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children that are ,בָּנִים מֹשְׁחִיתִים ites are called
Ixii. sq.; Ps. cxlvii. 19 sq. It is therefore the then the ancestors themselves would be called repeculiar people (nap oy, Deut. vii. 6; xiv. 2) sition with y. But, apart from the fact that
probates. They therefore take D'un as in appothrough whom the blessing of Jehovah shall then it must rather read v?? y!, as in lvii. 3, Jer
. iv. 2). And in consequence of all this, it is 7?? "?!, that scruple is entirely groundless. called “high above all nations,” Deut. xxvi. 19; For Dyno yn is not only a posterity from wxriii. 1; comp. 2 Sam. vii. 23. The time of reprobates, but also a posterity that consists of David and Solomon, and Uzziah's and Jotham's reprobates, as lxv. 23, 7177 !, means, not time, the echo of the former, are to be regarded the descendants of blessed ones, but those themas forerunner and type of these promises. And they have rebelled against me.--According selves blessed, and like the expressions, 'a: 22, to well-known Hebrew usage, what in substance Syrup 22, D'X'!???? "?, jx's '??, etc., do not stands related as opposite is designated as equiva
mean the sons of fools, of worthless fellows, of lent in form. yüp is a current word in Isa. i. prophets, of sheep, but sons that are themselves 28; xliii. 27; xlvi. 8; lix. 13, etc. Expositors fools, worthless, prophets, sheep. But as the inquire whether only idolatry is meant, or al-o idea w?? points to the essential identity in fruit erery kind of transgression. But we can't see and seed, and to the former being conditioned by why every thing should not be meant that could the latter, so one must think, not of the original be called opposition to the Lord; or rather, why ancestors of the nation, but rather of the generaevery transgression should not be regarded as tion immediately preceding, chiefly, however, idolatry. [They have broken away from me.-M. of an ideal ancestry, a notion that even underlies W.J.] The ox knoweth bis owner.-An the expression yevvnuara é xedvov,“generation of or knoweth his owner, any ox. The words explain vipers," Matt. iii. 7. o'yin uni is therefore a the rebelling, ver.2, by a rhetorical contrast that genitive relation, in which the ideas of causality sets this in clearer light. The unthinking brutes, and of the attribute are combined. The expreseven those of lowest degree, as the ox and ass, still sion is found again xiv. 20.-Finally, the Israelknow their masters that feed them, and the crib ou: of which they eat, and acquire a certain at
, “ tachment for master and crib, so that they do not corrupters," although, according to ver. 2, they voluntarily forsake them.
are children whom the Lord has brought up and 3. Ah, sinful nation-besieged city.- made high; for, although any one may be called Vers. 4-8. Jehovah's benefactions have not suf- ninu? 12, who as a man (not as
a son) is ficed to awaken in Israel the feeling of grateful' n'nus, all reference must not be denied to ver. attachment. On the contrary this nation forsakes 2, and all the places that express Israel's filial its God, rejects Him, and sinks back into the dark, relation to Jehovah, e. g. Deut. xiv. 1. ness of heathendom, out of which He had rescued them. The three verbs in ver. 4b express the clared that the bad tree has borne. They have
In three phrases, now, the bad fruits are depositive consequences of the negative "doth not know,” ver. 3; and vers. 3 and 4 together contain (negative) forsaken Jehovah, they have (positive) the more particular signification of “rebelled rejected with sco.n (v. 24; lii. 5; 1x. 14), the against me," ver. 2. Thus a climax occurs in Holy,,One of Israel (an expression peculiarly vers. 2-4. 'The outward construction of the lan. Isaiah's, that occurs fourteen times in the first
part, and fifteen times in the second, and in other guage also corresponds to this. Vers. 2 and 3 consist of four members , and vers. 4 of seven, of parts of the Old Testament only six times),
they have turned themselves backwards. This which the first begins with an impressive assuBut in the first four members of ver. 4 idols. For the Lord had turned Israel from
turning backwards can only mean the turning to the reason is given why Israel became untrue to idols to Himself, comp. Josh. xxiv. 2, 14. If the its God. The reason is a subjective one. Israel
nation then turned their backs to Him, it was preitself is good for nothing-it is a bad tree with cisely that they might return to their idols. This bad fruit. The meaning heathen nation need not is confirmed by Ezek. xiv. 5, the only place bebe pressed, and so much the less, seeing the sin- side the present in which the expression occurs. gular is often used for Israel without any secondary idea of reproach (Exod. xix. 6; Jos. iii
. 17, For after the description in vers. 3, 4, of the
Vers. 5 and 6 seem to respond to an objection. etc.), and also parallel with by. We have trans nation's deep depravity, the prophet proceeds to lated it “Woe world” in order to re-echo the con- portray the impending chastisement of it, ver. 7. sonance of the original as nearly as possible. It But before he does so, he removes an objection has been justly remarked besides that Israel is that might be raised from the stand-point of
forbearing love, viz. had sufficient discipline been called here xun vid, "sinful nation,” in contrast exercised on Israel ? if not, might not the rewith timp, "holy nation,” which it ought to newed application of it ward off the judgment? be according to Exod. xix. 6; Deut. vii. 6; xiv. The inquiry is negatived. For the uselessness 2, 21; and TV, 139 Dy in contrast with my Dy of the smiting has long been proved by the ever119, which it is called xxxiii. 24. Israel is called that we render the beginning of ver. 5: “To
a seed of evil doers,” though it ought what purpose shall one smite you still more ?" to be " a holy seed” (vi. 13; Ezra ix. 2). Many For there are three expositions of these words. expositors (é.9., DRECHSLER) scruple to render The first is: “On what part of the body shall these words as in the Genitive relation, because one still smite you ?” (thus JEROME, SAADA,
אֵי זֶה הֶכּוּ עוֹד but ,עַל־מֶה could not then read
GESENIUS, ROSENMUELLER, UMBREIT, KNOBEL | revolt, because it is thoroughly sick, and does and others [J. A. ALEXANDER, BARNES).
use curatives for its sickness. We This rests chiefly on what follows, where the therefore construe the words #87-49 to pova body is described as beaten all over. However, four things are to be objected to this view: a) it not as describing a condition resulting from the
previous smiting, much as this seems to answer
, ! N or the like. For np is purely the general, pression for the moral habit of the nation.
the inquiry, 120 070-5y, but as a figurative exabstract guishing one part from another: "which ?" 235-49, xxn-52, especially seem to favor this Job xxxviii. 6 cannot be appealed to. For the view. This does not mean "the whole head, the meaning of that place is not: On which founda- whole heart,” but “every head, every heart.” If it tions do the pillars of the earth rest But: read (121 v117-57, the meaning might easily do they rest at all on anything? b) Were the rendering: “where shall we smite ?” correct, enough be that head and heart were already so then the intermediate phrase, 1772 Doln, were But every head, every heart only expresses that no
sore and sick that no spot remained for a blow. out of place. For then one would right off look for head, no heart remained intact. the answer: "nowhere, for all is beaten to pieces."
The context closely considered forbids our The insertion of those words in this form plainly understanding by head and heart all that exerindicate that they themselves contain the an- cise indispensable functions in spiritual and temswer to the inquiry, 101 073-5y, and that what poral offices” (DRECIISLER). For by ver. 6 it follows is only to be viewed as the nearer expla- plainly appears that not only the heads, but all pation of this reply. It would be very different individuals of the nation, are described as seif the words were in apposition with the subject central and
dominant organs in the life of every
riously sick. Head and heart are rather the of 199. c) It is remarked by LUZZATTO (see in DELITZSCH) that the fact that the body was
single person, whereas ver. 6 speaks also of the beaten all over would not hinder its being smit- structure of the outward manifestation of the life.
From a comparison of '19 305 with ver. 6, it ten more. d) The phrase, ver. 6 b, 457 x S. etc., " they have not been closed," shows that not the seems to me that by 'n not an outward woundbeing wounded itself was the matter of chief ing of the head is meant, but an internal disorder moment, but the being wounded without applica- (comp. 2 Kings iv. 19).–From the sole of tion of curatives. The latter, however, as little the foot, etc. Ver. 6. As has been remarked, hinders the smiting as the binding up and heal these words describe the moral condition as to
its outward manifestation, as ver. 5 b described ing would provoke it. If no-hy =“where ?" then the whole phrase, ver. 6 b, would be super- figurative language of the prophet in regard to
its inward form. We must not press too far the fluous.-A second exposition (DELITZSCH) takes
this inward and outward disorder, and especially -, =ye want to be smitten. the wounds of ver. 6 must not be regarded as Then the remote thought would be: “That were presenting something additional. an insane delight in self-destruction.” But the
, " that were
must not be adopted as the under- are followed by three corresponding verbs, and lying thought, but: that is indeed delight in one is tempted to construe them as if those occuself-destruction.” For: “that were” wonld in- pying the same relative position belonged to volve the thought that this delight is not pre- each other. But such strict parallelism cannot supposed, consequently there can be no question be carried out. It is rather to be said that each about a wanting to be smitten. But if we supply of the three corts of wounds referred to requires “that is,” etc., that would impute too much to all the three means of healing. Each wound the simple Imperfect. The idea of wanting it must be pressed together, and treated with healmust then be more strongly indicated, say by ing stuffs. The former process is two-fold: first rem, or the like.- According to the third ren- it is done by the hand in order to cleanse the dering, which seems me the correct one.
wound from blood and matter, and then by the
bandage, that prevents further bleeding and prono-by means “to what purpose ?" Comp. Num. motes the growing together of the several parts. xxii. 32; Ps. x. 13; Jer. xvi. 10. The imper- Thirdly, mollifying, healing oil (see Luke x. 34; fect Passive is then simply a briefer expression HERZOG's R. Encyc. X., p. 548) must be superfor the Active: why should I, or should one added as organic means of cure. smite you more? with which at least a suffix The words of ver. 6 b moreover contain anowere needed.
, taken as a dependent adverbial phrase; as if, every head," on, only the moral habit of the “in that ye add revolt,” which involves a certain nation is described. For is not the want of all grammatical harshness, that might be easily bodily therapeutics a figure for the want of the avoided by a participial construction. But spiritual; i. e. repentance? Not only is Israel 7779 in is principal phrase and reply to the inwardly sick, but also in its outward life it preinquiry: to what purpose shall one smite you sents the picture of a torn and distracted existmore?
ence without one trace of discipline or effort at However, the following words give the reason improvement. If the chief thought of vers. 5, 6, for the saying. That is: Israel adds revolt to were that Israel cannot be smitten any more be
מַכָּה ט' and חַבּוּרָה פֶצַע The three substantives
כָל־ראשׁ need_not then be ther proof for the assertion that from תּוֹסִיפוּ כָכָה
use it is beaten all to pieces, then, as already our view that the prophet speaks of present and marked, the phrase 101 111-x, “not closed
still continuing circumstances. The metonymy b,” would be quite without meaning. For may
(the enemies eat the land) is as in xxxvi. 16; a'oandaged-up person be sooner smitten than one Gen. iii. 17, etc.—037335, according to the acnot bound up? But this phrase becomes very significant if we regard the words : "every head," cents and the sense, relates towhat follows. Beetc.
, as portraying the moral condition of things. fore your eyes, without your being able to hinFor it is most important in regard to a man's
der them, the enemies devour your land. moral state whether the proper curatives for the In our passage it is evident the prophet would moral disorder are used or not.
compare the destruction of the land of which he Your land, etc. The outward state of the speaks to the destruction of Sodom and Gomornation answers to the moral state. The nation rah. He calls the Jewish country a second dehad already begun to reap the fruits of their stroyed Sodom, only with the difference that that revolt. The country is desolate; only the me
was a destruction of God, this of strangers. The tropolis still remains intact, yet isolated in the question whether we have here a genitive the midst of a land that has been made a desert. subject or of the object thus settles itself. It is Therefore it may be said that the train of thought the genitive of the subject. For then God was that began with ver. 5 ends with ver. 8. The the destroyer ; here it is the strangers. If O'?", Lord declares, ver. 5, that for the present He will smite Israel no more. For there is no use. "strangers,” be taken as object, it will not suit This is because Israel is still sick inside and out, the context. For immediately before the stranspite of having suffered chastisement almost to gers were named as destroyers. How shall they annihilation. It seems to me therefore that vers. suddenly be named the destroyed ?—From the 7 and 8 stand in contrastive relation to the two connection it appears that the "daughter of preceding, although this contrast is indicated by Zion” means Jerusalem. Zion is originally the no particle. Israel is morally sick, the country mountain, then the castle, then the quarter built is turned into a desert. Had things taken à about it (2 Sam. v. 6-9; 1 Kings viii. 1); then normal course, then the country had been deso- in an extended sense the city without the inhalated, but Israel would have been in health. bitants (Lam. ii. 8) or the inhabitants without Then Israel had received instruction, Prov. viii. the city (Mic. iv. 10), or as both together, as in 10; xix. 20. But now that the country is
passage. and Israel still sick, one sees that whipping is of Jerusalem with its inhabitants lying isolated
Comp. Jer. ii. 30; v. 3; Isa. ix. 13; in the midst of a desolated country is now comxlii. 25. Thus I construe vers. 7 and 8, not as a pared to: a) a booth in a vineyard; b) to a mere change from figurative language (vers. 5 hanging mat (hammock] in a cucumber-field, and 6) to literal, because, as was shown, both which like the booth of the vineyard-keeper, is ver. 5 b and 6 b contain thoughts that do not a lonely and scanty dwelling-place for min; c) answer to purely outward circumstances. More- to a besieged city. But why is Jerusalem only over, according to our explanation, it is clear compared to a beleagured city? After all that that ver. 7 sqq. does not speak of future, but of vers. 7, 8 say of it, is it not such itself? First present affairs.
These verses do not contain of all we must investigate the meaning of 177987). threats of judgment, but a portrait of judgment The verb 733 means primarily observare
, which already accomplished. If it were otherwise, then surely the threatenings of judgment would not can be said of commandments, Ps. lxxviii, 7, stop outside of the gates of the metropolis, which and of covenants, Deut. xxxiii. 9, as well as of yet was crater and fountain of all the revolt
. the overseeing of a protector or keeper, Isa. This is not opposed by Jer. iv. 27 ; v. 10, 18: xxvii. 3; 2 Kings xvii
. 9, and of the attention “Yet will I not make a full end,” which some of a besieger, Jer. iv. 16; comp. 2 Sam. xi. 16; adduce against our view. For threats of judg: Jer. v. 6. An 077437 7'y is therefore either a ment only for the country, but that spare the capital, are not to be found in any prophet. = watched or a beleaguered city. But the first
does not suit the connection. The latter is The words: “your land waste,” etc., are quoted from Lev. xxvi. 33, where it is said: “Your equally unsuitable if Jerusalem at the time of land shall be desolate, and your cities waste."
writing was actually besieged. But ver. 7 speaks Your ground before, etc. Here, too, impre- only of the desolating of the country. That Jecations from the Law are in the mind of the rusalem itself was besieged or blockaded is not prophet, and particularly Deut. xxviii
. 33: "The said directly. At the moment of saying this, fruit of thy land, and all thy labors, shall a na- have been that the enemy enclosed the city, not
therefore, the position of Jerusalem seems to tion which thou knowest not, eat up." Comp., too, ver. 51; Lev. xxi. 16,' 32. From Deut. yet in its immediate neighborhood, but still so xxviii. 33, 51, it is seen what is meant by 7. as to restrict all intercourse with it, so that it lay It is one that Israel does not know, and whose ventured out or in, for the enemy was near,
there isolated like a blockaded town
No one language is not understood., That the word though his forces were not seen encamped around “stranger” includes also the idea of “enemy,” is the walls of the city. The other renderings : manifest from the parallel passages in Lev. xxvi. *
as a rescued city” (ĠESENIUS, in loc.; MAURER, , . occurs etc.), “as a devastated city" (RABBINS, Vulg., Isa. xvii. 10; xxv. 2, 5; xxviii. 21; xxix. 5; LUTHER), “as a watch-tower” (HITZIG, TINGxliii. 12; Izi. 5. The participle D på confirms which are to be found in ROSEN MUELLER, either
STAD, GESENIUS in his Thesaurus, p. 908), etc.,
זָר ,אֹיְבִים we have זָרִים where for ,32 ,16
conflict with the requirements of the language or may be debated. Comp. DELITZSCH, The - cas: the context.
Name Jahve Zebuot, in der Zeitschrijt f. d. ges 4. Had not-we were like, ver. 9. We Theologie u. Kirche 1874, Hejt 2, p. 217.must regard it, not as accidental, but as an evi “ Hosts” becomes gradually a proper name dence of the artistic design of this address, that is so beyond doubt in God of Hosts, Ps. lix. 6; in vers. 2, 3, Jehovah Himself speaks, in vers. Ixxx. 5, 8, 15, 20; lxxxiv. 9, and Lord of Hosts, 4-8 the prophet in the name of Jehovah, and in Isa. x. 16. Probably it is to be so rendered in ver. 9 the prophet in his own and the people's "Jehovah of Hosts,” which is very frequent in
It is therefore a climax descendens. The the first and second parts of Isaiah. Also Jer , tirst word belongs to Jehovah the Lord. After Zech., Mal., use it very often.-Oj!is not that Jehovah's prophet speaks in His name to added to the verb here adverbially with the the people. Last of all the prophet, who is in a meaning “almost,” but united to it substantively, sense the mediator of the people, speaks in their and as in 2 Chron. xii. 7, is object (as apposition name to Jehovah. In this scheme is prefigured with the object). In Prov. x. 20; Ps. cv. 12, it in a certain degree the direction of all prophetic is similarly a predicate. In respect to its sense, discourse. For it is either Jehovah speaking, it is a dimished "j?, i. e. not paulum, but quasi directly or indirectly, or it is a speaking to Jehovah. But ver. Ở is joined by a double band paulum. I do not think with Delitzsch that
referring to Ps. Ixxxi. 14 sq.; Job xxxii. 22, it to what precedes: by nmin, “had left," and by may be construed with what follows. For with the comparison to Sodom and Gomorrah.
As to the supposition that is expressed in the first the former, it is recognized that something re clause of the verse, they had been, not almost, mains in Israel, 177912), ver. 8, and that this but altogether a Sodom and Gomorrah. Moreremnant is owing to the grace of Jehovah. But over, it is affecting to observe how the man pene80 the clear consciousness is expressed, that but trates through the prophet. He began as the for the grace of God, the resemblance to Sodom mouth of God, that does not distinguish bimself and Gomorrah, which in ver. 7 was only slightly from God; he proceeds as servant of God, that intimated, would have been a notorious one. clearly distinguishes himself from God; he conThis is, on the one hand, an humble confession, cludes as citizen of Jerusalem, that comprehends for this comparison is not honorable for Israel; himself with the men against whom he directs but on the other hand there is the opposité his words of threatening. thought that underlies the hypothetic reflection : [Ver. 7.'1120703, like the overthrow of "he has, however, left something remaining; strangers, J. A. ALEXANDER, “1. e. as foreign therefore we are still not like Sodom and Gomor- foes are wont to waste a country in which they rah;" and that forms a comforting germ of hope have no interest, and for which they have no for the future.
pity.” BARNES, similarly. The expression nix33_7177', Jehovah Sabaoth,
Ver. 9. “ The idea of a desolation almost total is not to be found in the Pentateuch, nor in Josh., is expressed in other words, and with an intimaJud., Ezek., Joel, Obad., Jonah. In Exod. xii tion that the narrow escape was owing to God's
favor for the remnant according to the election 41 ( nixar-ho is said of the Israelites. If one of grace, who still existed in the Jewish Church. may regard the completest form as the original That the verse has reference to quality, as one, then we must designate Hosea as the origi- well as quantity, is evident from Rom. ix. 29, nator of the expression. For in Hos. xii. 6 we where Paul makes use of it, not as an illustrafind ing? 7717' nixan ninay; similarly tion, but as an argument to show that mere con
nection with the Church could not save men Amos iii. 13; vi. 14; ix. 5. Here it is seen that from the wrath of God. The citation would have ning is still construed as appellative. They been irrelevant if this phrase denoted merely a are not the
nixr, Ex. xii. 41, but spy-5? of true believers in the midst of the prevailing DP'n, Isa. xxxiv. 4, whose relation to the stars unbelief." J. A. ALEXANDER].
3. THE MEANS FOR OBTAINING A BETTER FUTURE.
CHAPTER I. 10-20.
10 Hear the word of the LORD, ye rulers of Sodom;
Give ear unto the law of our God, ye people of Gomorrah. 11 To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? saith the LORD:
I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts ;
And I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of 'he goats. 12 When ye come ?to appear before me,
Who hath 'required this at your hand, to tread my courts ? 13 Bring no more ‘vain oblations ;
Incense is an abomination unto me;
It is 'iniquity, even the solemn meeting.
They are a trouble unto me;
I am weary to bear them."
many prayers, I will not hear:
Put away the evil of your doings from before mine eyes : 17 Cease to do evil; learn to do well;
Seek judgment, relieve the oppressed,
Judge the fatherless, plead for the widow. 18 Come now, and let us reason together, saith the LORD:
Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow;
Though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool. 19 If ye be willing and obedient,
Ye shall eat the good of the land : 20 But if ye refuse and rebel,
Ye shall be devoured with the sword:
1 Heb. great he-goats.
9 Heb. to be seen. 4 Heb. multiply prayer.
6 Heb. bloods. • Requires.
b Trample. & I cannot bear sacrilege and solemn meeting.
3 Or, grief.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. Ver. 10. 13PF is found in Isa. also ; iii. 6, 7; xxii. 3. xxxv.1; Ex. iii. 16, etc. But then the form 39-58 7787?
Ver. 12. In regard to the construction 1875 1x0n '), " is found in five places: Ex. xxxiv. 23 sq.; Deut. xvi. 'D it is to be noticed especially that we have here an 16; xxxi. 11; 1 Sam. i. 22. Here the question arises, old, solemn form of expression. It is found first, Ex. whether nx is nota accusatavi, or preposition with tho xxiii. 17,where it is said: 1797 29-773-5pont meaning “ cum, coram;" or finally, whether the accusa-“ All thy males shall appear before the Lord;" älso tive, as in thaxn ain: “Ye shall be devoured by the Ps. Ixxxiv. 8. This is the customary, and besides very
sword,” ver. 20, is to be taken in an instrumental sense, frequent construction of the Niphal 1737), Gen. xii. 7; as if it ought to be rendered : "was seen of God's face
(so Ewald, Gram. 2 279, C). This last rendering