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vation. But the salvation which he immedi
ately brings is still only a faint twilight. On the
other hand, in himself considered, Cyrus is a grand and glorious appearance. He beams like the sun in the heavens, that is unobscured by clouds, and that, indeed, not only in our prophecy, but also in profane history. In this respect he prefigures the element of glory that must appear in the fulfiller of redemption. In chap. xlv. 1 He is called Top (Messiah, anointed). He is therefore the messiah in a lower degree. Lowliness, reproach, suffering, nothing of this sort is found in him. On the contrary Israel is the lowly, despised, much enduring servant of Jehovah, who, however, in his lowliness is still strong, and in the hand of Jehovah a mighty instrument, partly to punish the heathen nations, and partly to save them. This particular also attains its conclusion in Him who fulfils the redemption. Therefore He is called Messiah and Servant of Jehovah in one person. He unites both in one: the glory and the lowliness, the kingly form and the servant form. Thus it happens, that in xl.-xlviii. beside the promise of Cyrus (as far as it relates to the deliverance out of the Babylonian exile), and the proof of divinity (drawn from prophecy and fulfilment) which form the peculiar subjects of these chapters, we see those two other elements appear in a preparative way; the element of glory represented by Cyrus, and the form of the servant, of God by the people Israel. Those first named subjects are concluded in xl.-xlviii. For after xlviii. nothing more is said either about Cyrus or about prophecy and fulfilment. But that in Cyrus and in the people (regarded as the servant of Jehovah) which is typical has its unfolding in the two following Enneads, of which the former is chiefly devoted to the servant of God, and the latter to the glory of the new creation. Thus, therefore, we may say: the first Ennead forms the basis of the two that follow, in as much as it carries out to completion the two fundamental factors of the initiation of the redemption by Cyrus, and the proof of the divinity of Jehovah drawn therefrom, but partly, too, in that it lays the foundation for the representation of Him who in the highest degree is the Servant of God and King. Let us now observe how the Prophet carries out in detail the plan which we have just sketched in its outlines. In chap. xl. after the prologue, the Prophet presents first the objective then the subjective basis of the redemption. For this chapter, after a general introduction (vers. 1–11) referring to the whole book, and thus also to the subsequent parts of chap. xl., contains first a presentation of the absolute power and wisdom of God, from which follows also the impossibility of representing Him by any natural image (vers. 12–26). If then redemption is objectively conditioned by the omnipotence and wisdom of God, so it is subjectively by that trust that Israel must repose in its God (vers. 27–31). This chap. contains, therefore, three parts, and has wholly the character of a foundation. To chapter xli., we give the superscription: First appearance of the redeemer from the east and of#: o; %Jehovah, as also the first and second realization of the prophecy relating to this as prog of the divinity of Jehovah. For in o ...
the Prophet begins by bringing forward as the principal person of his prophetic drama the form of him who as beginner of the redemption has to stand in the foreground of the first Ennead. He does not yet name him, but he draws him with traits not to be mistaken, and designates him as the one called of God, and his calling a test of divinity which it is impossible for idols to give (xli. 1-7). Immediately after the redeemer the Prophet lets the redeemed appear, viz.: the people Israel, whom he introduces as “servant of Jehovah” in contrast with the glorious potentate from the east, for in him must appear that other typical element, poverty and lowliness, which still does no detriment to his strength. The Prophet characterizes this servant of Jehovah primarily as the chosen one of God, whom God will not reject but will strengthen to victory (xli. 8–13), then again, as poor and wretched, who, notwithstanding, will be a mighty instrument of judgment and rich in salvation and knowledge (xli. 14–20). After, he has thus described the redeemer and the redeemed servant of God, he employs in conclusion precisely this prophecy of redemption a second time as the basis of an argument which has for its conclusion the sole divinity of Jehovah, and the nothingness of idols (xli. 21–29). In Chapter xlii. the third principal person appears on the scene, viz., the personal Servant of God to whom both the chief personages before mentioned pointed; the first of them prefiguring His glory, the second His lowliness. He is represented first as meek, who at the same time will be a strong refuge of righteousness (xlii. 1-4); then as the personal representative of a new covenant, who shall mediate for all nations light and right; and at the same time this is the third rophecy which the LoRD presents as pledge of His divine dignity (xlii. 5–9). These two strophes are like a ladder that leads up to the culmination. For chapter xlii. is a pyramidal structure. In verses 10–17 the Prophet has reached the point of the pyramid. In them the expression “Servant of God” is no longer used. And yet the discourse is concerning the same that wer. 1 was designated as the Servant of Jehovah. He appears here in His unity with Jehovah in which He Himself is El-Gibbor [God a mighly one]. As such, He issues out of Israel into the blind heathen world in order partly to judge, partly to bring them to the light of knowledge and of salvation. . From this elevation the following strophes recede again. And in vers. 18–21 the Servant of Jehovah, who appears here again under this name, is portrayed as one, who can indeed make others see and hear, but Himself, as one blind and deaf, goes to meet His destruction, yet precisely thereby secures the favor of God, and becomes the founder of a new Tora (law). Unhappily this new institution of salvation is not accepted by unbelieving Israel. For this reason the Prophet sees Israel as a people robbed, plundered, and languishing in kennels and prisons (xlii. 22–25). From his heart he wishes that Israel might take warning from this threatening in time, and the sooner the better. But, alas, the Prophet knows that Israel, spite of the Exile, in which it has already so emphatically experienced the chastening hand of its God, will not yet lay to heart this warning With this the second discourse concludes. Having in xli.—xlii. introduced especially the chief persons of the redemption, viz.: the redeemer from the east, then the redeemed or servant (people) of God, finally the personal Servant of God, in whom the two former combine, the Prophet now portrays in xliii. chiefly the redemption itself. He gives first a survey of the chief particulars of the redemption (vers. 1–8). Having ver. 1 assigned the reason for the redemption, he depicts it, ver. 2, as one that shall come to pass spite of all difficulties; in vers. 3, 4, as such that it must come to pass though even heathen nations must be sacrificed for the sake of it; in vers. 5–7 as all-comprehending, i. e., as such that it will lead back into their home out of all lands of the earth the members of the people of Israel; finally, in ver. 8, is indicated the condition that Israel must fulfill in order to partake of this salvation, viz.: that it must have open eyes and ears in a spiritual sense. To this representation of the redemption in general, the Prophet adds (vers. 9–13) the statement, that recurs thus for the fourth time, that prophecy and fulfilment are a test of divinity, ...]". Israel in its capacity as servant of God is called to be witness by furnishing this test. After carrying out this thought, that recurs so like a refrain, the Prophet turns again to the chief thought of chapter xliii. He describes the return home of Israel especially out of the Babylonian captivity. Yet not without finding in the Lord's manner of bringing this about a reference to the distant Messianic salvation, in respect to its exercising also a transforming influence upon nature (vers. 14–21). In the fourth strophe of the chapter (vers. 22–28) the Prophet treats the thought of the inward, moral redemption, viz.: the redemption also from sin. He lets it be known here that this inward redemption will by no means follow close on the feet of the outward redemption from exile. For Israel has never kept the law. The LoRD has already hitherto borne Israel's sin, and will in future blot out the guilt of it. But the Israel that contemns the grace of God in proud self-righteousness will have to be destroyed. The Lord, however, will break the power of sin by the rich effusion of the holy and holy-making Spirit upon that seed of Israel that shall be chosen to serve the Lord as His servant; and this is the thought of the fifth strophe that includes xliv. 1–5.
Having portrayed in xli. the first redeemer and then the redeemed, i.e., the servant (people) of God, then in xiii. the antitype of both, the second Redeemer and Servant of God in a personal sense, then in xliii. the redemption itself, and all this in such a way that, interspersed, He has appealed four times, in a refrain like repetition, to the ability of Jehovah to prophesy in contrast with the inability of idols, as proof of His divinity, the Prophet now xliv. 6 sqq., makes a decided use of this last element for which He has made such preparation. This entire chapter is an edifice whose substructure consists of the members of just that argumentation, that whoever can prophesy is God, and the crowning point of which appears to us in naming the name “Kores” (Cyrus), the way for naming it being now well prepared, and the motive sufficient. That is to
say, in xliv, 6–20, for the fifth time, in a drawn. out recapitulation extending through three strophes, it is set forth that Jehovah, as the only true God, can alone prophesy, and that He is God He will now prove by a grand prophetic transaction for the salvation of Israel. Accordingly, in the first strophe (xliv, 6–11) the Prophet shows that Israel possesses the stronghold of its salvation in its living, everlasting God, who can prophesy, and has prophesied, which Israel also as a witness must testify to, whereas the senseless makers of idols must go to destruction. In the second strophe (xliv. 12–17), in order to set forth the senselessness of idol worship most convincingly, the manufacture of idols is described in a drastic way. In the third strophe (xliv. 18–20) in order on the one hand to explain the possibility of such senseless acts as making idols, the deep reason of it is pointed to, viz.: the blindness of men's hearts and minds; on the other hand however the Prophet points to the destructive effects of this insane behaviour. In the fourth strophe (xliv. 21–28) the Prophet attains finally the culmination. He first deduces briefly the consequences from the foregoing. Before all he reminds that Israel is Jehovah's servant, i.e., property, which the Loop has bought for Himself by graciously blotting out his guilt. This ransomed servant may return home (note the
highly significant minuxliv.22). Then there is
a second brief reminder of Jehovah's omnipotent divinity, and, in contrast with it, of the necessary disgrace of idols and their soothsayers. In contrast with the latter it is finally declared with all emphasis: Jehovah makes true the word of His prophets. Therefore Israel will and must have a happy return home, and Cyrus shall the prince be called who shall accomplish this decree of Jehovah.
With this we have the culmination of the cycle of prophecy in chapters xl.-xlviii. and in respect of space have reached the middle of it. For, if we leave aside xl., as a general laying of a foundation, and remember that the prophecy relating to Cyrus begins with xli., we have here at the close of xliv., four discourses behind us, and still four discourses before us.
In chapter xlv., the prophecy remains at the elevation which it attained at the close of chapter xliv. We may therefore designate this discourse as the culmination of the cycle of prophecy in xl.—xlviii. and its contents as “Cyrus and the effects of his appearance.” . For we are informed in xlv. 1–7 what shall be brought about by Cyrus, whom the LoRD has chosen and designates as His anointed (no), and what three-fold.
object will be secured thereby. But we learn xiv. 8–13 that Cyrus is the beginner and founder of the era of salvation promised, to Israel, although according to appearance this seems not to be, and the faint-heartedness of Israel requires the assurance that Cyrus is certainly called to accomplish the outward restoration of the holy people and of the holy city. The Prophet even gives the further assurance, that, beside that northern world-power directly ruled by Cyru. even the southern, i. e., Egypt with the lands of its dominion, convinced by the salvation acoru: ing to Israel' from Cyrus, shall...be converted,” J iod, and will join itself to His people (xlv.
14–17). Finally, however, in consequence of the other nations seem to offer (xlvii. 8–15). ninth discourse, finally, (xlviii.) is recapitulation
saving effect proceeding from Cyrus, this greatest advantage shall eventuate, viz.: that Israel, when it sees the heathen north and south converted to Jehovah, shall at last and delinitively abjure idols, and give itself up wholly and entirely to its God, so that from that time on humanity entire shall have become a spiritual Israel (xlv. 18–25). In the seventh discourse (chapter xlvi.), as also in the eighth (chapter xlvii.) the obverse side of this picture of the future brought about by Cyrus is shown. In xlvi. namely, we have presented first the downfall of the Babylonian idols; but connected with this, also the gain that Israel shall derive from this, for its knowledge of God. That is to say, Israel will come to see that there is a great difference between Jehovah who carries t1us people, and those idols that are carried by beasts of burden into captivity (xlvi. 1–4). In fact Israel will know, too, which just such a difference exists between Jehovah and the images that are meant to represent Him (of which xl. 18, 25 has discoursed), for the latter also are idols that need to be carried (xlvi. 5–7). Israel will actually draw the conclusion that the LoRD here presses home for the sixth time, viz.: that the God who can prophesy and fulfill, who, in particular, has correctly announced beforehand the ravenous bird from the east, must be the right God (xlvi. 8–11). But the Prophet foresees that not all Israelites will draw from the facts so far mentioned that advantage for their religious life that, according to Jehovah's intention, they ought. Will not this make problematical the realization of the promised salvation ? He replies to this question, “No.” For the righteousness and salvation of God must come in spite of the hard-heartedness of Israel (xlvi. 12, 13). The eighth discourse is occupied wholly with Babylon. It paints in drastic images the deep downfall of it, exposes the reasons (the harshness against Israel transcending the measure that God would have, and the secure arrogance xlvii. 1-7), and shows the uselessness of all the means employed to rescue Babylon, both those derived from the worship of demons and those which the connections with
and conclusion. After an address to Israel that displays the motives that prompt Jehovah's interest in the nation (xlviii. 1, 2) the Prophet makes prominent for the seventh time the importance of prophecy for the knowledge of God. He points Israel to the fulfilment of the old prophecies, that they had experienced and verified in order to move them to faith in the new that concern the redemption from exile (xlviii. 3–11). Then the chief contents of this new prophecy is repeated: what idols cannot, Jehovah can do, for He promises and brings on a redeemer that shall accomplish the will of God on Babylon (xlviii. 12–15). But Israel is summoned to go out of Babylon as out of an opened prison house, and to proclaim to all the world that the LoRD by Cyrus has led His people out of Babylon and home, as He did by Moses out of Egypt (xlviii. 20–21). We join these verses close on ver. 15 because the contents of both passages demand it. The verses 16 and 17–19 are two insertions. The first, which is very obscure, appears to be a side remark of the Prophet's,..to the effect that the wonderful things discoursed in xl.-xlvii. were to himself not known from the beginning, but learned only in the moment of their creation (in a prophetic sense, comp. on xlviii. 6), but now by the impulse of the Spirit he has made them known. Verses 17–19 are of a retrospective nature. They contain the lament of the Lord that Israel did not sooner give heed to His commands; for thereby it would have partaken of the blessing given to the patriarchs without the chastening agency of the Exile. Ver. 22 finally (which occurs again as to the words at the close of chap. lviii., and in respect to sense at the close of chap. lxvi.) is a refrain-like conclusion intended (in contrast with the consolatory words that begin the entire book of consolation chapters xl.-lxvi. and its principal parts) to call to mind the important truth, that this consolation is not unconditionally offered to all. For the wicked can have no share in it. This, in its essentials, is my opinion of the plan and order of chapters xl.-xlviii.
I.—THE FIRST DISCOURSE.
The Prologue: the Objective and Subjective basis of Redemption. CHAPTER XL. 1. TIIE PROLOGUE OF THE SECOND PART AND OF THE FIRST DISCOURSE. CHAPTER XL. 1–11.
1 CoMFORT ye, comfort ye my people Saith your God. - y 3.
2 Speak ye 'comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her,
That her ‘warfare is accomplished,
*For she hath receive
of the Lord's hand
And the crooked shall be made 'straight,
And "the rough places ‘plain:
5 And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed,
And all flesh shall see it together:
For the mouth of the LoRD hath spoken it. 6 “The voice said, Cry. And he said, What shall I cry?
All flesh is grass,
And all the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field: 7 The grass withereth, the flower fadeth : Because the spirit of the Lord bloweth upon it:
Surely the people is grass.
8 The grass withereth, the flower fadeth : But the word of our God shall stand forever.
9 "O Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up into the high mountain; "O Jerusalem, that bringest good tidings,
Lift up thy voice with strength; Lift it up, be not afraid;
Say unto the cities of Judah, Behold your God!
Behold, the Lord God will come '*with strong hand,
He shall feed his flock like a shepherd:
He shall gather the lambs with his arm,
And carry them in his bosom,
And shall gently lead those "that are with young.
* Or, a straight place. * Or. O thou that tellest good tidings to Zion. Or, against the strong.
* Or, that give suck.
• prepare in the wildcress.
that, according to its original sense, designates the thought neither as present nor future, nor in any way as one to be estimated by time measure, but one to be estimated by the measure of its mode of existence. That is, the Imperfect designates, not that which has objectively come into actual existence, but what is only present some way subjectively. In other words, on pr, standing at the beginning of the second part, characterizes it as addressed to an ideal church. In itself. indeed, hip N can mean, “he will speak.” Thus it is taken by STIER, v. HoFMANN (Schriftbelt. II. 1. p. 91, Ausg. v. J. 1853), and KLosterMANN (Zeitschrift f. Luth. Th. u. K. 1876, I. p 24 sqq.); the last named of whom, however, errs in thinking that the following discourse vers. 3-11 gives the Imperfect the direction toward the future. For what follows, and is separated by intermediate members can never determine the specific sense of a Hebrew verbal form. Throx" can, also in itself mean frequent repetition (DELIrzsch). But all these significations are too special. The subjective force of the Imperfect is capable of various signification according to the context. Here at the beginning we are much too little au fait, to assign to the word a construction as definite as those expositors would do. Here we know from the nor" only this much, that what follows is to be regarded, not as something that has just gone forth, something to be executed at once for the present church, but as an ideal word of God according to its point of departure and aim.—We have said above that by with a suffix referring to Jehovah occurs much oftener in the second part than in the first. The same is to be said of t-nox with the suffix referring to Israel. •ribs occurs twice in the first part (vii. 13; xxv. 1), five times in the second (xi. 27; xlix. 4, 5; Ivii. 21; xi. 10); lynox six times in the first part (i. 10; xxv. 9; xxvi. 13; xxxv. 2; xxxvi. 7: xxxvii. 20), eight times in the second (xl. 3, 8; xlii. 17; lii. 10; lv. 7; lix. 13; lxi. 2, 6); Trios in the first part properly only once in the sense here under review (vii. 11; beside this xxxvii. 4, 10), six times in the second (xli. 10, 13; xliii. 3; xlviii. 17; li. 15; lv. 5); Trios occurs not at all in the first part, on the other hand nine times in the second (li. 20, 22; lii. 7; liv. 6; lx. 9, 19; lxii. 3, 5; lxvi. 9); Donox in the first part only xxxv. 4, in the second xl. 1, 9; lix. 2; TTR in the sense meant here only 1. 10; lviii. 2; ; "not and Dn"nox occur in this sense in neither part. It is quite natural that the affectionate words of endearment should occur oftener in the book of comfort than in the book of threatening.
Ver. 2. The question might be raised whether "E is to be construed as a causal particle. But in that case wnp must be referred to what precedes, and that, say, in the sense of *Nop isop (Jer. iv. 5) in order that it may not stand as flat and superfluous. This construction is not allowable here because "N"p must be closely connected with the preceding ab-by Yny-l.
We must therefore refer YNTD to what follows, and ">, in the sense of “that,” introduces the objective clause.—No only here and Dan. viii. 12 is used as
feminine. The reason seems to me to lie in this, that in both passages the word is conceived as collective, i. e., as designation, not of a single conflict, but of a multitude of conflicts, of a long continued period of conflict.—ship of time (comp. Gen. xxv.24; xxix. 21; Jer. xxv. 12) occurs again in Isaiah only lzv. 20 in the Piel. —The expression bo occurs elsewhere only Job xi. 6; the singular, also, ‘52, duplicatio, only Job xli. 4. -
Wer. 3. Piel ng, “make straight,” occurs again only xlv. 2, 13–75`y, regio arida, apart from xxxv. 1, 6, occurs in part first only xxxiii. 9; whereas in part second, beside the present it occurs xli. 19; li. 3.−
with (* TYPE net") in the Pentateuch: Exod. xvi. 10; Lev. ix. 6; Num. Xiv. 10, etc.—nva-on found again only xlix. 26; lzvi. 16, 23, 24; with following in again only in Job xxxiv. 15.-The clause "N") to "T" is to be referred to what precedes, and not to what follows. For if NY were to be taken in the sense of spiritual seeing, of knowing, still it would be a secondary thought that all flesh shall know that revelation as one that was announced beforehand. The chief thing will be that they will verify with their own eyes that revelation. And this seeing shall win them to the Lord. Moreover
be to present this saying as a new chief member of the consecutio rerum, of the succession of facts that naturally unfold themselves. That might and perhaps would have happened were it a merely earthly transaction that is treated. To represent such in the completeness of its successive points, it must have read: 'u' on sys no "ps, "ps hip ypt's. But the Prophet translates us into the spirit world where time and space cease. There what with us develops one after another is side by side. For this reason the Prophet here makes use of a form of speech which otherwise serves only to fill out some trait or to mention accompanying circumstances: comp. vi. 3; xxi. 7; xxix. 11 sq.; lzv. s—non-p3: "ton is meant collectively or as designation of the genus: whereas in -vo-'75 ver, 5 (each flesh) it has individual signification.
Ver, 7. The perfects on and 95) must not be com• r ... r
pared with the aoristus gnomicus of the Greeks (nor even xxvi. 9; comp. my remarks in loc.). For only that Hebrew verbal form that has, too, the notion of succession, therefore includes that of time, viz.: the impers, with Vav cons., can be compared with the Greek aorist. Here, as in xxvi. 9, the perf., designates timeless objectivity and reality. "5 is not “for,” but “when.” Were it taken in the sense of “for,” then the nature of the wind would be designated as the constant cause of the withering of vegetation. But it withers also when its time comes, without wind. But when a hot desert wind (xviii. 4; Jer. iv. 11) blows, then it withers especially quick. Dej) flavit, inflavut, occurs in Kal only here. Hiph. Gen. xv. 11; Ps. cxlvii. 18.-There is much uncertainty about the origin of the particle |-8. GESEN.
(Thes. p. 668 under po), Furnst (Ler, under ps and -- r
only xxxv.2; 1 viii. 8; 1x. 1. as "nil-> no) does not ocr: . .
cur again in Isaiah. The expression seems to connect
p) and EwALD 3205 d seem to me to be right in main
taining that ps, on account of its derivation from 13,
has resident in it an argumentative meaning. Thus FUERst. regards it primarily as “a strengthened 13
therefore in a resumptive apodosis.” He refers in proof to Exod. ii. 14 and to our passage. And in fact Exod. ii. 14 seems to involve the drawing of a conclusion. For after Moses perceived the defiant answer of the Hebrew man, he cries out: "pin yo, 128 would not
this be most correctly rendered : “ is the matter therefore really known 2"—It is clear that the omission of ver. 7 in the Alexand. and Vatic, text of the LXX. is owing to arbitrariness, if not to oversight. Koppe, GEs ENIUs, Hitzig, who regard the whole verse, or at least 7 b as a gloss, as “a very diluted, sense-disturbing