-11) summons Israel, ipom, izan, etc., signify not merely “ make fat, which is in exile, to rally to its LORD, who comes as Redeemer, and to commit itself to His faithful, duct is " to be fat, to be white” In contrast with

make white," but a continued activity whose proparental guidance 2. Comfort -all her sins.-Vers. 1, 2. of rest stands now the other (Lev. xxvi. 41, 43)

this thought that the land shall enjoy its period With three emphatically comforting words the that the people in exile shall enjoy their guilt: Prophet begins. For the twice-repeated 1901, the land also shall be left of them, and shall that stands significantly at the head, as the stamp, enjoy her sabbaths, while she lieth desolate withso to speak, of the entire second part, is not alone

out them; and they shall accept of the punishcomforting The object “ny people,” that depends on it, is quite as much so. Although judged ment of their iniquity” (optym 3?! On!“they and exiled, Israel had not ceased to be Jehovah's shall enjoy their fault," ver. 43). This exprespeople, the elect peculiar people. It is usual to sion “enjoy their guilt,” is manifestly ironical. understand the prophets to be the ones addressed. Whereas the absence of the wicked people is for But it was not possible for every Israelite to hear the land a benefit, an enjoyment, the people in the voice of a prophet directly. Hence there lies exile must enjoy the fruit of their disobedience. also in the words a summons to carry the pro- They must at last taste how bitter and bad it is to phetic word further. Every one shall help to forsake the LORD (Jer. ii. 19), after having been comfort. Each one shall contribute his part, so unwilling to believe that apostacy from the LORD that the comforting word of God may come to all was ruinous. If now ply 7737 is frui culpa, delectari the members of the people. Not once only will the Lord assure Israel of His consolation. With culpa, then 1 oy is the passive of it, and meang emphasis in ver. 2 He summons the same ones

“the fault is enjoyed, thoroughly tasted.” Niph, whom He had already commanded in ver. 1 to 113??, it is true, occurs in many places where it is comfort His people, to speak to the heart of Jeru- used of the favorable acceptance of sacrifices, salem (personification and metonymy at the same But there it means “enjoyed," "accepted as time, comp. iv. 4; xl. 9; xli. 27). The phrase lovely enjoyment,” “to be pronounced wel3b-hy 197 (to speak out over the heart, to charm come.” Moreover this use is found only in Lethe heart, to cover with words, to sooth, to quiet) viticus: i. 4; vii. 18; xix. 7; xxii. 23, 25, 27. occurs elsewhere eight times in the Old Test. : If qily ever had the meaning "guilt offering," Gen. xxxiv. 3; 1. 21; Jud. xix. 3; Ruth ii. 13; then the matter would be quite simple. For then 2 Sam. xix. 8; 2 Chron. xxx. 22; xxxii.6; Hos. 1993 naty would mean “their guilt offering is faii. 16. Whereas“ speak ye to the heart” implies vorably accepted.” But it never has this mean. affecting address, 1987 (call ye) involves rather the notion of loud, strong and clear speaking. By construes 07873 in the sense of “is enjoyed,” so

Te can only say therefore that the Prophet every means the conviction must be brought to the people that now the time of grace is at hand. that it forms the antithesis of Diwy 187, Levit. -3, militia, "warfare" is used here figura- xxvi. 41, 43. tively as in Job vii. 1; x. 17; xiv. 14. As in That mournful time when Israel must enjoy the

ing. We

bitter fruits of its sin is now gone. The peculiar | Prophet himself again speaks, as appears from ironical antithesis of “the land shall enjoy her " the hand of the LORD." The Prophet theresabbaths,” and “they shall enjoy their fault,” has fore partly cites the verba ipsissima of Jehovah, the effect that we are necessitated to hear now of partly states what the LORD has done. This is an enjoyed, thoroughly tasted guilt-broth into the usual manner of prophetic announcements. which they have broken crumbs for themselves It is necessary to note this here, because in what and have now eaten it up. The third clause be follows there is joined climax fashion an un ginning with '? is best construed as an objective usual form of announcement. clause parallel with the two preceding objective

2. The voice-bath spoken it.-Vers. clauses. For if it were a causal clause, as Hahn 3-5. The Prophet hears a voice. He does not would have it, it must be so indicated by an un- say whence or from whom the voice came. This mistakable causal particle opposed to the two ob- is unusual. For if now and then in other cases jective particles preceding. But that the Perfect the prophets hear terrestrial or super-terrestrial

voices, still in every case the source of it is ex: anps is not to be taken in a future sense (“in plained. The context makes known whence and time to come receives,” Hann) is plain from the why the voice sounds (comp. xxi. 11 ; Ezek. i. parallelişm with the foregoing Perfects. Nor can 28; Dan. x. 9). Here one learns only that a 0:49 mean the double amount of salvation

voice sounded. This is manifestly a rhetorical

embellishment. The Prophet would make pro(Hahn, comp. Ixi. 7), for neither inps, nor minent thereby the importance of what follows .

by saying that it was important to him in an the reasons already given; the latter does not be especially solemn way by a special supertercause it must in that case read ann. For how restrial voice. xup Sup can in itself mean: Hans can say that the sins are the means by " a voice cries” (comp. e. g. Mic. vi. 9). But it which Jerusalem comes into possession of a dou- is more drastic and consonant with other analoble amount of salvation is incomprehensible. If gies to take the words as an exclamatory phrase Jerusalem had not committed these sins, would it and as a genitive relation (comp. vi. 4; xiii. 4; lii. then have been the worse off for it? The Prophet 8; lxvi. 6). A heavenly messenger, then, brings can therefore only mean to say that Jerusalem has the command to prepare for the Lord the way received double punishment, has been chastised through the desert (vers. 3, 4). This comwith double rods. Then ? is the preposition of re- mand has evidently a double sense. For in the compense, as the recompense may be regarded first place the people shall in fact be redeemed as the means in order to acquiring the thing out of exile and be brought back home. And

Jehovah Himself will conduct this return, as [“ comp. Gen. xxix. 18, 5m??, properly by means

appears beyond doubt from vers. 9-11. But the of Rachel, as the price is the means by which one LORD will lead them in order that the journey of acquires the work or the wares." From Dr. N.'s the people may be made easy and prosperous Gramm.—Tr.].

without obstacle or attack (comp. xli. 17 sqq.; But how can it be said that Jehovah has laid xliii. 1 sqq., 14 sqq. ; xlviii. 20 sq.; xlix. 9 sqq.; on double the punishment deserved ? How does lv. 12 sq.; lvii. 14). Such is certainly the imthis agree with His justice? One must remember mediate sense of our passage. In fact, the whole first that the executors of the judgments against context, especially in its immediate connection Israel did not merely restrict then selves to the with the comforting prologue, proves that it conmeasure of chastisement determined by Jehovah, tains a promise and not an exhortation to rebut ex propriis intensified it, and thus brought on pentance. With this agrees ver. 5, which plainly Israel a measure of punishment pressed down and declares that vers. 3, 4 announce the fulfilment, shaken together (x. 7; Jer. 1. 7, 11, 17, etc.). Yet evident to all the world, of a promise given long if Jehovah permitted this, He is still accountable before by the Lord. But of course it cannot be for it, seeing He could hinder it. And Jer. xvi. doubted that the old figurative meaning given 18: “And first I will recompense their iniquity already by John the Baptist is also justitied. For and their sin double" shows that this severe mea- in the first place it comports with the universal sure was intended by God. But was it really too and everywhere to be assumed principles of the severe? Delitzsch is right in saying that the divine pedagogy, that that physical desolation of expression is not to be taken in a juristic sense. the way homewards were not possible without an It is rather to be taken rhetorically. It is an hy- ethical desolation of the ways of the heart. And perbola, torcat forth the compassionating in the second place, since the language is such love

* mht. For this love that it can mean both, this possibility of doubleis

le that it accuses meaning makes it a natural conjecture that such 100 much in was actually intended. In the third place it is to it betrays be noticed that this first voice announces the

it pro- chief matter, redemption and return home, in ers so general way. The second (vers. 6–8) gives exnuch planation respecting the when of its accomplish

ment. The third (vers. 9-11) defines the manhe ner of fulfilment, and contains only in this respect r those two points, one after the other, which in

vers, 3-5 we observe in one another. For what is that “behold your God,” ver. 9, but the announcement that the LORD by repentance and

For

One may,

קול קורא במדבר the words

faith will come to His people? And what are | (the form *? only here) shall raise themselves Himself as a parental guide will come home with my used antithetically with Sow 11, 12; compHis people?

ii. 2, 13, 14; vi. 1; xxx. 25; xxxiii. 10; lii. 13; 72723 ver. 3 is referred by the LXX., the Vulg. lvii. 7, 15), and all mountains and hills shali and the Evangelists (Mat. iii. 3: Mark i. 3; lower themselves [500, see Text. and Gr.] the Luke iii. 4) to what precedes. This is not only rugged places shall become even and the contrary to the accents, but to the very sound of connection of mountains (0Bergjoch see the words, since in evidently corresponds to Text. and Gram.] shall become vallev depths. The the following 73737, and must be construed like Prophet would say, therefore, that the obstacles that the latter. John the Baptist, in the application would prevent the coming of the Lord into the of these words, calling himself a owvi) Boūvtos Šv heart of His people, and thereby hinder the coming Théphum (John i. 23), followed the LXX. He of the people into their land, shall be rid away. found in that sound of words familiar to his And should not thereby the glory of Jehovah behearers, which our passage has in that transla

come manifest to the world ? When the nations tion, a fitting expression for what he would say, without meaning to give thereby an authentic in- God and how gloriously He serves His people, will

see how gloriously the people Israel serve their terpretation of the original text (comp. THOLUCK, they not make efforts to attain the righteousness The Old Testament in the New, 1858, p. 5). and salvation of this people and seek the LORD when DELITZSCH says:

indeed ought, who is the author of both (comp. ii. 2 sq.)? The as it appears, to represent to himself that the grent, glorious promise, which the Prophet has caller, going out into the desert, summons men just announced, must be fulfilled, for the mouth to make a road in it," I can find no point of sup- of the Lord hath spoken it, and the mouth of port for this statement in the Hebrew text. The the LORD does not lie. The expression occurs in command to make a road in the desert does not Isaiah again i. 20; lviii. 14. Comp. on i. 2. of necessity sound out of the desert itself. If the

4. The voice--stand forever. – Vers. matter itself presents no necessity for this view, I see nothing else in the Hebrew text to indicate 6-8. The rhetorical dress of this second call

, that the voice which the Prophet heard sounded contains in relation to the first a climax. For out from the desert. Therefore the meaning

there it is simply said: "voice of one crying."

But here: which the Baptist, following the LXX., gives to

voice of one saying, cry! And an

swer: what shall I cry?” Thus a second voice

seems to me to be here precedes the voice of the one calling, and long to the category of those free citations that summons him to cry. This is indeed primarily occur so often in the New Testament in reference rhetorical embellishment. Yet this embellishto Old Testament passages, and which constitute ment has its material reason.

In the first place, one of those departments of biblical hermeneutics not only is the importance of the call set in the that still remain the most obscure. Of course clearest light, but also its divine source, as we from our point of view no objection arises against have already seen was also the aim of xp Sup the meaning and application given by the Evangelists (especially Luke iv. 3-6) to the words that tional, that the calier must be suminoned to call

. ver. 3. In the second place we have this addiThe Piel ne, used elsewhere also of clearing The reason for this seems to me to be, that the

second call expresses properly as its immediate out a house (Gen. xxiv. 31 ; Lev. xiv. 36) occurs thought something unpleasant. It is like a shaagain in reference to ways, in the sense of“ mak-dow that not only suddenly, but also almost ining clear, light, opening a road;" Ivii. 14; lxii. comprehensibly breaks in on the full light of the 10; Mal.'iii. 1, the last of which passages is foregoing announcement of consolation. For is likely a reference to the present. The subject it not an oppressive thought, that not only all of lvii. 14 and lxii. 10 is also that road on which glory of the kingdoms of this world (that alone the people shall return out of exile to their home.

were indeed consolation for Israel), but also that If the customary route from Babylon to Canaan all merely earthly glory of the elect people is did not pass through the desert, yet the properly subject to change ? "Is it not a deep humiliation nearest one did. And from him and ver. 4 it is that comes also on the people of God, that it is seen that Israel was to go along, not only the most said to them, they must be divested of all their convenient, but also the directest way home.

own human strength and adornment, and thus first From Egypt, also, the people had to traverse the share the fate of the totality of profane flesh, bedesert in order to reach Canaan. The notion fore the divine promise can be fulfilled to them ? “ desert” plays an important part in all the Behind the caller, therefore, there appears another pictures of the future that relate 10 the deliver that commands him to call out what, of himself, ance out of exile. How consonant to Isaiah's | he would not have called. The first call is quite style it is to represent, that on their return home spontaneous: the second is by special command. also from the second exile Israel will wander The LXX. and Vulg. take the view, that the through the desert, may be seen from xi. 15, 16. summons to call is directed to the Prophet, The meaning of noi is evidently that the way of whence they translate 77? by kai elna, et dixi. the people shall go out straight, and thus be as short | But this is plainly caprice. The Prophet de as possible. To be such, it must make no deviations scribes a visionary transaction: he relates only either in horizontal or vertical directions. The what he has seen and heard. 728? (see Text. former appears to be the meaning of ver. 3 b; and Gram.] must therefore signify that all that is the latter is made prominent ver. 4. The valleys related bere took place simultaneously, and

together, and not one after another. This suits of the field, then it must resemble these not only capitally the pregnant brevity which the Pro- in blossoming, but also in casting its blossoms. phet studiously observes here generally. He The continuance of bloom here as well as there is marks out the chief features with only a few short. Indeed grass and flower do not even comstrong touches of the brush. Hence he leaves plete the brief period of bloom appointed them by unnoted whether we are to regard 701 7020-50 nature. They wither before their time when the as the language of the one calling or of the as with a hot breath. The wind is called " 717

LORD breathes on them with the scorching wind questioner. It could be both. The questioner not only because it is Jehovah that charges it could have noticed the answer without the Pro- with its mission, but because, as breath, as life phet hearing it. Or the caller could answer audibly to the Prophet. It was then unnecessary rit of God. Thus in other places not only is the

respiration of nature, it has a likeness to the Spito make the questioner say again what was heard. In short, the Prophet tells us only once what from Spirit of God that operates like the wind (1 Kings the nature of the case must have been spoken also the 'wind that operates like the Spirit of

xviii. 12; 2 Kings ii. 16) designated "n17, but twice. As vers. 3, 4 are no exhortation to repentance,

God (Hos. xiii. 15; Isa. lix. 19). 60 too vers. 6–8 are not meant to be a sermon on the word of the Lord shall stand forever,

From the antithesis to the concluding words, the perishableness of all that is earthly. For what fitness were there in such a sermon here? we may infer that the Prophet in vers. 6-8 has in Israel is to be comforted; the downfall of the the Prophet thus here in the prologue to his great

mind primarily the people Israel. For would world-power at present so flourishing, the end of their period of conflict, and a corresponding he not begin with the words: “comfort, comfort

consolatory discourse comfort the heathen? Does period of glory and triumph is to be held up to view. But at the same time Israel is to be the word that stands” primarily that word of

ye my people ?" Thus we must understand by warned, in reference to its entrance upon these, not to surrender itself to rash, fleshly hopes. For promise given to Israel. The continuance of this the promises of that time of glory will not be so of all flesh; thus, also, of the outward, fleshly Is

is made prominent in contrast with the perishing quickly fulfilled. Israel thinks, perhaps, that

rael. From the general statement, "all flesh is the present generation, that the nation as at bent constituted, that the present reigning Davidic grass," ver. 6, the Prophet draws the conclusion, dynasty, that the present Jerusalem as now exist- ver.7: therefore, verily, the people is grass, and ing is to behold that glory. Just that is false therefore the people as grass and flower must wi

to this is joined the further consequence that hope. For all these are flesh, and therefore grass ther and fade (ver. 8). "Hence the literal repeti and flower of the field, and as such will and tion of "the grass withereth, the flower fadeth.”. must perish. Thereupon, naturally, the fleshly Israel asks: how can then the promises of the From what has been said already, it results of Lord be fulfilled? If Jerusalem with the temple Israel and not human kind (xlii. 5). At the same

course that we must understand by Din, ver. 7, is destroyed, and the posterity of David extinct, the nation dissolved as a state and scattered in time it is made clear that there is nothing superall lands, where then does there remain room and fluous in the text, but rather that the Prophet empossibility for the realization of that which God ploys only what is needful to express his thought. has promised? The word of the LORD standeth all that is earthly, and even what is earthly in the

He would say that, even if in the remote future forever, replies the Prophet. The perishing of all that is flesh in the people of God is no obstacle to

holy people, will have perished, still the word of the realization of what God has promised. On the LORD will remain and demonstrate its truth the contrary! The Prophet makes us read be- by the fulfilment of its contents. tween the lines, that the word of the LORD, pre-9-11. The third call begins also with a solemn

5. O Zion---that are with young.–Vers. cisely because of its own imperishable nature, finds in what perishes rather a hinderance than a formula of summons is the most copious of all, so

summons to let the call sound forth, and this thin condition of its own fulfilment. Such is in gene that in this respect a gradation occurs. The Proral the sense of our passage. If we have correctly phet so far had heard the summons to call and apprehended it, then the Prophet means thereby the contents of the call from above, so that he only to prevent erroneous representations in regard to the time and manner of fulfilling what he has be- cited to his readers things heard; but here it is fore, and especially in ver. 5, held in prospect.

himself that emits the summons to call, and deGrass as an image of the perishable, Ps. Xxxvii. fines the contents of what is to be called. As a 2; xc. 5 sq.; ciii. 15; cxxix. 6; Job viii. 12. Also man he turns to, an ideal person, it is true, yet

one conceived as human, to Zion or Jerusalem flowers: Job xiv. 2; Ps. ciii. 15. The word Ton

personified, and commissions it to assemble all occurs only here in the sense of physical loveli- its children, that they may relly about the newly ness, agreeableness. Elsewhere it is always used appearing, strong Saviour, and commit themselves of the ethical friendliness, favor, complacency of to His faithful guidance into their home. The persons (men and God). But has not the poet a relation of this call therefore to the two that preright to personify things, and to represent lovely, cede, is that it points to the gathering for the jour gracious appearance as the favor and friendliness ney and the guidance and providence during the that they show us? Whence the rendering Sofa journey, after that the first call had treated of the (LXX.), gloria (VULG.) is inexact (more suitable inward and outward preparation of the way, and EUTpénela, Jas. i. 11), but to retain the meaning the second had dealt with the period of the jour"piety" would be pedantry. If the loveliness ney. The first announcement of a call, ver. 3, of human things is like the grass and the flower contained one member; the second, which at the

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