Obrazy na stronie

חרב the ,חיב תאכלו mends itself the least

For in

,מקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ

or לִראוֹת



י) with נִרְאָה


. ,
where else we read:

“a holy convoc&is conceived of as adverbial. It is as one would say in

tion," Ex. xii. 16; Lev. xxiii. 3 sqq.; Num. xxviii. 18 sq.; Latin: gladiatim devorabimini, “ Ye shall be sword-fashion

xxix. 1 sqq. As regards the meaning of the phrase, it devoured.” It is essential to this construction that the substantive so used be without suffix, or a genitive fol- convocatio, the assembling of the nation to the feast. For

is not indictio sancti, i. c. the publication of a feast, but lowing. In 39

-ne ??, however, only on the principal feast-days was the nation obliged this adverbial use is not admissible. it is to be objected to appear in the sanctuary, (comp. the citations immeagainst the first rendering that ns always marks dis- diately above, and Oehler in Herzog's R. Encycl. IV., tinctly the definite object, and never is used after the

p. 395). The three substantives stand before as casus question “where?" On the other hand it is admitted absoluti, and represent a premise, to which 5718 mts that 29-na means coram facie, e. g. Gen. xxvii. 30:911 forms the conclusion: as for new moon, Sabbath, pny? 29 Nap? NYT Comp. 2 Kings xvi. 14: solemn assembly, I can't bear them, etc. The word Gen. xix. 13. “The cry of them is waxen great, -n 773y is found beside only in 2 Kings x. 20 and Joel i. ^ ?? before the face of the Lord.” Comp. 1 Sam. 14. In the Pentateuch only the form 77gy (stat. abxxii. 4; Gen. xxxiii. 18. According to that we must sol. and constr.) is used: Lev. xxiii. 36; Num. xxix. translate the expression in question: "appear before

35; Deut. xvi. 8. It is absolutely parallel with the presence of Jehovah." It may be remarked, in

* passing, that Deut. xvi. 16, DP'!." 139-nx OnyxS, IP holy convocation;" comp. 2 Chron. vii

. 5; Web.

viii. 18; Amos v. 21. The fundamental idea of is to be translated; "the face of the Jehovah is not seen empty,” i. e, without the presentation of a gift: where

cogere, conciere, continere, to draw together, to keep togethe passive, according to well-known usus loquendi, is ther. The noun, therefore, denotes coactio, concio. The construed as active. This latter form of expression is, fundamental idea of 1? Gux, spirare) is halitus, breath. as to sense, like those found Ex. xxiii. 15; xxxiv. 20,

It is thus synonym with 13? --Lastly, in two places, viz. Ps. xlii. 3 and in our text

29 is found without nx. In both Ver. 14. Of the verb spy only the Kal (comp. Pp. xi 5) places nie stands before the Niphal of 787. Here, partcps. occur in our book after this: 1x. 15; Ixi. 8; lxvi. 6. without doubt, ^ is the accusativus localis. In it- nou, burden (from 79, fatigari, Job xxxvii. 11) is gelf, this accusative can depend on xiz as well as on found also Deut. i. 12. Niphal 77853 again in Isa xvi. the Niphal 1787?. However, the original sense of the 12; xlvii. 13. The infinitive sic is only found in Isa. formula favors decidedly the last supposition. Thus again xviii. 3; comp. beside Gen. iv. 13; Ps. Ixxxix. 10. the expression, as found in our text and in xlii. 3, is

Ver. 15. The spreading out of the hands for prayer to be taken as a modification of the older formula, and as having the same meaning. '19 therefore is here (comp. HOELEMANN, Bibelstudien I., The Scriptural Form accusativus localis in the same sense as " 29-ns in of Worship, p. 137, Æneid. I. 93, duplaces tendens ad sidera the places cited above.- 7? wpa, Gen. xxxi, 39; palmas) is designated here by wap in the Piel, and

so occurs also Jer. iv. 31; Lam. i. 17; Ps. cxliii. 6. xliii. 9; 1 Sam. xx. 16.-1 day is in restrictive appo-ally Kal is used. Ex. ix. 29, 33; 1 Kings viii. 22, etc.— sition with nxi. Isaiah uses a pretty often : xvi. Only the Hithpael of Oy occurs beside in our book, 4; xxvi. 6; xxviii. 3; xli. 25; Ixiii. 3. Moreover, the sub

lviii. 7.—The meaning of in 'DJ'X is “not continually stantive opin is used by him relatively oftener: v. 5; hearing,” in distinction from your m'S, Jer, vii. 16; vii. 25; X. 6; xxviii. 18.

xi. 14; xiv. 12.-Comp. this passage, vers. 11-15, with the Ver. 13. It is debated whether the following na op; similar one, Amos v. 21 sqq. incense, is to be taken as stat. absol. as distinct from

Ver. 16. On account of the accent, 10-177 can only be Ano, or as stat. construct., and as designating that

Hithpael from 7721, pot Niphal of 21; comp. Gesen., which the XW-nnn is to Jehovah (" it is abominable

Thesaur., p. 413. The word is not used again by Isaiah ; incense to me"). Grammatically both renderings are admissible. It is not decisive for the latter rendering

and this Hith pael occurs nowhere else.—The expression that the Masorets have pointed ning with the con

03???yn yn (which occurs first Deut. xxviii. 20, and junctive Darga. It seems to me important to our in- afterward especially frequent in Jer. iv. 4; xxi. 12; xxiii. quiry, that with the exception of Ps. Ixvi. 15 (which 2; xxvi. 3; xliv. 22), calls to mind the Latin usus loquendi,

that makes a conception prominent by designating it by confessedly dates after the exile), neither burnt-offer

means of the abstract idea hovering, so to speak, over ings nor meat-offerings are ever called 1.pop, although the single, concrete manifestation of it: agricolæ non

is the solemn word employed for the consump- dolent, præterita verni temporis suavitate æstatem auction of both. Rather it is always said, that the sacrifice tumnumque venisse (comp. NAEGELSBACH, Stilistik, 8 74). shall be nn? D'), “a sweet savor” to the Lord. I . ( believe, therefore, that the prophet must have written 16, because standing in the accusative).-As nouns of ayin m'n had he wished to express what the de the form Simp; all have an active meaning (comp. fenders of the second rendering take the words to , , , ) pirn, which ocmean.- The combination of vin and nav, beside the

curs only here, must have the same sense as ypin, Ps. xt, is to be found also 2 Kings iv. 23; Hog. ii. 13.—The

lxxi. 4, i. e.=violentus, violent (comp. dan). The Piel en 28sion *7? Nhp is only found here. Every.

means then, just as iii. 12; ix. 16; Prov. xxiii. 19, "mak.



.ver הָרֵעַ inf

. nominascens like) לִמְדוּ הֵיטִיב .17


so ,בְּהֵן-בָּחון גָדוֹל אָדוֹם נָבוֹהֵ

direct, make go right, conduct aright.” The verbs PSV 1950 (comp. Ps. li. 9 (®), the word does not again occur and '?, as so often elsewhere (ver. 23; Ps. 2. 18; lxxxii. in Isa.) and 0'7877 (ärat dey.) and their direct causa3; Jer. v. 28, etc.), signify not merely a formal judging, tive meaning (producing whiteness, redness, i. e., bebut also rendering material justice, that is, so render coming white, red); ing judgment that what is just shall actually be done.

Ver. 19. The fundamental meaning of 172X, which it 3'}, moreover, here stands for the more usual ;?. For is worthy of note always has a before it except here 37 is not properly “judge,” but “strive," and first tion), is "ready, to be willing.” (Ps. Ixxxi. 12; 1 Ki. xx.

8). Accordingly the construction with vav and perfecattains the meaning of " helping one to justice” in the

tum consecutivum is explained ; when ye are willing, so connection 9 21 3'to manage some one's quar: that ye hearken (comp. the otherwise usual construcrel." It is therefore with a derivative sense that 'n is used when it means “judging," which it does, some tion with just the infinitive or ; chap. xxviii. 12 ; xxx. times in malam partem, as Deut. xxxiii. 3; Job x. 2, again in bonam partem, as here and li. 22 ; and in either 9; Ezek. iii. 7 ; xx. 8; Lev. xxvi. 21). The construcsense it is joined to the accusative.


? ver. 20 is evidently copied from this.--The exVer. 18. The Niphal nəis that occurs here, is found pression 1.77 310, good of the land, is first found elsewhere only in the participle; Gen, 21. 16; 2 Sam. Gen. xlv. 18, 20, 'where it stands parallel with 1987-19 XV.3; Prov. xxiv. 26; Job xxiii. 7. The meaning is ** disceptare, oladéyeolai," argue. The word is evidently fat of the land, (comp. Deut. vi. 11 ; 2 King; viii. 9; Ezr. used in a friendly sense. Regarding the Hiphil in ix. 12).

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. This section refers to the future, as vers. 2–9 ness was in her, and in her daughters, neither did did to the past and present. For the theme is she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy. how to escape out of the misery of the present And they were haughty, and committed abominaand attain a better future. The people had tion before me; therefore I took them away as I hitherto employed false means; outward cere saw good.” Comp. Gen. xiii. 13; xviii. 20. monies that were an abomination to the Lord, Therefore, rude, violent selfishness, joined with (vers. 10–15). Instead of these the people must sensual abomination was the sin of Sodom, and bring the genuine fruits of repentance, (vers. 16, is the sin of Judah. Consequently, and in refer17). Then conference may be held with the ence to our passage, the earthly Jerusalem is people; then will God's grace be greater than all called in Rev. xi. 8 TvEVMATIKĀS Eðdoua kai Aiyurguilt, (v.18). This is the right road. If the people

TOS. will go that road they shall find salvation; if 11758," the law of our God," a simple parallel with

The prophet does not understand by noin they will not, they shall find destruction, (vers. 19, 20). It is seen that a simple and clear order

"727, “the word,” etc., institutio, or India (chasof thought occurs in this section. Vers. 18–20 tisement) in general, but the Mosaic “ Law, esmust not be severed and joined to what follows.pecially, corresponding to the context, which For they contain exactly the indispensable con treats of the difference between a true and a false clusion, viz.: the promise of grace in case of observance of the law. Thus the second member obedience, on the other hand denunciation of marks an advance in reference to the first, and wrath in case of disobedience.

pin is to be construed synedochically. Docebo 2. Hear-Gomorrah, ver. 10.-As regards the verbs, hear, --hearken,” this beginning is vos," &c., says VITRINGA, “I will teach you like that of the preceding section, ver. 2. But what is the sum of the law of Moses ; not this, the subjects are different : there heaven and assuredly, which ye hypocritically exhibit, but to earth, here the Sodom-judges and the Gomorrah- worship God with a pure heart, and manifest zeal occasioned partly by the double idea Sodom and 15.- VITRINGA calls attention to a gradation in nation. The dividing into judges and nation is for justice, equity, honor and every virtue.”

3. To what purpose-full of blood, v. 11Gomorrah, by which this section is connected with the foregoing one, partly by the contents of these verses. Bloody sacrifices, attendance at the the positive demand, ver. 17. For, as regards its temple, unbloody sacrifices, feasts, prayers, make general contents, this is directed against the entire the series of religious formalities which approach nation, but especially also against the princes step by step to a truly spiritual worship: And and judges of the nation. Expositors correctly Israel observed them: for the nation, notwith.

yet they may all of them not satisfy the Lord as call attention to the fact that after ver. 9, the pro- standing, does not rise above the level of mere phet supposes a reply on the part of the people outward ceremonial service. The o'na are a to this effect; how have they deserved so hard a fate, seeing they had been so zealously diligent, comprehensive expression for bloody sacrifices, to observe all the ceremonies of the worship of

as is often the case in writers of later date than Jehovah. To this it is replied, that they are not the Pentateuch, see 1 Sam. ii. 29; iii. 14. Isa. unjustly become like Sodom and Gomorrah be- xix. 21; HERZOG R. Encycl. X. p. 621, 637. cause for a long time they were inwardly like This appears from the prominence of the word in them. What Sodom-judges and a Gomorrah- ver. 11, and from its being made parallel with nation may be, can be learned from Ezek. xvi. nn?? ver. 13. That the discourse of Jehovah 48 sqq. “As I live, saith the LORD God, Sodom must not be regarded as the first and only one of thy sister hath not done, she nor her daughters, the sort spoken in this matter, but as a member as thou hast done, thou and thy daughters. Be- of a continuous chain of words of the same purhold this was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom, port, is indicated by the Imperfect, pride, fulness of bread, and abundance of idle Without exactly intending completeness, or an



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especially significant order of the classes of beasts | so like the fragrant blossom of the sacrificial wor. and sacrifices, the prophet still enumerates the ship, was itself an abomination, when offered in chief sorts of those sacrifices that were taken from the false way as hitherto. ix's and 22 (flocks and herds). The niliy as observance of the holy days and seasons appointed

moon and Sabbath.-The the principal sacrifice is named first : (it is ?p by the Lord Himself was an essential part of the D'UTP, comp. Euler in Herzog's R. Encycl. X. Exod. xxiii. 10–17; Lev. xxiii.; Num. xxviii.; p. 634). That only disa milje are named, is xxix.; Deut. xvi. Yet even such performance accidental. For burnt-offerings were not pre

is of no account in God's sight, but, on the consented only of rams, see Lev. i. nor were offerings trary, offensive and vexatious when it does not of rams especially holy. In all enumerations of proceed from that disposition He would have.

The new moons, the sacrificial beasts rams are in the second place,

were so to speak the first born after bullocks. Exod. xxix.; Lev. viii.; Num. among the days of the month,” and the fixing of vii. 15 sqq. ; xxix. 2 sq., etc. 'In as much'as, with the other feast days that occurred in the month the exception of the whole burnt-offering, only of feasts," Ecclus. xliii. 7; comp. SAALSCHUETZ,

depended on them ("From the moon is the sign the fat and the blood were offered, (comp. EULER HERZOG's R. Encycl. X. p. 632), Lev. iii. 16 sq.; l brations, see Num. X. 10; xxviii. 11-16; 1 Sam.

M103. R., p. 402 sqq.). Concerning their cele vii. 23 sqq.; Ezek. xliv. 15, it is natural that these should have especial prominence in this

xx. 5, 18 sq. By nou is to be understood the place. By D'x??? we are not to understand a weekly Sabbath, as appears from the fact that, in

what follows, the feasts and therefore the feast particular species of beast, as many have thought: Sabbaths are especially mentioned ; see Herzog's The word is only found elsewhere in 2 Sam. vi. 13; 1 Kings i. 9, 19, 25; Isa. xi. 6; Ezek. xxxix. R. Encycl. IV. p. 385. 4393 is used here in the 18; Amos v. 22. The meaning is not made out pregnant sense of “ surmounting, enduring, being with certainty. But in this place it seems to able to hold out,” like we too could mean fed beasts in general. If the fat were all vermag ich Frevel und Festversammlung.' “ I can't that was offered of the solid matter of the beast, | (stand) outrage and solemn assembly,” i. e., the then must a beast be the better suited for an of- combination of the two, both at once surpasses fering according as it had more fat. Thence the being fat is named as a desirable quality in the my ability. In a similar sense ; is used Hos. sacrificial animal, Ps. xx.; Gen. iv. 4. A further viii. 5; Ps. ci. 5 sq:; xiii. 5; Prov. xxx. 21. proof that the prophet does not intend an exact God cannot put up with this combination of conclassification is seen in the fact that he speaks centration and decentralization, of centripetal only of the blood of bullocks, of sheep, ( the

and centrifugal forces. He opposes to them a nale sheep Lev. xiv. 10) and of he-goats (18yphet repeats the same thought with still stronger

non possumus. In the following verse the prothe younger, 7"ping the older he-goat), although expressions. For he names again the new moons. neither the blood of only these beasts, nor yet of "Sabbath, calling assembly and solemn meet

But what in ver. 13 he designates by the words, these beasts was only the blood offered. Ver. 12. When ye come to appear, etc.

ing,” he comprehends here in the one conception

, “ this personal appearance at the place of worship holy seasons that occurred by established order." stands on the platform of spirituality: It also is (EÜLER in HERZOG's R. Encycl. IV.p. 33, comp. an homage that is paid to the divinity:. But it Lev. xxiii. 2). What he says to them ver. 13, mere bodily presence, that the Lord has not dee in one word 6328-*', “ I can't bear,” he now exmanded that.

presses by three verbs. He explains his non Who hath required.-Jehovah does not possumus in that he says he hates those cererequire the mere bodily presence, so far as this is monies, that they are a burden to him and a subnothing but an useless wearing out of the courts ject of loathing. by the feet of those that stand in them.

But prayer, too, although it is the fragrant blos The unbloody sacrifices and the solemn assem som of the soul's life (comp. Rev.v.8; viii. 3 sq.), bles represent again a different and still higher and therefore stands high above the previously grade of worship. No more lying meat-offerings named elements of worship in regard to immashall they bring, (Comp: v. 18; xxx. 28) i. e., teriality and spirituality, is not acceptable to the such, in which the disposition of the one sacrific Lord in the mouth of this people. For it also is ing does not correspond to the outward rite. Idu only empty lip and hand service. Jehovah shuts not believe that the text has to do only with the His eyes at the caricature of prayer; comp. 1 Sam. performances of the haós, “laity,” as DELITZSCH xii. 3; Prov. xxviii. 27; and also much praying supposes. For the prophet rejects the entire out- does not help the matter, for Jehovah does not ward ceremonial service, which, in fact, the go on hearing constantly. priests solemnized only in place of the nation Your bands are full of blood.”—In this which ideally was itself a priestly nation, Exod. short phrase, which is added emphatically without xix. 6. Moreover, there would be an omission connecting particle, the reason is given why Jein the enumeration of the parts of worship if hovah cannot endure all the ceremonial obserthat very important and most holy incense offer- vances of the nation. They are offered by hands ing were left out (Exod. xxx., especially ver. 36). stained with blood. It is thus a revolting lie, The Lord says, therefore, that incense, otherwise lxxix. 13.

the most general word_for the“ מוֹעֵד) מוֹעֲרִים | ,A gradle higher than the rule bloody sacrifice

4. Wash ye-plead for the widow, vers. |ing that opp! and ns d'opo? 127 always de16-17.—Heart cleansing, turning away from evil, signate God as the punitive Judge; comp. Ixvi. proper fruits of repentance, such is the divine 16; Joel iv. (iii.) 2; Jer. xxv. 31 ; Ezek. xx. 35, service that the Lord requires. There are nine etc. But it is precisely for this reason that Isaiah demands made on the people; four negative, ver. does not employ the usual expression for "liti16, and five positive, ver. 17. The first two of gate,” but a word that does not elsewhere occur, the four negative expressions are figurative. in order to indicate that he has in mind a litigaI'm? is indeed often used of bodily washing (and tion altogether different from the usual sort. Bein a medial sense as here: Ex. ii. 5; Lev. xiv. sides, it contradicts not only the sense and the 8; 17. 5 sqq. etc.). nap is used only of moral connection of our passage, but the spirit of the purity, but, according to its fundamental idea, Holy Scriptures generally, for one to assume that must be regarded as a figurative expression. In pardon may not follow the fulîlling of the condiwhat follows the prophet says the same thing tions proposed in ver. 16, or that this pardon may without figure of speech: they must let the Lord consist in the extirpation of the outrageous offendsee no more wicked works, i. e., they must cease effected. No! just those, whose hands are full of

ers and the “cleansing and clearing away” thus to sin.

blood, may, if they cleanse themselves, be pure The five positive demands proceed from the and white; comp. xliii. 24 sq.; xliv. 22; Ps. general to the particular. For in advance stands the quite general “ learn to do well.” Then fol- xxxii. and li.-) and resin are one and the lows the exhortation to "seek judgment,” (the same color, viz., bright red, crimson. Here, eviphrase is found again only xvi. 5). The Old dently, it means the color of blood. In many Test. 777},“ righteousness, consists essentially places, as Exod. xxviii. 5, 6; xxxvi. 8, etc.; Jer. in conformity to wavn, “judgment.” Whoever, iv

. 30, we find 'aw ny in or print; Lev. xiv. 4, ander all circumstances, does what is right, even 6, 49, 51, 52; Num. xix. 6 rezin "2W, Lam. PT3, “righteous one.” When the powerful, iv. 5 only yşin. The last word means “ worm," wretched, the widow and the orphan to enjoy Ixvi

. 21; Job xxv. 6). What the yw nysin is then, spite of his power, suffers the poor, the comp. Exod. xvi. 20, and pain Isa. xiv. 11; their rights, then this justice appears subjectively as gentleness and goodness, objectively as salva- we are well informed. It is the female cochineal tion. Hence p'73°has so 'often the secondary (coccus ilicis, LINNE) which lays its eggs on the

twigs of the holm oak, and, expiring upon them, meaning of “ kindness, mercy" (comp. Ps. xxxvii.

covers them with its body. The egg nests so 21; Prov. xii. 10; xxi. 26) and P7? or 727 formed were pulverized and the color prepared that of “salvation” (Ps. xxiv. 5; cxxxii. 9, 16; therefrom. It is less certain why the color is Iza. xli. 10; xlv. 8, etc.). The Old Test

. 727? con named '?'. Comp. LEYRER, Art. crimson in trasts, therefore, on the one hand with grace, that Herzog's R. Encycl. XXI., p. 606. The plural gives more than can justly be demanded, on the other hand, with oppressive unrighteousness, DJ is found only here and Prov. xxxi. 21. It (. , ? )

seems to me in both places to mean more proba

bly less. Comp. my comment. on Jer. vii

. 5.-Who- has its reason in the evident reference to the

“scarlet stuffs.That sin is here called red, ever exercises strict justice will quite as much re, bloody hands, ver. 15 b. But that the righteous strain the oppressor from doing injustice, as aid estate is compared to white color, happens acthose seeking their rights to the enjoyment of cording to the natural and universal symbolism them. The prophet expresses the former by the of colors; comp. Ps. xxxvii. 6; Mal. iii. 20 (iv. Fords pion he “righten [marg. Eng. vers.) the 2); 1 Jno. i. 5, 7; Rev. i. 14; iii. 4; xix. 14, etc. oppressor."

If ye be willing, ver. 19. The exhortation 5. Come now-hath spoken it, vers. 18– vers. 16, 17 is followed ver. 18 by a similar pro20. As in ver. 15 the phrase "your hands are mise, i. e., by one that similarly confines itself to filled with blood” is loosely strúng on without the inward, spiritual domain. To this is now connecting particle, so also the complex thought joined a twofold word of a) promise also of outof vers. 18, 19, as to its sense, refers back to ver. ward felicity, ver. 19; b) of threatening of bodily 15 b. For the prophet evidently would say: your

destruction, ver. 20. The conclusion" hands are indeed full of blood, but if ye truly be- be devoured of the sword,” ver. 20, corresponds come converted, all debts shall be forgiven, etc.

to "ye shall eat the good of the land,” not only Verse 18 therefore contains the necessary conse

as to sense, but also, as near as may be, as to quences of the premises laid down in what


sound. On the formula “for the mouth,” etc., eedes. The discourse gains in brevity and viva

comp., at ver. 2. city by its members being strung together without

[Ver. 13. “The last clause, meaning of course, conjunctions.—“ Come, now,etc.

, comp. ii. 3, 5. I cannot bear them together, is a key to the preThe prophet would say: when ye shall have truly ceding verses. It was not religious observance repented, then come, and then we shall easily itself, but its combination with iniquity, that God come to an understanding. GESENIUS and others abhorred.” J. A. ALEXANDER, would have the sense to be, not that Jehovah is

Oblations, nni. “This word properly derepresented as forgiving, but that the taking away noted a gift of any kind, (Gen. xxxii. 13), then of the blood-red guilt consists in an extirpation especially a present or offering to the Deity: of the sinner. They support this view by remind- | Gen. iv. 3, 4, 5.—The proper translation would

and others ) that gives מרצח הָמוֹץ עָרִיץ .comp)

ye shall

have been meal or flour-offering, rather than meat- of courts, and proposes to submit the" (their) offering, since the word meat with us now denotes case as if on trial." BARNES. animal food only. Lev. ii. 1; vi. 14; ix. 17.Scarlet.-—“There is another idea here. This BARNES.

was a fast or fixed color. Neither dew, rain, nor Ver. 16. Wash._" It is used here in close con- washing, nor long usage would remove it

. Hence nection with the previous verse, where the it is used to represent the fixedness and permaprophet says that their hands were filled with blood. nency of sins in the heart. No human means will He now admonishes them to wash away that wash them out. No effort of man, no external blood, with the implied understanding, that, then rites, no tears, no sacrifice, no prayers are of their prayers would be heard.” BARNES. themselves sufficient to take them away. An From before mine eyes. “ As God is omni

almighty power is needful to remove them."

BARNES. scient, to put them away from before His eyes is

Like the wool.-Instead of the wool becomto put them away altogether.” BARNES.

ing like the crimson, the crimson shall become Ver. 18. “God has been addressing magistrates like the wool. Regarding the sequence of vers. particularly, and commanding them to seek judg. 16, 17, and ver. 18; comp. Matt. v. 22–24.—TR. ment, etc., all of which are terms taken from the Ver. 19. Ye shall eat.-—“Instead of seeing law. 'He' here continues the language, and ad- them devoured by strangers, as in ver. 7.” J. A. dresses them as accustomed to the proceedings ALEXANDER).


CHAPTER I. 21-31.

21 How is the faithful city become an harlot !

It was full of judgment;

Righteousness lodyed in it; but now murderers. 22 Thy silver is become dross,

Thy wine mixed with water:
23 Thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves :

Every one loveth gifts, and a followeth after rewards:
They judge not the fatherless,

Neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them. 24 Therefore saith the LORD,

The Lord of hosts, the Mighty One of Israel,
Ah, I will tease me of mine adversaries,

And avenge me of mine enemies :
25 And I will turn my hand upon thee,

And' .purely purge away thy dross,

And take away all thy dtin:
26 And I will restore thy judges as at the first,

And thy counsellors as at the beginning:
Afterward thou shalt be called,

The city of righteousness, the faithful city, 27 Zion shall be redeemed with judgment,

And ?her converts with righteousness.

1 Heb. according to pureness.
will melt out thy dross with lyc.

? Or, they that return of her.
b refresh myself on, and avenge me on
d lead,

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