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time (xvi. 14 sqq.; xxiii.3; xxix., 14; xxxii. 37; xl. 12; xlvi. 27). Therefore the Prophet promises here glorious and joyful return homethat to the Israelite must be dearest of all—and the object of his greatest longing (Ps. cxxxvii. 5, 6), and in that home eternal joy (yer. 10): One may say that he draws here the outline of the pic...ture that he afterwards carries out in chaps. xl.lxvi. in all the varieties of its forms.
Their contents show that the two chapters belong together. Chap. xxxv. is the necessary ob
verse of xxxiv. The expressions ^7 on p'yn my xxxv. 7, which manifestly contrasts with xxxiv. 13, form a close bond between the two chapters; and it is to be noted that non in the sense of nym occurs only in these two places. Also the metonymic use of VP2 (xxxiv. 15; xxxv. 6) which occurs beside only lviii. 8; lix. 5, is a peculiarity of language that points to the correlation of the two chapters. EICH HoRN, GESEN., RoseNMUELLER, DE W., MAUR., Hitzig, Ew., UMBR., KNobel, and others ascribe these chapters to a later author that lived in the time of the captivity. They only differ in that some (GESENIUS, RosPNMUELLER, HITZIG, EwALD) put this unknown author at the end of the exile, the others at an earlier period. We will show in the exposition, by exact investigation of the language, that both the contents and the form of language of these chapters connect them intimately with xl.-lxvi., yet that in both these respects there is also a common character with part first. This view is confirmed by the undeniable fact that these chapters are variously quoted by prophets before the exile. This will be proved in respect to Jer. xlvi. 10 in the comment on xxxiv. 5 sqq. I have shown the connection between these chapters and Jer. 1. 27, 39; li. 40, 60 sqq. by an extended examination in my work: “Der Prophet Jer. und Babylon, Erlangen, 1850.” Comp. KUEPER, Jerem. libr. sacr. interpr. atque tinder, Berolini, 1837, p. 79 sqq. CASPARI, Jerem, ein Zeuge für d. Echtheit von Jes. xxxiv., etc., 2eitschr. von Rudelbach und Guericke, 1843, Heft. 2, p. 1 sqq. The proof that Jer. has drawn on our chapters carries with it the proof that the resemblances noticed between Zeph. i. 7, 8 and Isa. xxxiv. 6, and between Zeph. ii. 14 and Isa. xxxiv. 11, are to be regarded as a use of these chapters by Zephaniah, the older contemporary of Jeremiah, and not a quotation of Zephaniah by these chapters. The reasons adduced against Isaiah's authorship of these chapters will not stand examination. KNobel, thinks the hatred of Edom in the degree shown in xxxiv. 5 sqq. is to be found only in passages that belong to the time after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans. But not to mention Obadiah (especially vers. 10–14), there are found in Joel (iv. 19) and Amos (especially i. 11 sqq.) proofs enough that there could be in Isaiah's time a hatred like that expressed in our chapter xxxiv. We will show in the exposition of xxxv.
that it does not presuppose the Babylonish exile, but the second, great and last exile in general. It is incomprehensible how the announcement of a great judgment on the heathen generally (xxxiv. 2, 3, 5 sqq.; xxxv. 8) can denote a later authorship, seeing the same is announced in the acknowledged prophecies of Isa. ii. 4, 11 sqq., and even in xxx. 25 sqq. (see comm. in loc.). But we may refer in this matter to the entire liber apocalypticus (xxiv.–xxvii.), '. assaulting which the critics of course becloud for themselves the conspectus of Isaiah's field of vision. What KNoBEL further urges of the extravagant expectations (xxxiv. 3, 4, 9; xxxv. 1, 2, 5 sqq.), affects only the bold and grand images in which the Prophet utters these expectations. And these images are too bold, too hyperbolical for Isaiah 1... If the genuineness of chs. xiii., xiv., xxiv.–xxvii. is denied, then the analogies for the dissolution of the heavens (xxxiv. 4) and for the goblins of night and wild beasts (xxxiv. 11-17) are surrendered. On this subject we can only refer back to our defence of the genuineness of chap. xiii., xiv. Finally KNoBEL mentions a number of expressions in these chapters which in general, or at least, in their present meaning, occur only in later writers, putting in the latter class some expressions that are pe— culiar to this author. One may admit that many expressions occur in Isaiah that only later writers employ, or that are analogous to expressions of later use. But is this any proof of the later origin of these chapters? Isaiah is so opulent a spirit, he reigns with such creative power even in the sphere of language, and his authority is so great with his successors, that we may confidently affirm, that very many later words and expressions are to be referred to him as the source or exemplar. Moreover that argument loses weight when we consider that in our chapters much ancient linguistic treasure occurs, e.g., Us;, xxxiv. 3; DS), xxxiv. 7; BP, and baby, xxxiv. 8. Isaiah, then, is doubtless the author of our chapters. But he wrote them in his later period, when Assyria was for him a stand-point long since surmounted, and when, withdrawn from the present, he lived, with all his prophetic seeing and knowing, in the future. I agree with DELITzsch in assuming that Isaiah, in preparing the book as a whole (if he actually himself attended to this matter), put these chapters here as a conclusion of the first part of his prophetic discourses. I only add that on this occasion Isaiah must have added vers. 16, 17 with their reference to the now completed “book of the LoRD.”
The division of the chapters is simple:— 1. The judgment on all nations, xxxiv. 1–4. 2. The judgment on Edom as representation of the whole in one particular example, of especial interest to Israel, xxxiv. 5–15. 3. Concluding remark: summons to compare the prophecy with the fulfilment, xxxiv. 16, 17. 4. The obverse of the judgment: Israel's redemption and return hone, xxxv.
b hath cursed.
vers. 24. Top, was, nau, Don we st-Ennis casus absolutus, comp. EwAld, 3309 b. ÜN3 only here in Isaiah. Comp. Joel ii.20; Amos iv. 10.
Wer. 4. DD:D (as verb only here in Isaiah), is used Ps. xxxviii. 6 of a festering wound, in Zech. xiv. 12 of rotting flesh, i.e., eyes and tongues rotting in their natural place. In Lev. xxvi. 39; Ezek. xxiv. 23; xxxiii. 10 it is used in the more general sense of passing away, disappearing; Isa. iii. 24; v.24, pp is “ that which has rotted, mouldered.” Add to this that Top Ps. cwi. 43;
Job xxiv. 24; Eccles. x. 18, denotes corrucre, collabi; Ap Lev. xxv.25, 35, 39, 47 means “to collapse, decline, wax poor," but lop (Amos ir. 5, 13; Ps. lxv. 11, etc.), difflucre, dissolvi. Thus we must recognize as the fundamental meaning of this family of words “decomposition, dissolution, rotting, mouldering, turning to dust” occasioned by the departure of the spirit of life. But this effect may be variously brought about. Fire, e.g., can produce it in a tree by scorching it. Such appears the sense here. Thus 2 Pet. iii. 12 oupavoi mupouwevot Av6%
sent is xlii. 5. In ver. 2 only the nations are mentioned as the object of the judgment. Though impersonal nature shares in it, still this is only the
means to an end. Exis-on, having a similar re
lation to that of Tssss-55 (see Tett. and Gram.), denotes not the host merely, but the host of mankind in general. Already, by virtue of the decree of wrath determined against them, the LORD
has laid on them. His curse or ban (D'ohnst xi. 15; xxxvii. 11), and devoted them to slaughter.
On the description ver. 3 comp. xiv. 19: xxxvii. 36; lxvi. 24; x. 18; xiii. 7; xix. 1. The passages Matt. xxiv. 29; 2 Pet. iii. 7, 10, 12; Rev. vi. 13, 14 are founded on the present text. For that the Prophet has in mind the destruction of the world, is manifest from this description comprehending the earth and heavens.
2. THE JUDGMENT ON EDOM, AS REPRESENTATION OF THE WHOLE IN ONE PARTICULAR EXAMPLE OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO ISRAEL.
8 ‘For it is the day of the Lord's vengeance,
And the dust thereof into brimstone,
And the land thereof shall become burning pitch.
10 It shall not be quenched night nor day; The smoke thereof shall go up for ever:
From generation to generation it shall lie waste;
And the stones of emptiness.
12 They shall call the nobles thereof to the kingdom,
But none shall be there,
13 *And thorns shall come up in her palaces, Nettles and brambles in the fortresses thereof. And it shall be an habitation of "dragons,
14 “The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with 'the wild beasts of the island,
And the 'satyr shall cry to his fellow;
15 There shall the 'great owl make her nest, and lay,
Every one with her mate.
TEXTUAL AND Wer. 5. Only by greatingenuity can "E be explained to mean “for.” Hence KNobel construes it as pleonastic, connecting the discourse, and appeals, e.g., to viii. 23. But there exists a plain causal connection between vers. 4 and 5, only the res causans is in verse 4 and not in ver. 5. Hence "E here = “because" and not “for.” Because the sword of God has become drunken in heaven it comes down to earth (comp. Gen. iii. 14; xxxiii. 11; Exod. i 19, etc.).-n?" (comp. xvi. 9) is direct caur sative Piel = ebrietatem facere, “to produce drunkenness.” As, e.g., "pton not only means “fatten," i.e., others, but also “make, produce, grow fat,” i. e., grow fat one's-self, so this verb means not only “make others drunk" (Jer. xxxi. 14; Ps. lxv. 11), but also “make one's-self drunk."—betwo"—in behoof of accomplishing judgment; comp. Hab. i. 12; Ezek. xliv. 24 IX'ri; comp. Isa. xli. 1; liv. 17, in another sense Isa. v. 7; xxxii. 1; xxviii. 26. Ver. 6. DRECHslER refers mn', to nxop: the sword is to the Lord (the Lond has His sword) full of blood. But then it would need to read anrin, as the sword has already been mentioned. Would one translate: “Jehovah has a sword that is full of blood,” that again does not suit the previous mention of the sword verse 5, though this translation would best suit the three other
instances of the use of nnn", in this section (verses 2, 6, 9). The context requires the rendering “the sword of the Lord is full of blood.” For verses 6,7 manifestly tell what the sword, (that ver. 5 was to come on Edom), when actually come, has done to Edom. This is intimated by describing the sword after the execution. Thus the same sword as ver. 5 is meant. The article is wanting because mn', ann, (instead of mn ann, which occurs only 1 Chron. xxi. 12) seems to be voz sotennis, (Jud. vii.20; Jer. xii. 12; xlvii. 6).-nytyin in- r: - . stead of nitynno, Hothpaal from son, comp. verse 7; r: - ; 2. xxx. 23; GREEN's Gram., 396, a.—That |p before by is to be explained according to ii. 6, does not seem probable. Rather it seems that the notion of causality, that lies in nonp Tilton, has passed over to what follows: such as was before intimated, the sword has become from the blood of the sacrificial beasts.--> again only xvi.
daughters of the owl. 6 Heb, ziim.
ExEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.
1. If the Prophet would not deal only in indefinite generalities in regard to the judgment on the nations of the earth, he must give prominence to the case of one nation instar omnium. Among neighboring nations Moab, and Edom, and Ammon, were most detested by the Israelites (comp. Deut. xxiii. 3–6; Ezek. xxxv. 5 sqq.; Amos i. 11: Obad. 10 sqq.; Ps. cxxxvii. 7, etc.). As Isaiah elsewhere, in a similar connection,
mentions the Moabites by way of exemplification
(xxv. 10 sqq.), it is natural he should give simi: lar prominence also to Edom, as he does here and lxiii. 1 sqq. Now, because the sword of Jehovah has already become drunken in heaven with blood, it descends to earth, because it finds no more work above. 2. For my sword——of Zion.—Vers, 5–8. The relation of this section to what precedes is this: the Prophet has said (vers. 2, 3), what the Lond purposes to do on earth. boons, and D]n) ver. 2 are to be understood of acts of the will, not of performance: ver, 3 describes prophetically what shall once take place on earth in consequence of that divine decree. Ver. 4 pictures the judgment that shall be executed on the heavens, lo. here the Prophet combines intention and performance. He contemplates the judgment of God as beginning in heaven, and continued on earth. [On the construction of "2 see Tert. and Gram.
“It may be construed in its proper sense, either with ver. 3 (IIITZIG), or with the whole of the preceding description. All this shall certainly take place for my sword (the speaker being God Himself) is steeped,” etc.—J. A. ALEX., in loc.]. The expression is a bold poetic one. Isaiah speaks of the sword of the Lord again xxvii. 1; lxvi. 16. Dut only here does he personify it. He may, as regards the sense, have in mind Deut. xxxii. 41–43. Inevitable and irresistible are the judgments of the Lord. This the Prophet exresses by saying that the sword of the LORD, intoxicated with the judgment accomplished on “the host of the high ones that are on high" (xxiv. 21), and thirsting for more blood, descends to earth, and that first on Edom, as the nation that above all has become an object of the divine ban. (DY., the segregatio ad internecionem, 1 Kings xx. 42; Isa. xliii. 28). Vers. 6, 7 describe the effects of the execution. The sword of the Lord is not only full of blood, but is fattened, dropping fat. As in the second clause of ver, 6, the Edomites are regarded as a sacrifice, they are here compared to sheep, goats and rams. Bozra stands for Edom also lxiii. 1. Concerning this city see on Jer. lxix. 13. The enumeration of buffaloes, bullocks and bulls (ver. 7) denotes that the entire nation shall perish, great and small, high and low. DST
(only here in Isaiah, elsewhere only Num. xxiii. 22; Deut. xxxiii. 17: Job xxxix. 9 sq.; Ps. xxii. 22; xxix. 6; xcii. 11). It is now universally understood to mean the buffalo (see IIERz. I?.Encycl., XI. p. 28). Don; see on i. 11. was meaning “bull” occurs only x. 13 K'thibh. Th" meaning “to fell’ trees, beasts or men, is peculiar to Isaiah (see xxxii. 19). For Jer. xlviii. 15; 1.27; li. 40 the use of the word is not quite the same. In consequence of the slaughter the earth itself is drunk with blood, and fat with fat, comp. on vers. 5. 6. The parallelism reigns not only in these verses, but in the entire complexity of vers. 6–8. For the description of the judgment in ver. 6 a. and ver. 7 correspond, and the reasons assigned ver. 6 b. and ver. 8. But progress appears in the thought because ver. 8 gives particularly the object of the “sacrifice” and the “slaughter.” The Lord will thereby satisfy His vengeance, and give Zion justice by a righteous recompense. The expression for the day of the Lord's etc., recalls ii. 12 and lxiii. 4. But the Prophet seems moreover to have in Imind Deut. xxxii. 35, 41. Tor in those passages, as here, the notions of vengeance and recompense underlie the discourse. But beside this, our passage lay before Jeremiah. I'or Jer. xlvi. 10 is penetrated with elements drawn from Jsa. xxxiv. 5–8. The follow
ing considerations show that our passage is the source from which Jer. drew. 1) The grand, drastic boldness and loftiness of the language of our passage, of which the words of Jer, after the fashion of that Prophet, are but a tempered imitation. 2) Isaiah uses the expression on twice (vers. 5, 7); Jer, says, no. It is much more likely that Jeremiah would dilute the strong expression of a predecessor, in his well-known fashion (see my comm. on Jer. Introd. & 3) than that an author living much later in the exile, should intensify the normal but weaker expression of Jer. 3) Jer, says no Do; Isaiah PR, Dr. Now in general PP) is the older form of the
the form exclusively used by Jeremiah, and in Ezekiel it is the prevalent form (the exceptions being given above) and beside these is used only here and there (Num. xxxi. 2, 3; Lam. iii. 60; Ps. cxlix. 7). But it is not probable that a writer later than Jeremiah has introduced the old form into a passage borrowed from Jeremiah. 3. And the streams—emptiness.-Vers. 9–11. I'dom was situated at the southern point of the Dead Sea. The following description recalls the pitchy and sulphurous character of this sea and its surroundings. It seems as if the Prophet would allude to that event which, recorded in Gen. xix. 24, 25, 28, had impressed that character on the region. At least the sulphur, the overturning (TBT) and the ascending smoke are
traits that he seems to have borrowed from that passage. Till occurs again only Exod. ii. 3. nonpl we had already where xxx. 33 the breath of God is called “a stream of brimstone.” When" the streams are flowing pitch and the dust of the land is sulphur, the whole land will become a fearful place of conflagration. Day and night (the expression occurs Deut. xxviii. 66, beside comp. Isa. iv. 5: xxi. 8; lx. 11), forever, for it is the flame of the last judgment, the burning shall continue. The burning land is the subject of Toon which is used intensively also xliii. 17; lxvi. 24.—Ver. 10. On him as defining time see on xiii. 20. ht", "rip occurs only here. Bor, exarescere, ersiccari, comp. xix. 5, 6; xliv. 27; lx. 12. "By is again only lz. 15. It does not agree well to say of the same land that it shall become an everlasting burning, and that it shall be a pathless desert. But the Prophet describes the future by means of the present, and contemplates the earth as an Edom cursed of God, and thinks of the latter as a scorched desert land. [The same may be said of the similarly inconsistent descriptions in all that follows in this section.— TR. l. Ver. 11. As such the land is inhabited only by
beasts of the desert. [On the names of beings enumerated in this and the following verses see