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J. A. ALEX., comm. in loc., especially on sobib Ver. 13. The ruin of the nobility is followed ver. 14.-TR.): nxp (from Nipto vomit”) is by that of their palaces. They are said to mount the pelican (Lev. xi. 18; Deut. xiv. 17; Zeph. up (any) but only ironically, for they appear ii. 14), 19. the porcupine” (see on xiv. 23; great and high only by the rank wild growth on Zeph. ii. '14). Jūs "the owl” (only here them. in Isa.
comp: Lev. xi. 17; Deut. xiv. 16),—any Not only beasts of the desert, but also repul*. the raven
(in Isaiah only here). As right sive demons of the desert disport themselves in building can only be done by means of measur- the desolate ruins of Edom. The Prophet mening line and plummet (Job xxxviii. 5), so shall tions a female being, the ghost-like, restlessly right destruction be directed by aid of the same wandering (comp. Matt. xii. 43) Lilith, but which implements. The image is the same as Amos just there in those dreadful places finds a convii. 7-9, comp. 2 Kings xxi. 23; Lam. ii. 8. “ The stone
is the weight that makes the line genial resting place. The nanie nose? certainly plumb, The expression na 'yx is år. ney.; comes from Soy the night," and denotes a being and 113 Isaiah uses no where else (see Gen. i. 2 ; ) of the night, a spectre. According to the TalJer. iv, 23).
MUD Lilith is the chief of the nocturnal Schedim, [“The sense of the whole metaphor may be—that God has laid this work out for Himself of the popup 1250 (comp. BUXTORF, Lez. and will perform it (BARNES),—that even in de- rabb., p. 1140 and 877), and bears the name stroying He will proceed deliberately, and by abnp na nun, i. e., “Agrath the (female) rule (KNOBEL), which last thought is well ex
dancer." pressed in ROSENMUELLER's paraphrase (ad men- monol., 1866, p. 61 and 86'sqq. Certainly Lilith
Comp. KOHUT, Jüd. Angel. und Däsuram vastabitur, ad regulam depopulabitur)."— is a production of popular superstition, to which J. A. ALEXANDER.]
various attributes and forms of appearance are 4. They shall call --with her mate.- nscribed. Comp. BUXTORF, I. c. BOCHART, Vers. 12-15. The Prophet now describes the de- Hieroz. III., p. 829, ed. ROSENMUELLER, GESEN. solation as it affects the territory of the nobility. Thes. p. 749. * [Smitu's Dict. of Bible, under the of Edom, both as to their persons and their castles. on being nominative absolute, the word Owl]. Dobos is át. 2ey. words must be translated : " as to her nobles, ["In itself it means nothing more nor less than there are none there that call out a monarchy nocturnal, and would seem to be applicable to an (election of king, accession to regency).” As the animal or to any other object belonging to the presence of the nobility is the necessary condi- night.” “This gratuitous interpretation of the tion of a king's election, and not vice versa, I re
Hebrew word” (viz., as referring to the superstigard this translation as more correct than the tions mentioned above) was unfortunately sancother which is also grammatically possible, viz. : tioned by Bochart and VITRINGA, and adopted “there is no kingdom that they may proclaim." with eagerness by the modern Germans who reMoreover it is logically more correct that in the joice in every opportunity of charging a mistake phrase with the word put before absolutely in physics, or a vulgar superstition on the Scripshould be the subject. Royalty in Edom was not
tures. This disposition is the more apparent inherited, but Esau's descendants formed a high here, because the writers of this school usually nobility from which the king proceeded by elec- piqne themselves upon the critical discernment tion (Gen. sxxvi. 15 sqq. ; 31 sqq.). 1, liber, tions of the Rabbins from the genuine meaning
with which they separate the exegetical inven"ingenuus, nobilis Isaiah uses only here. Comp. of the Hebrew text. GESENIUS for example, will Eccl. x. 17; Jer. xxvii. 20 and often.
not cven grant that the doctrine of a personal [On 7'111, J. A. ALEXANDER gives a copious Messiah is so much as mentioned in the writings synopsis of interpretations and then adds: "This of Isaiah, although no opinion has been more great variety of explanations, and the harshness universally maintained by the Jews, from the of construction with which most of them are date of their oldest uncanonical books. In this chargeable, may serve as an excuse for the sug- case, their unanimous and uninterrupted testigestion of a new one, not as certainly correct, but mony goes for nothing, because it would establish as possibly entitled to consideration.” Beside
an unwelcome identity between the Messiah of the meaning nobles, D'77 in several places
no the Old and New Testament. But when the obless certainly means holes or caves (see 1 Sam.ject is to fasten on the Scriptures an odious and xiv. 11; Job xxx. 6; Nah. ii. 13). Now it is contemptible superstition, the utmost deference matter of history not only that Edom was full of is paid, not only to the silly legends of the Jews, caverns, but that these were inhabited and that but to those of the Greeks, Romans, Zabians and the aboriginal inhabitants, expelled by Esau, Russians.”
“Beside the fact that nobis were expressly called Iorites (o'q1) as being in- nocturnal, and that its application to a spectre is habitants of caverns (xiv. 6; xxxvi, 20; Deut. entirely gratuitous, we may argue here, as in ii. 12, 22). This being the case, the entire de- xiii. 25, that ghosts as well as demons would be population of the country, and especially the wholly out of place in a list of wild and solitary destruction of its princes, might be naturally and animals. Is this a natural succession of ideas? poetically expressed by saying that the kingdom Is it one that ought to be assumed without neof Edom should be thenceforth a kingdom of cessity ?" "Of all the figures that could be deserted caverns. For the appropriateness of employed, that of resting seems to be the least description see in ROBINSON'S " Researches " the appropriate in the description of a spectre.” account of Petra.-TR.].
The quotation of Matt. xii. 43 in this connection
is “strange and “incongruous," where the away,” like the Hiph. lxvi. 7: the imperf., with evil spirit is expressly said to pass through dry Vav consecutive makes what must hypotactically places seeking rest and finding none." The be regarded as a repeated fact, appear paratacti. sense is sufficiently secured by making nosos cally as occurring once. »p3 “ to cleave," for mean a nocturnal bird (ABEN Ezra), or more by cleaving open the young are brought forth, specificially, an owl (COCCEIUS), or screech-owl comp. xxxv. 6; lviii. 8; lix. 5. 787" to cherish" (Lowtu)." But the word admits of a still more (only here and Jer. xvii. 11), cherishes the young satisfactory interpretation, in exact agreement in its shadow (i. e., of its own body)—7'7" vulwith the exposition which has already been given ture," again only Deut. xiv. 13. The expression of the preceding terms as general descriptions niya nos only here and ver. 16 in Isaiah, rather than specific names. If these terms represent the animals occupying Idumea, first as be- DRECHSLER justly construes it as asyndeton, and longing to the wilderness (D")), then as dis- as in apposition with the subject, as must be done
also ver. 16. tinguished by their fierce and melancholy cries (D*X), and then as shaggy in appearance (700), [“ As to the particular species of animals renothing can be more natural than that the fourth ferred to in this whole passage, there is no need, epithet should also be expressive of their habits as CALVIN well observes, of troubling ourselves as a class
nocturnal or belonging to the much about them. (Non est cur in iis magnopers night.”—J. A. ALEXANDER, in loc.-Tr.]. torqueamur). The general sense evidently is that
Ver. 15. Bochart in his Hieroz., II. p. 194 a human population should be succeeded by wild 8qq., has proved that nop means arrow-snake. and lonely animals-implying total and continIn lonely places, out of danger it harbors and red desolation.”—J. A. ALEXANDER. For rich
illustration of the subject from modern travellers lays its eggs. os Piel = “to cause slipping see BARNES Notes on Isaiah, in loc.—TR.).
3. CONCLUDING REMARK: SUMMONS TO COMPARE THE PROPHECY WITH
CHAPTER XXXIV. 16, 17. 16 SEEK ye out of the book of the LORD, and read,
No one of these ashall fail,
For my mouth it hath commanded, and this spirit it hath gathered them, 17 And he hath cast the lot for them,
And his hand hath divided it unto them by line:
• fails, Neilher one nor the other does one miss.
פקדו .(15 .asyndeton lilie ver) אשה רעותה and refer the | possible of וּרְשׁוּ instead of דְּרשׁוּ LXX
. reads with מעל-כפר how confounded
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. Ver. 16. Comp. Ing with Sy xxx. 8; Jer. xxxvi. 29 ; | sense of desiderari, deesse. As ning ner is said of Deut. xxvii. 3, 8, etc.— -Xpe comp. xxix. 11, 12.—The inanimate things (Exod. xxvi. 3, 5, 6, etc.) so the same is
. , (. ). word to what goes before. Moreover it has some is = "to miss," (properly: to verify by inspection ihe
" one." rived 187? from 77 occurrere, for it reads thus : érei pers. plur. denotes the impersonal subject člabor ourývrnoav kai' idov ta mpóowna adtýdwer åpc@eco ? occasions great difficulty. Some (as DeEcUSLEE) Trapñadov. In the mapñadov is doubtless a reference to would refer the suffix in ') to the Prophet and in 1817 Gen. ii. 19. Strangely enough late expositors (K NOBEL, | to God. But could the Prophet say: my mouth has MEIER) adopt this rendering #hrough misconception of
commanded it? He could only say "announced," (7277 the passage.--I do not believe that the feminines in or the like). Thus the l'ulo. translates : quod ex ore meo 773773 nnx and 7 nin 708 relate only to the living procedit, ille mandavit. But the LXX. has simply, ört beings enumerated in vers. 6-15. For why are not other Kúplos éveteidato aútois. It is better, with several Rab. traits of the prophery, murder, burning, etc., to be ful- big and Delitzsch, to refer both suffixes to God: “my filled? And why conceive of all the living beings as mouth has commanded it and its spirit, i. e., the spirit ferninine? The Prophet changes the gender ver. 17. I of my mouth has gathered them." Still this is a strange agree with those that take these feminines in a neuter form of expression. For it appears as if the LORD dig. sense, and as relating to all the traits of the predicted tinguished between His spirit and the spirit of His judgment, which is grammatically quite justifiable mouth, as if the latter were not His spirit; a distinction (comp. xli. 22). —7793 is used al. 26, as here, in the I that does not appear Ps. xxxiii. 6; Job af. 30. More
over the explanation of GESENIUS, who would take X177 change to X377 'D. Hence I think that we must simply for the nomen regens belonging to '! (comp. X77 'D' translate "his mouth."
"-32p (Piel, see list) is to be Nah. ii. 9), is not satisfactory. This construction is
referred to the same objects as the fem. suffixes prequite abnormal; for Nah. ii. 9 is not similar. With the
ceding. exception of the clause" for my mouth-hath gathered them," not only the entire preceding part of the chapt.
Ver. 17. 5712 4977 only here in Isaiah ; comp. Ps. but also verses 16, 17 are spoken only by the Prophet. xxii
. 19; Ezek. xxiv. 6, etc. Soualone and pan A corruption of the text was very possible, in as much , ),
.—. 11.71 775 see verse 11.
comp . on verse שׁכנו בה and יירשוה and קַו-.list
could easily ,רוחו after הוא by reason of the ,פִיהוּ as
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL,
1. The Prophet translates himself in spirit calls “the book of the LORD.” GESEN., and into the time when his prophecy shall have been DRECHSL., explain this to mean that the Prophet fulfilled. As a pledge to his present readers of “had in mind the insertion of his oracle in a the reliability of his predictions he, so to speak, collection of holy Scriptures ;" that he “knew it stakes his own and God's honor on the fulfilment, to be a part of a greater whole, into which, in its which must be compromised by the non-fulfil- time, it must be adopted.” But then why does ment. For what the mouth of the Lord has an- he think this only of this prophecy? Even nounced, that the Spirit of the LORD will bring though elsewhere there is mention of recording to pass. Though the immediate reference of single prophecies for the purpose of appealing to these words is to the prophecy against Edom, it them afterwards (viii. 1; xxx. 8), still there is lies in the nature of things that the present sum- nowhere, beside the present, any mention of an mons concerns in the same way all predictions entire book that deserved to be called “the book of the Prophet. It is hard to see why only the of the Lord.” But we evidently stand here at a prophecy against Edom should be provided with boundary. The prophecies of part first conclude. such a postscript as the present. It is therefore Chapters xxxvi-xxxix., form an historical supa natural conjecture that this postscript stands plement. With xi., che second part begins. connected with the position, and general signifi- And at this significant point a book of the LORD” cance of this prophecy against Edom. The latter is mentioned. This is certainly not to be exconcludes part first, for with xxxvi. the histori- plained by saying that in closing his prophecy cal pieces begin. We have found, too, this pro- the Prophet happened here to mention the future phecy against Edom to be an exemplification in book of which it was to become a part. It is one nation of what is to happen to all (vers. 1-4). much more likely that the Prophet provided this We may then take this postscript as pertaining prophecy with such a conclusion, when he put to all the preceding threatening prophecies, be- this prophecy at the end of a great book, that he cause all of them are, so to speak, comprehended called Jehovah-book, as containing the entire Jein this last one against Edom. Now as chap. hovah-word announced by him.
The express xxxiv. is certainly more recent than most of the sion 1711' 790 occurs only here. Only a work foregoing pieces, it is probable that this post- in which Jehovah had space to give an all-sided script was first added when the collection was 'revelation of His nature and will, deserved this made, to which perhaps the expression “Book name. And only a Prophet that was conscious of the LORD” refers. But, one may ask, why is, of having been God's faithful instrument in all this postscript put at the end of xxxv.? The he had said and written, could set such a title to verses 16, 17 are by their contents most inti- his book. mately connected with xxxiv. 5-15. But why The prophecy must be fulfilled because God is such an appeal to the written word only after a author of it. This is the general sense.
But as threatening prophecy? Christ, too, speaks the to particulars '? occasions difficulty, on which significant words “behold I have told you before"
see Text. and Gram. The Spirit of God, or per(Matt. xxiv. 25; Mar, xiii. 23) after announcing haps more correctly the breath of God drives, judgments. God's salvation comes to the pious, or rather blows together, from all quarters what and they know from whose hand it comes. But the wicked will not hear of God's sending judg- of His counsel. Compare an analogous use of
God needs in one place for the accomplishment ments. They ascribe them to accident or fatalistic necessity. Therefore it specially concerns 12p. Mic. i. 7. The parious beings or powers them to prove, that the judgment is something mentioned in vers. 5-15 are partly masculine, announced beforehand, and thus is something partly feminine. The Prophet repeats with empreviously known and determined, that it is phasis that the total of them, i. e, the representatherefore the act of Him who knows all His lives of both genders are endowed with the land works from the beginning of the world (Acts xv. of Edom in eternal possession. He has similarly 18). Added to this, xxxv., points forwards more expressed the difference in gender by the different than backwards. It is the bridge to chapters xl.- gender terininations, iii. 1. lavi., as it were, the morning twilight of the day [On ver. 17. " An evident allusion to the of salvation, which dawng with chap. xl. division of the land of Canaan, both by lot and
2. Seek ye-dwell therein. Vers. 16, measuring line. (See Num. xxvi. 55, 56; Josh. 17. The summons to read in the written book xviii. 4-6). As Canaan was allotted to Israel, seems to me to indicate that the Prophet has just so Edom is allotted to these doleful creatures."been busy with a book and finished it, which he i J. A. ALEXANDER.].
4. OBVERSE OF THE JUDGMENT: ISRAEL'S REDEMPTION AND RETURN HOME
CHAPTER XXXV. 1-10. 1 The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them;
And the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose. 2 It shall blossom abundantly,
And rejoice even with joy and singing:
And the excellency of our God. 3 Strengthen ye the weak hands,
And confirm the feeble knees.
Be strong, fear not:
God "will come with vengeance, Even God with a recompense ;
He will come and save you. 5 Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened,
And the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. 6 Then shall the lame man leap as an hart,
And the tongue of the dumb sing :
And streams in the desert.
And the thirsty land springs of water :
Shall be 'grass with reeds and rushes.
And it shall be called The way of holiness;
The wayfaring men, though fools, shall not err therein. 9 No lion shall be there,
Nor any ravenous beast shall go up thereon,
But hthe redeemed shall walk there :
And come to Zion with songs
6 Or, for he shall be with them. • Be glad descrt-rejoice steppe, etc. Bloom, bloom let it.
& disconcerted • tcngeance, com:8, rcrompense of God! ITc comes that llc may save you,
i mirage. & In the habitation of jai kals is their encampment, an enclosure for recds and rushes. bredocmed ones.
o is given.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL.
Ver. 1. [The Author, like the LXX., translates the fu- Maurer, Drechsler, who regard it as put for D3 with tures of this verso, (and also of ver. 2) as imperativos. reference to “the felicitous revolution of all things that But, as J. A. ALEX. says, “there is no sufficient reason
is announced in the present chapter." Such a refer for departing from the strict sense of the future."-Tr.). The abnormal form Davy? must not be regarded as an
ence would be harsh, and a departure from the analogy error in copying, as has been done by Lowtu, Eicinonn, of the construction of verbs of rejoicing. It is better HITZIG, UMBREIT, Olsi. (Gram.). Nor can tho ending Oy (with ABEN Ezra, Kichi. EWALD, (8 91,6), KxOBEL, DE be treated as a suffix, as is done by Gesenius, Rosena., Litzscu) to explain the form as an assimilation of the
יד ooeur only in these | It is in this case to be referred to some feminine notion אמץ ברכים (כרעות or) כשלות
יָנִיעַ פָלֶט and
in power to the following D: as in Numb. iii. 49 DI?? Ver. 7. DAR and yid(Eccl. xii. 6), see list. na stands for ID ;119, and as, according to WETSTEIN again only Deut. viii
. 15; Ps. cvii. 33.—Both as to sense (excursus in DelitzsCH, p. 688), at the present day even
and grammar it gives a harsh construction to take in Arabic n becomes m before a labial. In Greek also 7337 in apposition with 71), and to refer the suffix to The nutépa occurs for Tiv untepa. On the recurrence of in. What need is there of saying that the 113 of the 040, 07'}, nany in Isaiah, see list.
jackal is also its yan? Nor would I, with DRECHSLER .
see list. The inf. 1:n again only Ps. refer the suffix in 1337 to D's: for 1937 is a place of cxxxii. 16. 112) and 7777 see list.
repose (comp. Ixv. 10; Jer. 1. 6; Prov. xxiv. 15). 17327 Ver. 3. The words are manifestly borrowed from Job is manifestly to be referred to Israel. It is true that in iv. 3, 4. By a comparison of the Hebrew original it is what precedes there is no word to which the suffix pic seen that the first clause quite agrees with the words
may be grammatically referred. But we know the great of Job; but the second combines elements of the two liberty of the Hebrew, in which verbal and nominal following clauses in Job, and nikod is substituted for endings, as also suffixes are referred to ideal notions of niya. But the two expressions '07 'go pin aud
such as are implied in the context (comp. on xxxiii. 4) ()
of the author's mind, such as Zion or daughter of Zion. two places.
The following words, too, " 7'977 are an echo of xxxiv. Ver. 4. DRECHSLER, DELITZSCH, as some Rabbins before them, take up, as acc. modalis (DkEcUSLER : “ Rächens 136 (muz y3n). Hence the latter passage seeme
to me to indicate what must be the explanation of the kommt er," i.e., as much to do vengeance, as also in vengeance, in exhibition of vengeance). But no example present, and that we must here also take 71 in the can be cited of designating the object of coming by the
sense of 737. This interchange, indeed, does not oc
cur in any other than the passages named. But accusative, or of the use of Dp3 adverbially as denoting the manner of appearance, 'like the use of niggia
, tically it is not impossible (comp. 059 noa, po, han, etc. The parallel passages that are
POY, Ewald, 149, e) and the sense cited (xiii. 9; xxx. 27; xl. 10) prove only that day be demands it in xxxiv. 13.' For the ostrich does not eat can he joined to X12' as its predicate, something that grass. Hence I construo 737 in this place as yn is not doubted. The accents indeed favor this conuec.
'n . tion here, but they are not binding. In an entirely similar sentence as to structure (Jer. xxiii. 19; xxx, 33) they
Ver. 8. The ? before in might be taken in a causal make such a distribution as I think is also the correct sense (EWALD, 353, a). But it seems to me more suitone here. With most expositors, therefore, I take able to regard the clause 135 81771 as the negative coropbx 7737 as first clause, which incontestibly is relative of D0 173 yi xes, and to translate ) accordgrammatically possible (comp.e. g. xvii. 14; Gen. xii. 19), ingly by “but” (Ewald, & 354, a, p. 843). Note here, too, ' . ,
what freedom the Prophet takes with the gender of the with the index finger, the Prophet points to God as He draws near, and then with the following words explains words. The fem. oafter supis immediately folHis coming. Vengeance, says he (comp. on xxxiv. 8), lowed by the masculines 1973and 8177.—779 is comes, divine recompense. U 5102 is in apposition most commonly masculine (fem. only Deut. i. 22; Ps. i. ops. Dinhx denotes not merely the author, but 6; cxix. 33; Ezra viii. 2). But it is incredible that this
interchange of gender is conditioned by the double also the manner of the recompense: it is such as God only can visit, viz., as just in principle as it is complete change in one and the same passage. But my relates
gender of 777, for that would not justify such inter. , i. c, " the terror of God,” Gen. xxxv. 5; LA ? Ps. lxxx.
exceptional way represented by the other word.—7507 By: Ps. civ. 16, etc.-9 $12' N177 emphasizes is part absolutum, and prepositive conditional clause. In the coming of the LORD for a positive object. --The
respect to the sense comp. xlii. 16.
Ver. 9. gong only here in Isaiah. —The 3 pers. fem. the clause is to be construed as marking intention: in xpon is to be referred ni'n, for this 3 pers. fem. in. " that he may save you." Ver. 5. W977, see list.
volves an ideal plural (comp. on xxxiv. 13) — boxes Ver. 6. 257" to spring” (Ps. xviii. 30) and yox only again only li. 10; lxii. 12; Ps. cvii. 2; (but also, see list)
. here in Isaiah. no comp. xxxii. 23. ,
, , , . comp. xxii. 13; li. 3, 11; lxi. 3.
.נוה ת' and in apposition with
as it were ,הנח as the second . Thus by נקס יבוא and
which is here in an מסלה i ... to the notion ,מסלול | חִתַּת א' in execution
וְיֹשַׁע 22 .as Prov . xx ;וְשִׁמְעֲכֶם stands for וְשַׁעֲכֶם form
שׂשׂון ושמחה .see list ,אנחה ,יגון נשׂג פרוי .10
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. As in all sections of Isaiah's prophecies, so trast with the frightful judgments that (xxxiv.) here the perspective closes with a glorious future are to come upon the heathen, and at the same (comp. xi. and xii.; xxiii. 15–18; xxvii.; xxxiii. time as a transition and prelude to chapters xl.13–2A). As exile is the sum of all terrors for the lxvi. Israelite, so exile's end, return to Zion to ever The desert through which the way lies shall lasting, blessed residence there is the acme and flourish like Carmel and Sharon (vers. 1, 2). sum of all felicity. Thus here the prospect of There all the weary and languishing shall rejoyful return home is presented to Israel in con-'ceive new strength (ver, 3). The fearful and