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6 on whom dost thou trust, that thou rebellest against me? Lo, thou trustest in the staff of this broken reed, on Egypt; whereon if a man lean, it will go
into 7 his hand, and pierce it: so is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all that trust in him. But
if thou say to me, We trust in the LORD our God: is it not he, whose high places
and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away, and said to Judah and to Jerusalem, 8 Ye shall worship before this altar? Now therefore @give pledges, I pray thee, to
my master the king of Assyria, and I will give thee two thousand horses, if thou 9 be able 'on thy part to set riders upon them. How then wilt thou turn away the
face of one captain of the least of my master's servants, band put thy trust on Egypt 10 for chariots and for horsemen? And am I now come up without the Lord against
this land to destroy it? The LORD said unto me, Go up against this land, and de
stroy it. 11 Then said Eliakim and Shebna and Joah unto Rabshakeh, Speak, I pray thee,
unto thy servants in the Syrian language; for we understand it: and speak not to 12 us 'in the Jews' language, in the ears of the people that are on the wall. But Rab
shakeh said, Hath my master sent me to thy master and to thee to speak these words ? hath he not sent me to the men that sit upon the wall, that they may eat
their own dung, and drink their own piss with you? 13 Then Rabshakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice 'in the Jews' language, and 14 said, Hear ye the words of the great king, the king of Assyria. Thus saith the 15 king, Let not Hezekiah deceive you: for he shall not be able to deliver you.
Neither let Hezekiah make you trust in the LORD, saying, The LORD will surely
deliver us: this city shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria. 16 Hearken not to Hezekiah: for thus saith the king of Assyria, 6 Make an agreement
with me by a present, and come out to me: and eat ye every one of his vine, and
every one of his fig tree, and drink ye every one the waters of his own cistern; 17 Until I come and take you vay to a land like your own land, a land of corn and 18 wine, a land of bread and vineyards. Beware lest Hezekiah 'persuade you, saying, The LORD will deliver us. Hath
any of the gods of the nations delivered his land out 19 of the hand of the king of Assyria? Where are the gods of Hamath and Arphad ?
where are the gods of Sepharvaim ? and "have they delivered Samaria out of my 20 hand? Who are they among all the gods of these lands, that have delivered their
land out of my hand, that the LORD should deliver Jerusalem out of my hand ? 21 But they held their peace, and answered him not a word: for the king's command22 ment was, saying, Answer him not. Then came Eliakim, the son of Hilkiah, that
was over the household, and Shebna the 'scribe, and Joah, the son of Asaph the recorder, to Hezekiah with their clothes rent, and told him the words of Rabshakeh.
1 Or, secretary.
8 Or, but counsel and strength are for war. 4 Or, hostages. 5 Or, seck my favor by a present.
6 Hcb. make with me a blessing. the chancellor.
o I say it is merelip work the counsel and strength for carrying on war. d bruisel. o make a wager.
for thee (i. e., for thy advantage). 6 And trustcst thou, etc. 1
h in Aramaic.
i in Judaic, i incite.
* (where were your gods) that delivered Samaria, etc.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. Ver. 2. The form hon occurs only here and 2 Kings in Hezekiah's none. According to the question ver. 4, xviii. 17 as stat. absol. Yet comp. 57. which differs in
"what confidence," etc. ? the contents of this confidence
is set forth: “thou sayest namely: counsel and strength meaning xxvi. 1.-7) in the sense of "considerable
for war." The words in ing JX are parenthetical, and for number," comp. Num. XX, 20; 1 Kings iii. 9; x. 2; 2 Kings vi. 14.—73y, abbreviated compared with 2 Ki. words of the Assyrian, by which he gives his opinion xviii. 17 b.; see introduction to this chapter. 2 Kings of the expression imputed to Hezekiah. This expresxviii. 18 begins with “And when they had called to the sion is put as an exclamation, thus as a clause without king," which are wanting here in accordance with the explicit predicate. This is a somewhat pathetic form tendency to abbreviate.
of sentence. It reveals an intention of making Heze
kiah's words appear to be empty pathos, absurd boastVer. 5. Instead of inox 2 Kings has Ayox. I re
fulness. If the entire first clause of verse 5 were to be gard the latter as the correct reading, and that in Isaiah construed as the utterance of the Assyrian, then the se. to be a correction, occasioned by not knowing that cond clause must begin with ') instead of any. For D'MoV 927 7X is parenthetical, and thus not under then a reason would need to follow showing Hezekiah's standing how Hezekiah could speak words that in the words to be empty boast. But if ver. 5 a contain in its mouth of the Assyrian king could have good sense, but I chief clause Hezekiah's words, then any is perfectly
אדניך before העל instead of האל Rabshakeh
are בטחת after לך and ,הנה before עתה .6
in א the) חריהם instead of חראיהם ,אל
and the omission of תאמרון for תאמר .7
.Ver at the end of the verse are further marks of בירושלים
are imperatives by attraction of אכלו ושתו .16
in place. For then by means of it Hezekiah is sum stead of 133 y (a correction because the latter seemed moned to establish his (so-called) boast. Come, now! in too familiar). In verse 12 07:5 is omitted before what dost thou trust that thou rebellest against me?
; . ,
(in order to restore likeness of expression when there missing here for abbreviation's sake.—'19 JPD' JUX is likeness of meaning; 2 Kings however would avoid is paratactic.
), ( . 7.
Isaiah being intended likely to make the etymology
more noticeable). Here then appears a tendency to absimplifying and abbreviating.
breviate and correct. Ver. 8. 7 after nos evidently means “to thy ad Vers. 13, 14. Xu), unused in Kal, may be used in the vantage." It is dat. commodi: meaning,
“thou mayest Hiph., also in the direct causative sense, and hence may use these horses for your advantage against me, in case mean “to cause Xu), i. e., fraudem, deception,” which you can mount them with riders."
explains the construction (here and Jer. xxix. 8) with Ver. 9. O'lo 207 elsewhere means "to turn away, the dative, along with the construction with the accurefuse,” in reference to suppliants (comp. 1 Kings ii. 16, sative (Gen. iii. 13; Jer. Xxxvii. 9; 2 Kings xix. 10, etc.). 17, 20). Only here is it used of turning away an attack. -In ver. 13 the 1927'1 of 2 Kings xviii 28 omitted as But comp. xiv. 27.—ņa, which occurs first 1 Kings superfluous: we have 1937 instead of 737 because 2. 15, of Solomon's porn ning, i. e., governors of the they are many words. Ver. 14 does not end as 2 Kings
xviii. 29 with 1792, which is both abbreviation and reland, has been since BENFEY (Monatsnamen, p. 195), de
moval of the harshness of combining “let not Hezekiah rived from the Sanscrit, from pakscha, socius, amicus. But Schrader (p. 88 sq.) places the Semitic origin of the deceive," which are the words of the king and “ from
his hand," which are spoken hy the ambassador. word beyond doubt. He lays stress on its appearance in such ancient Hebrew documents, and maintains that
Ver. 15. og gives an easier construction than this is proved by the Assyrian documents." In Assy-797-18 2 Kings xviii., though the latter is the cor
rect reading. As to the third pers. fem. pran see 1 rian the word is used and modified like any other word of pure Semitic origin. From a singular pahat is formed
Sam. xxx. 6; 2 Sam, xiii. 2; Ps. xxxiii. 9; Lam, iii. 37. a plural pahati ; not less immediately from the root On nya comp. Jer. xxviii. 15; xxix. 31. the abstract pihat = satrapy.” The word does not oc . anwa couragain in Isaiah ; but does in Jer. li. 23, 28, 57; Ezek.
those preceding and supply the place of Futures. xxiii, 6, 23; Hag. i. 1, 14; ii. 2, 21 ; Mal. i. 8. -Preceding
Vers. 17, 18. The end of the verse shows considerable nuani there is no explicit verbal form on which the
abbreviation compared with 2 Kings xviii. 32, which Vav consecutive can support itself; but the Prophet
Isaiah omits the description of the land of exile connects it with the implied affirmation " thou canst
as superfluous, and also the repetition of the warning thyself do nothing."
against Hezekiah.— Ver. 10. 2 Kings xviii. 25 begins without? The only by the omission last mentioned), stands here indepen
-99 beginning ver. 18, (occasioned here is likely imitated from vers. 7, 8, 9. But ver. 10 is
dent of any foregoing verb, of which there are other not parallel with what precedes. For the Assyrian here
examples (Job xxxvi. 18; Jer. li. 46). Mon or ndo? turns their weapons against them. Hence the reading in 2 Kings is the correct one. Moreover the first clause properly means “ stimulare, to incite, set on," from which
develops the meaning "seduce, deceive" (comp. Josh. of ver. 10 has 7-87-5y instead of Dipon-Hy 2 Kings xv. 18 ; 1 Sam. xxvi. 19; 2 Sam. xxiv.1).—The omission xviii. 25, which also appears to be a correction, occa of 58 found in the parallel of 2 Kings xviii. 33 is again sioned either by the thought that Sennacherib did not come up merely against Jerusalem, or by the fact that
a plain proof of abbreviation,
Ver. 19. If the text of the second clause be correct 19x77 stands also in the second clause, or both. That Sy is exchanged here for be is of inferior significance (?? here instead of the simple '} 2 Kings xviii. 34), the (comp. xxxix. 9).
construction is bold and unusual. The subject of iboen Ver, 12. The consonants of the K'thibh, according to
is wanting and must be supplied from what precedes, the view hitherto prevalent (comp. e. g., Fuerst in the
, : -? ? Propylaea Masoræ, p.1366), are to bo pointed D??X?" (2 - Isaiah omits the words 777;! 277 that appear in Kings xviii. 27 O?') which word implies 2 Kings xviii. 34. These words are in both texts, Isa. . But' DELITZSCH points on or
xxxvii. 13 and 2 Kings xix. 13. DELITZSCHI supposes they
are patched into 2 Kings from Isa. xxxvii. 13. To me it D77'777, taking 'on as the ground form, which is quite
seems more probable that they were purposely omitted possible. The word occurs beside only 2 Kings vi. 25, in our verse. For consider that xxxvii. 10-13 Hezekiah where perhaps simply Dipi yn is to be read. The
is addressed. There it is said: “Let thy God not demeaning is stercus, excrementum. For the MABORETS the
ceive thee; where is the king of Hamath," etc. Thus expression is indecent. Hence they substitute anxis Hezekiah, than for the king of Hamath, etc. But xxxvi.
the sense there is : it will be no better for thee, king (from 1783 = 1793'exeuntia,comp. iv. 4; xxviii. 8; Prov. 14–20 the people are addressed: Let not Hezekiah dexxx. 12); as immediately afterwards for 077vg'ri (from ceive you by pointing you to Jehovah's help. Where
are the gods of Hamath, etc. 9 Readers that construed the 1.0, Plur. D'I'Ð, urina, only here and 2 Kings xviii. 27) .
words 71yt 1317 as verbs (see on xxxvii. 13) must have
found it as improper to say: dens expulit et subrertit, as Vers. 11, 12. The differences between the present they found it proper to say: regem expulit et subvertit. readings and 2 Kings are inconsiderable. In verso 11 Ver. 20. The plural 1598 77 does not conflict with 3. son of Hilkiah” is omitted, 17:5x before n°717' in-l for this interrogative is found only in the singular: this
?ישראל or וְאַיִה אלהי את-שׁמרון :It might be
.מִימֵי רגליהם they put
singular may be taken as collective. -9, after a ques. | dere, ad silentium redigere aliquem. Yet it is true that it tion referring to the future, may be taken in the sense
occurs seldom in this sense (Job xi. 3). Usually Hiphil.
is direct causalive of ut; but fundamentally it means quod, and has a cau
“mutitatem facere, to make silence, sal sense: Who has delivered? Are there any way gods to be silent.” Here, “they made the people be silent” (beside the Assyrian gods) that deliver ? because (ac- would imply that many of them wanted to reply to the
words of ver. 12 sqq., but that Hezekiah's messengers, cording to your opinion) Jehovah will deliver Jerusalem.- ("The parallel 2 Kings xviii. 35 omits these be
even before Rabshakeh had finished, had commanded
silence and themselves made no response. According fore lands; another exception to the general statement that the narrative of Isaiah is an abridgement.---J. A. A.).
to this the perfect IV:777771 does not merely continue
the recital, but states an accompanying circumstanco Ver. 21. 109977' instead of Dyn wannni of 2 Kings that had already occurred before Rabshakeh had done xviii. 36. Hezekiah had commanded his representa-speaking. But the reviser of Isaiah's text was not actives to make no response. With that 10'777corres- quainted with this meaning of the Perfect l!). He ponds. The reading of 2 Kings is usually translated: thought the word meant only to continue the recital. “and they kept silence, the people,” Dy being construed Therefore he changed it to the Imperfect with Vav in apposition. Rather than this strange construction I think a more probable rendering is : "and they hushed
. , the people." von means mutum esse, silere (Ps. xxviii. state retains the construction of its verb with the accu1; XXIV. 22; 1. 3, etc.). Hiphil means first mutum red- / sative; comp. 2 Sam. xiii. 31.
the participle in the construct ,קרועי בגדים .22
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. In the fourteenth year (after the sickness of) cia, and Sennacherib installed Etobal as king. Hezekiah Sennacherib conquered all Judea ex- The kings Menahem of Samaria (?), Etobal of cepting the capital. He sent Rabshakeh from Sidon, Abdilit of Arvad, Urniski of Byblos, Lacish with a considerable army to demand the Mitinti of Ashdod, Puduil of Ammon, Kamosnasurrender of the latter. Rabshakeh first seeks to dab of Moab, Malikram of Edon, the whole of convince the messengers of Hezekiah that they the kings of the westland (?) did homage and could rely neither on Egypt (ver. 6), nor on Je- brought presents. But Zidka of Ascalon would hovah (ver. 7), nor on their own might (vers. 8, not do homage. Hence he was expelled and 9), especially as the king of Assyria had under- another put in his place. Also the cities of his taken his expedition against Judea by Je- territory (?) Bet-Dagon, Joppa, Benebarak, Azur hovah's express commission (ver. 10). These were conquered. The inhabitants of Ekron had words he had spoken in the dialect of Judea. imprisoned their king Padi, who held faithfully Hezekiah's messengers having requested him to to the Assyrians, and “in the shadow of the speak in Aramaic (ver. 11), Rabshakeh answered night” had delivered him to Hezekiah. But the that his mission was properly just to the dwell- kings of Egypt and Meroe, as allies of the Paleers of Jerusalem hearkening there on the city stinian opponents of Assyria, had led up a great wall (ver. 12). Then he calls with a loud voice army. In the vicinity of Altaku (Eltekeh Josh. to them (ver. 13) not to let Hezekiah deceive xix. 44; xxi. 23 in the territory of Dan, between them by any illusion about their own power, or Timnat and Ashdod) there was a battle. The about the aid of Jehovah (vers. 14, 15). Let Assyrians claimed the victory. them rather give themselves up to the king of Thus it appears that what was undertaken Assyria. IIe will for the present leave them in against Judah formed merely an episode of this peaceful possession of their own (ver. 16), till He expedition. Sennacherib relates that he took ehall come for the purpose of deporting them to forty-six of the fortified cities of Judah, and shut a good land like their own (ver. 17). They must Hezekiah up in his capital “like a bird in its the less expect help from Jehovah seeing no god cage.” He then threw up fortifications against had been able to protect his land from the power Jerusalem and caused the exit of the great gate of Assyria (vers. 18-20). By Hezekiah's com- to be broken through. The conquered cities he mand the messengers made no reply, but with gave to Mitinti of Ashdod, Padi of Ekron, and rent garments, in token of dismay at what they Ismibil of Gaza. Thereupon Hezekiah' was heard, they conveyed the message to the king greatly alarmed and agreed to pay tribute, and (vers. 21, 22).
by his messengers payed thirty (30) talents of 2. Now it came took them.-Ver. 1. gold and eight hundred (800) talents of silver. According to the Assyrian monuments Senna- So far the Assyrian inscriptions. cherih (Assyrian Sin-ahi-irib or Sin-ahi-ir-ba, i. e., One sees how accurately they agree with the Sin (= Luna) multiplicat fratres, Heb. 1977 Bible account, in our text and in 2 Kings xviii.
The Bible account says three hundred talents of O'Nx) became king in the year 705 B. C., on the silver (2 Kings xviii. 14). This difference is only 12th of the month Ab (SCHRADER, p. 331). He apparent. For 800 Assyrian talents are exactly was the son and successor of Sargon, and reigned equal to 300 Palestinian (SCHRADER, 1.c., p. 197, to the year 681. Sennacherib relates to us the 25). events of his third campaign on two monuments But with this agreement there is a considerable with nearly identical inscriptions, viz. : an hexa- discrepancy in these two accounts in respect to gonal clay cylinder, and the bulls at the portal chronology. Both accounts agree in giving the of the palace at Kuyyundschik. Their contents year 722 B. C.
, for the taking of Samaria by Saris chiefly as follows. Sennacherib moved first gon. But before and after this the statements diagainst Phænicia. King Eluläeus of Sidon fled verge. According to the monuments Sennacherib to Cyprus. The Assyrians conquered all Phæni- I became king only 705 B. C., while the Biblical
. xl . 1 5111. Chald מַשְׁקֶה with
account places this expedition which he himself | xxxiv. 8). As is well-known, national archives calls his third in the year 714. This difference are found not only among civilized but also between the Assyrian and Biblical chronology is among uncivilized people. Of Joah, Asaph's limited for the time after 722 to the date of ex- son, nothing more is known. Both the names pedition of Sennacherib against Palestine and are Levitical, comp. 1 Chr. vi. 6; xxix. 12; Egypt. For, as SCHRADER (p. 300) expressly xxvi. 4. In 2 Chr. xxxiv. 8 is mentioned a Joah says, in respect to the time of Mannasseh both son of Joahaz, who was recorder to king Josiah. reckonings “ agree satisfactorily:" [For the Au 4. And Rabshakeh--destroy it. - Vers. thor's method of reconciling this discrepancy in 4-10. On the Assyrian monuments the kings date, see the general Introd. & 3, and the intro- designate themselves, or are designated, "great duction to chapters xxxvi.-xxxix.). The omis- king" "mighty king,” “ king of the nations." sion of three verses 2 Kings xviii. 14 sqq., relat- The Assyrian seeks to prove to Hezekiah that his ing to the payment of ransom show the designed only recourse is to yield himself unconditionally abbreviation of this account.
to the great king: That thou rebellest ” It 3. And the king--the recorder.-Vers. may be asked : does this refer to the matter men2, 3. SCHRADER (p. 199) remarks on Rabshakeh tioned 2 Kings xviii. 7, or to that mentioned 2 Kings that there occurs no mention on the monuments xviii. 14 sqq., viz. : the refusal to surrender the of the chief cup-bearer, as a high dignitary and city in addition to the ransom? Both must be un. officer of state. But rab-suk is mentioned. That derstood. For to the Assyrian, that refusal was however is not the chief cup-bearer. For sak only a symptom that the rebellious disposition imeans chief, captain, collective chiefs. There was not sufficiently broken. fore rab-sak is the chief of the captains (comp. In showing further, how nugatory every thing rab sarisim, rab tabbachim), perhaps the chief of was on which Hezekiah relied, he calls Egypt a the general's staff. Then the form apu?? is a bruised reed, that breaks when one rests on it and Hebraizing occasioned by accordance of sound Isaiah himself says the same xxx. 3, 5, 7 in other
pierces the hand. This reproach was well founded.
. ? or '70 words. Ezek. xxix. 6, 7, employs this figure, which means pincerna, pocillator. The names amplifying it. In another sense and connection Tartan and Rabsaris 2 Kings xviii. 17 are omitted Isaiah uses the image of the bruised reed xlii. 3, here. Lacish, whence this detachment of troops where p137 and non used together show that came, is the modern Umm-Lâkhis, in the S. W., of Judea near the border of Philistia, on the roai the former word does not mean “ broken ” but from Jerusalem to Gaza. This was the extreme undeniable truth. But he omits making it gen.
“bruised.” What the Assyrian says ver 6 is an southern point to which Sennacherib penetrated at that time. On the approach of the Egyptian eral as the prophets did. For what was true of E. of Lacish. There is a bas-relief (SCHRADER, but sell their aid so dear, that it becomes doubtarmy he retired to Altaku (Eltekeh) that lay N. Egypt was equally true of Assyria, and of any
other world-power. They do no favor for nothing, p. 170) with the inscription : king of the nations, the king of the land of As- ful wliether friend or foe harms the most. [The syria, sits on an exalted throne and receives the charge of relying on Egypt may be true, or it
may be a malicious fabrication, or a shrewd guess spoil of the city Lacish.”
And he stood, etc. The locality is described from analogy.--J. A. ALEXANDER.] by exactly the same words that vii. 3 describe the
Ver. 7. As proof that even Jehovah cannot be place where Isaiah was to meet A haz. That now
expected to help; the Assyrian appeals to the by the conduit of the upper pool is the fruit of remaining only a single spot for worship in Jeruthe Assyrians stand in such threatening attitude fact that Hezekiah has done away with all the
high-places and altars of Jehovah, and has left Ahaz having so insolently rejected the promise given him at that time, and in the same place, with all high-places in Judea, even those that
salem. As is well-known IIezekiah did away and having preferred to call Assyria to his aid. We do not err, therefore, in understanding by
were monotheistic, consecrated to Jehovah (2 this literal agreement of the naming of the place Kings xiii, 4, comp. J. G. MULLER in IIERZ. in both passages, that an intimation of the divine R.- Encycl., VI. p. 176), and thus had stringently nemesis is intended. On Eliakim the chamber- thorized central sanctuary. In 2 Chr. xxxii. 12
carried out the principle of the one, and only aulain and Shebna the scribe see xxii. 15, 20 sqq. it reads " ye shall worship before one altar, and The 100"scribe " appears as a state officer first burn incense upon it," instead of, as here, ye under David, 2 Sam. viii. 17, where he is dis- shall worship before this altar.” The Assyrian, tinguished from several other officers. He was ignorant of the higher commandment that had the king's secretary, who wrote all that the king's prompted Hezekiah's obedience, saw in this conservice demanded.' Thus his office would lead duct a reduction, an arrest of Jehovah-worship. him to meddle with every branch of government, Less probable is the explanation that the Assyand we find him expressly mentioned in matters rian has in mind what is related 2 Rings xvi. 10of finance (2 Kings xxii. 3 sqq.), and of war (2 17, and has confounded Ahaz and Ilcze kiah. For Kings xxv. 19; Jer. lii. 25). The 7372 (LXX. such confusion is hardly credible.. Ver. 8. He υπομνηματογράφος, επί των υπομνημάτων, VI., & His derisive proposition intimates both the
next holds up to contempt Hezekiah's own power. commentariis), is certainly not the monitor (THENIUS), but the one that was charged with record- abundance of Assyria's cavalry and war chariots ing the res gestas of the king, and of the kingdom, (comp. chap. v. 28) and the weakness of Judah and preserving them for posterity (comp. 2 in this respect. 31 is “to pledige,” then “ to Sam. viii. 16; xx. 24; 2 Kings iv. 3; 2 Chr. I pledge for others," i. e., go security, and in fact
in the double sense of a benefit to be done to a Hebrew. See the Assyrian Grammars of OPPERT third party (e. g., ????¥ xxxviii. 14, 1337 Gen. 1859 and of Menant, 1868. Eliakim would not xliii. 9) or of a performance incumbent on a third have called the dialect of the northern Israelites, party. But there is a pledging when two or more
Jewish had Rabshakeh spoken that. For at that bind themselves to a performance in common, tional name as it did after the exile. At the
time the name Judah had not become the naeven when the pledging is not specifically made latter period 1'711' comprised all that was Heprominent or is silently, presumed. word acquires the meaning, “to enter into, be- brew, even what had perhaps attached itself to come one, to mix oneself in with.” Here the the tribe of Judah from the isolated elements of
the other tribes (comp. Neh. xiii. 24). By notion sponsio appears evident: pledge thyself, i. e., unite thyself by a mutnal pledge with the '97 Eliakim understood, not the motherking of Assyria. But as under the present cir- tongue of the Assyrian, but the Syro-Chaldaic
Aramaic, thus the language whose territory lay cumstances the one party pledged himself to conditions he thinks impossible to the other, the between that of the Hebrew and of the Assyrian pledging acquires the significance of a wager, in and that was suited for mediating between them. which sense also CLERICUS has taken the word. Chron., arm. I.
, p. 43, Sennacherib erected a
According to ALEX. POLYHISTOR. in EUSEBIUS, Ver. 9. Two inferences are drawn from the representation of ver. 8; the positive, that Heze- tion, and with the later Persian kings Aramaic
monument to himself with a Chaldaic inscripkiah cannot hope to resist the least captain of
seems to have been the government language for Assyria, and the negative, that this personal ina- intercourse with the nations of western Asia (Ezr. bility explains how Judah must be leaning on
iv. 7). Our passage shows that Aramaic would Egypt. The relation of Inx nnd to what follows not be known to all people of Judah without is not simple genitive of the subject (commander study and of course. of the small servants, KNOBEL), but is a partitive Eliakim's remonstrance only exposed a weak genitive: of one captain from among the most in- place, of which Rabshakeh immediately took adferior servants of my lord, i. e., who belongs to vantage. He noticed, that his words were rethe most inferior servants of my lord. Ver. 10. garded as likely to produce an impression among The Assyrian feigns to have received a commis- the people prejudicial to Hezekiah's intention, sion direct from Jehovah to go against Judah and and at once he acts as if his mission were to the destroy it. That this was false appears from people, and not at all to Hezekiah, though ver. 4 xxxvii. 6, 21 sqq., where the Lord Himself pro- and 2 Kings xviii. 18, 19 show the contrary. nounces the words of the Assyrian blasphemous, He proceeds therefore to warn the people to save and takes Jadah in protection after a grand themselves from the dreadful fate that impended, fashion. The Assyrian may possibly have heard and to beware of letting Hezekiah deceive them. something of Isaiah's prophecies, who, he may In 0:}","with you,” end of ver. 12, there is emhave known, was then in Jerusalem, which pro- phasis implying reproach for those addressed. phecies treated of a subjection of Judah to Assy- The Assyrian means: those sitting on the wall ria (comp. vii. 17 sqq., x. 5 sqq.). These and will fare well with us (comp. come out to me similar prophetic utterances may have afforded ver. 16), but they will have to endure the dreadthe occasion for this pretext. But no prophecy fulest distress with you. Vers. 16, 17. Rabsha“go up against this land and destroy it,” nor any- keh makes definite proposals in the name of the thing like it exists in Isaiah, or any otber Pro- king of Assyria, in opposition to the designs of phet.
Hezekiah against which he warns them. • Make 5. Then said Eliakim--words of Rab- with me a blessing," i. e., an alliance of blessing, shakeh.-Vers. 11-22. Hezekiah's messengers he says. 1972 is not merely the blessing itself, had so far hearkened in silence. But apprehen- but also, by metonymy, either what the blessing sive of the effect of the words of ver. 10 on the involves (comp. Gen. xii. 2 07373.77'71), or what people assembled on the wall, they beg the messenger of the Assyrian not to speak the Jewish the blessing produces (e. g., a rich gift 1 Sam. tongue but to speak in Aramaic. The people is called 17 na because, in the opinion of the As
xxv. 27, etc.). Thus here the alliance, the treaty might easily take this pretended mandate for reality. Had not the Lord Himself called As- syrian, it would be a source of blessing. The syria"" the rod of mine anger” (x. 5) ? Dis word occurs in this sense nowhere else. xx' with couragement might arise from this among the soften occurs in the sense of deditio: 1 Sam. xi. people, and paralyze every effort at self-defense. 3; 1 King xx. 31; Jer. xxi. 9; xxxviii. 2, 21. To noong means primarily the dialect of the tribe eat his vine and his fig tree, and drink bis of Judah. It was thus spoken in Jerusalem and waters (metonymic expressions, comp. on i. 7; was the purest and best Hebrew. Rabshakeh v. 18) is a figurative description of a peaceful and spoke this dialect. A considerable time had undisturbed existence (comp. Mic. iv. 4; 1 Kings elapsed since that fatal resort of Ahaz to Assyria v.5). On ver. 17 SCHRADER remarks: “Such spoken of in chap. vii., certainly more than a recommendation of surrender to the Assyrian twenty-five years. During this time the Assyrian were even for an Assyrian a little maladroit." I rulers were in constant intercourse with Judah, cannot see that. The fate that Rabshakeh proand were properly attentive to Jewish affairs. posed was relatively a mild one. Humanly This explains how there would be in their court speaking, there was no hope of deliverance. If persons that could speak the dialect of Judah. the Assyrian would revenge the revolt of HezeBesides the Assyrian and Hebrew languages were kiah on the capital, who would hinder him? daughters of the same Semitic stem, and an As- Even after a glorious defence, which was sure to syrian would find no great difficulty in learning' be attended with much suffering, they must pre