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time (xvi. 14 sqq.; xxiii. 3; xxix. 14; xxxii. that it does not presuppose the Babylonish exile 37; xl. 12; xlvi. 27). Therefore the Prophet but the second, great and last exile in general. promises here glorious and joyful return home, It is incomprehensible how the announcement of that to the Israelite must be dearest of all--and a great judgment on the heathen generally (xxxiv. the object of his greatest longing (Ps. cxxxvii. 5, 2, 3, 5 sqq., xxxv. 8) can denote a later author. 6), and in that home eternal joy (ver. 10). One ship, seeing the same is announced in the acmay say that he draws here the ontline of the pic knowledged prophecies of Isa. ii. 4, 11 sqq., and ture that he afterwards carries out in chaps. xl.- even in xxx. 25 sqq. (see comm. in loc.). But we Ixyi. in all the varieties of its forms.
may refer in this matter to the entire liber apocaTheir contents show that the two chapters be- lypticus (xxiv.-xxvii.), by assaulting which the long together. Chap. xxxv. is the necessary ob- critics of course becloud for themselves the con
spectus of Isaiah's field of vision. What KNOBEL verse of xxxiv. The expressions -y yn d'un 17 further urges of the extravagant expectations xxxv. 7, which manifestly contrasts with xxxiv. (xxxiv. 3, 4, 9; xxxv. 1, 2, 5 sqq.), affects only 13, form a close bond between the two chapters; the bold and grand images in which the Prophet and it is to be noted that 737 in the sense of 737 utters these expectations. And these images are occurs only in these two places. Also the meto- too bold, too hyperbolical for Isaiah! If the ge
nuineness of chs. xiii., xiv., xxiv.-xxvii. is denied, nymic use of »pa (xxxiv. 15; xxxv. 6) which then the analogies for the dissolution of the heaoccurs beside only lviii. 8; lix. 5, is a peculiarity vens (xxxiv. 4) and for the goblins of night and of language that poinis to the correlation of the wild beasts (xxxiv. 11-17) are surrendered. On two chapters.
this subject we can only refer back to our defence of Eichhorn, GESEN., ROSENMUELLER, DE W., the genuineness of chap. xiii., xiv. Finally KNOMAUR., HITZIG, Ew., UMBR., KNOBEL and others BEL mentions a number of expressions in these ascribe these chapters to a later author that lived chapters which in general, or at least, in their prein the time of the captivity. They only differ in sent meaning, occur only in later writers, putting that some (GESENIUS, ROSENMUELLER, HITZIG, in the latter class some expressions that are peEwald) put this unknown author at the end of culiar to this author. One may admit that many the exile, the others at an earlier period. We expressions occur in Isaiah that only later writers will show in the exposition, by exact investigation employ, or that are analogous to expressions of of the language, that both the contents and the later use. But is this any proof of the later oriform of language of these chapters connect them gin of these chapters? Isaiah is so opulent a spiintimately wit! xl.lxvi., yet that in both these rit, he reigns with such creative power even in respects there is also a common character with the sphere of language, and his authority is so part first. This view is confirmed by the unde great with his successors
, that we may confidently niable fact that these chapters are variously quoted affirm, that very many later words and expressions by prophets before the exile. This will be proved are to be referred to him as the source or exemin respect to Jer. xlvi. 10 in the comment on plar. Moreover that argument loses weight when xxxiv. 5 sqq. I have shown the connection be
we consider that in our chapters much ancient tween these chapters and Jer. 1. 27, 39; li. 40, 60 sqq. by an extended examination 'in my work: linguistic treasure occurs, e. g., ük?, xxxiv. 3; "Der Prophet Jer. und Babylon, Erlangen, 1850.” DN7, xxxiv. 7; opard Daho, xxxiv. 8. Comp. KUEPER, Jerem. libr. sacr. interpr. atque Isaiah, then, is doubtless the author of our chapvinder, Berolini, 1837, p. 79 sqq. CASPARI, Je-ters. But he wrote them in his later period, when rem., ein Zeuge für d. Echtheit von Jer. xxxiv., etc., Assyria was for him a stand-point long since surZeitschr. von Riedelbach und Guericke, 1843, Heft. mounted, and when, withdrawn from the present, 2, p. 1 599.
The proof that Jer. has drawn on he lived, with all his prophetic seeing and knowour chapters carries with it the proof that the re-ing, in the future. I agree with DELITzsch in semblances noticed between Zeph. i. 7, 8 and Isa. assuming that Isaiah, in preparing the book as a xxxiv. 6, and between Zeph. ii. 14 and Isa. xxxiv. whole (if he actually himself attended to this 11, are to be regarded as a use of these chapters matter), put these chapters here as a conclusion by Zephaniah, the older contemporary of Jere- of the first part of his prophetic discourses. I miah, and not a quotation of Zephaniah by these only add that on this occasion Isaiah must have chapters.
added vers. 16, 17 with their reference to the now The reasons adduced against Isaiah's authorship completed “book of the LORD." of these chapters will not stand examination. KNOBEL thinks the hatred of Edom in the degree
The division of the chapters is simple:shown in xxxiv. 5 sqq. is to be found only in pas 1. The judgment on all nations, xxxiv. 1-4. sages that belong to the time after the destruction 2. The judgment on Edom as representation of of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans. But not to men- the whole in one particular example, of especial tion Obadiah (especially vers. 10-14), there are interest to Israel, xxxiv. 5–15. found in Joel (iv. 19) and Amos (especially i. 11 3. Concluding remark: summons to compare 6qq.) proofs enough that there could be in Isaiah's the prophecy with the fulfilment, xxxiv. 16, 17. time a hatred like that expressed in our chapter 4. The obverse of the judgment: Israel's re'xxxiv. We will show in the exposition of xxxv. I demption and return home, XXXV.
1. THE JUDGMENT ON ALL NATIONS.
CHAPTER XXXIV. 1-4. 1 COME near, ye nations, to hear;
And hearken, ye people:
The world, and all things that come forth of it.
And his fury upon all their armies :
He hath delivered them to the slaughter. 3 Their slain also shall be cast out,
And their stink shall come up out of their carcases,
And the mountains shall be melted with their blood. 4 And all the host of heaven shall be dissolved,
And the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll:
1 Heb. the fulness thereof. • the LORD has wrath on.
or, wilted leaf-follo
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. (For the sake of economy in labor and space . 2, 3. , , . we will omit in this and subsequent chapters the Au- casus absolutus, comp. Ewald, & 309 b. uxa only here in thor's abundant and laborious citations of texts illus- Isaiah. Comp. Joel ii. 20; Amos iv. 10. trative of Isaiah's style, and involving proof of the
(as verb only here in Isaiah), is used Ps. common authorship of parts first and second.
The xxxviii. 6 of a festering wound, in Zech. xiv. 12 of rotAuthor has prepared a comprehensive list of the ral place. In Lev. xxvi. 39; Ezek. xxiv. 23; xxxiii. 10 it
ting flesh, i. e., eyes and tongues rotting in their natuwords and texts concerned in these chapters, which is used in the more general sense of passing away, disappears at the close of the volume and, except where appearing; Isa. iii. 24; v. 24. pp is “that which has the
commentary furnishes additional matter, we shall rotted, mouldered.” Add to this that Ps. coi. 43; refer to that list by the sign see list.—TR.). Job xxiv. 24; Eccles. x. 18, denotes corrucre, collabi; 317
Lev. xxv. 25, 35, 39, 47 means "to collapse, decline, wax Ver. 1. ,
grupo sec list. -O'll occurs poor,” but 19 (Amos ix. 5, 13 ; Ps. Ixv. 11, etc.), diffluere, often in both parts, e.g., i. 4; ii. 4; x. 7; xi. 10; xl. 15; dissolvi. Thus we must recognize as the fundamental xli. 2. The expression 78 599 pas occurs Deut. xxxiii. meaning of this family of words “ decomposition, disso
lution, rotting, mouldering, turning to dust” occasioned 16; Ps. xxiv. 1; Mic. i. 2, and often; in Isaiah only here. by the departure of the spirit of life. But this effect Comp. 18501 D'77 xlii. 10; vi. 3; viii. 8; xxxi. 4.-ban may be variously brought about. Fire, e.g., can pro(comp. on xiii. 11) occurs only in part first.-0'X3X3 duce it in a tree by scorching it. Such
appears the (plur tant.) are ta ékyova, "the products.” The expres
sense here. Thus 2 Pet. iii. 12 oupavoi tupoúpevou avôňsion is based on Gen. i. 12, 24 (79787 XIA). The Pro
govtal seems to me to correspond to our . phet thus does not mean only men, as many, influenced for hay see GREEN'S Gram., 2 140, 2. Niph. only here in by the Lxx, and Chald., hare supposed. The word, Isaiah; Polal. ix. 4.-523 comp. i. 30 ; xxiv. 4; xxviii. being made parallel with 778 517, denotes everything 1,4; xl. 7, 8; Ixiv. 5, especially as regards ska see on that as production of the earth fills it.
xxviii. 1, 4.
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. It is a mighty matter, the concern of all | up, and whole mountains shall run with blood nations that the Prophet has to announce: hence (ver. 3); Yea, the heavens shall roll up as by he summons all to hear his address (ver. 1). For strong heat, and the heavenly bodies shall fail the wrath of the LORD is kindled against all like dry leaves (ver. 4). nations and all that belongs to them. They are 2. Come -fig tree.- Vers. 1-4. The exall to be given up to the slaughter (ver. 2), and pression D'NYX occurs only in Job and Isaiah shall be cast out so that the stench shall mount" (see on xxii. 24). The use nearest like the pre
sent is xlii. 5. In ver. 2 only the nations are | has laid on them His curse or ban (D'7777 zi, mentioned as the object of the judgment. Though 15; xxxvii. 11), and devoted them to slaughter. impersonal nature shares in it, still this is only the On the description ver. 3 comp. xiv. 19; means to an end. Dx33-43, having a similar re- The passages Matt. xxiv. 29; 2 Pet. lii. 7, 10,
xxxvii. 36; lxvi. 24; x. 18; xiii. 7; xix. 1. lation to that of 78383-53 (see Text. and Gram.), 12; Rev. vi, 13, 14 are founded on the present denotes not the host merely, but the host of man text. For that the Prophet has in mind the de kind in general. Already, by virtue of the destruction of the world, is manifest from this cree of wrath determined against them, the LORD I scription comprehending the earth and heavens.
2. THE JUDGMENT ON EDOM, AS REPRESENTATION OF THE WHOLE IN ONE
PARTICULAR EXAMPLE OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO ISRAEL.
CHAPTER XXXIV. 5–15.
5 •For my sword shall be bathed in heaven : Behold, it shall come down
It is made fat with fatness,
And a great slaughter in the land of Idumea.
And the bullocks with the bulls ;
And their dust made fat with fatness.
And the year of recompences for the controversy of Zion. 9 And the streams thercof shall be turned into pitch,
And the dust thereof into brimstone,
And the land thereof shall become burning pitch. 10 It shall not be quenched night nor day ;
The smoke thereof shall go up for ever:
None shall pass through it for ever and ever.
The owl also and the raven shall dwell in it:
And the stones of emptiness.
But none shall be there,
Aud all her princes shall be 'nothing.
Nettles and brambles in the fortresses thereof.
And a court for *bowls. 14 °The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with 'the wild beasts of the island,
And the 'satyr shall cry to his fellow;
And find for herself a place of rest.
And hatch, and gather under her shadow:
8 Or, pelican
1 Or, rhinoceros.
3 Or, drunken. 4 Or, ostriches.
6 Heb. daughters of the owl. 1 Heb. Ijim.
& Or, night monster. . Because my sword has become drunken. • For a day of vengeance has Jchovah. • Its nobles-there are none to proclaim the monarchy. & And its palaccs soar alost in thorns.
shaggy monster.-J. A. A.
the Masoretie form of writing) לנצח נצחים .10
.see dist ,אפס | the sword :מלאה to ליהוה Ver
6. DRECISLEE refers ;מלוכה-.is put absolutely before חֹרֵיק .12
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. Ver. 5. Only by great ingenuity can'y be explained to -76y again only i. 11; xiv. 9.--D 5x again in mean “for.” Hence KNOBEL construes it as pleonastic, Isa. i. 11; lx. 7. nai and neo (verse 3) correspond in connecting the discourse, and appeals, e. 9., to viii. 23.
sense and sound. On na sce list. But there exists a plain causal connection between
Ver. 8. The Plural Dipino occurs only here : comp. vers. 4 and 5, only the res causans is in verse 4 and not in ver. 5. Hence 'g here =“because ” and not - for." the sing. Hos. ix. 7; Mic. vii. 3. — If the pointing ???? Because the sword of God has become drunken in hea is correct, then' is to be coustrued as substantive. ven it comes down to earth (comp. Gen. iii. 14; xxxiii.
For as such it is in the construct state and has given its 11; Exod. i 19, etc.). -7777 (comp. xvi. 9) is direct cau
tone to the governing noun ; then does not stand disative Piel ebrietatem facere, " to produce drunken- rectly before the tone syllable. But if it is a verb, then it ness."
As, e.g., pppvn not only means “ fatten," i. e., has the tone, and 5 in that case receives pretonic kaothers, but also“ make, produce, grow fat," i. e., grow
mets (comp. 2975 iii. 13). As noun means causae fat one's-self, so this verb means not only “make others actio, defensio, in tho same sense as the verb with followdrunk
ing accusative (i. 17; li. 22) is used (comp. xix. 20). (Jer. xxxi. 14; Ps. Ixv. 11), but also “make one's-self drunk."-wovsh=in behoof of accomplish
. ) ( ing judgment; comp. Hab. i. 12; Ezek. xliv. 24 K'ri; 1173) occurs four times; Ps. xlix. 20; 1 Sam. xv. 29; 1 comp. Isa. xli. 1; liv. 17, in another sense Isa. v. 7; Chron. xxix. 11) occurs only here.—2; 1777 see list
. xxxii. 1; xxviii. 26. . , .
. .-; is to the LORD (the Lord has His sword) full of blood. But then it would need to read 7777, as the sword has
Ver. 13. 973 7x comp. xxiii. 13; xxv. 2; xxxii. 14. already been mentioned. Would one translate : “ Jeho
and nin (kindred An xxxvii. 29) OCvah has a sword that is full of blood," that again does cur only here in Isaiah, 722, locus munitus xvii. 3; not suit the previous mention of the sword verse 5, xxv. 12.-17) see list. though this translation would best suit the three other . , , , , , , instances of the use of nins in this section (verses 2, comp. on xiii. 21, 22.75" (= 737, locus septus) oc6,9). The context requires the rendering “the sword curs again in Isaiah only xxxv. 7 (see Comm. in loc.).of the Lord is full of blood.” For verses 6, 7 manifestly | 29 in Isaiah only here.— -JX has here also its retell what the sword, (that ver. 5 was to come on Edom), strictive sense. When GESENIUS (Thes. p. 89) says: that when actually come, has done to Edom. This is inti- the vis restringendi relates non at proximum sed ad semated by describing the sword after the execution.
quens quoddam vocabulum, and translates here accordThus the same sword as ver. 5 is meant. The article is ingly: non nisi spectra ibi habitant, non nisi vultures ibi wanting because 77175 ann, (instead of 1717gan, congregantur, the two statements exclude each other. which occurs only 1 Chron, xxi. 12) seems to be vox 80 For where only spectra dwell, the vulture cannot also lennis, (Jud. vii, 20; Jer. xii. 12; xlvii. 6).-70??? in- dwell, and vice versa. To express that, the 7 must be stead of juin, Hothpaal from por, comp. verso 7; joined to sobe) and 119 (vers. 14, 15). But both times **1. 23; Greex's 'Gram., & 96, Q.-- That ? before D7 it is joined to bŲ. Hence it appears that the Prophet is to be explained according to ii. 6, does not seem pro
would say: only there does the lilith rest, only there bable. Rather it seems that the notion of causality, that does the vulture congregate : i. e., there is no other lies in abno 720977, has passed over to what follows: in another sense ; in xxviii. 12 we had the noun yang
place so suitable for them. -Hiph. 19277 again li. 4 such as was before intimated, the sword has become from the blood of the sacrificial beasts.. again only xvi.
“resting place.” Also Tija “resting place,” only here in Isaiah ; comp. Gen. viii. 9; Lam. i. 3.
,שעיר ,איים ,ציים ,בנות יענה ,תגים .15 ,14 ,13 ,Vers
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. If the Prophet would not deal only in in-1 (xxv. 10 sqq.), it is natural he should give simidefinite generalities in regard to the judginent on lar prominence also to Edom, as he does here and the nations of the earth, he must give promi- Ixiii. 1 sqq. Now, because the sword of Jehovah nence to the case of one nation instar omnium. has already become drunken in heaven with Among neighboring nations Moab, and Edom, blood, it descends to earth, because it finds no and Ammon, were most detested by the Israelites more work above. (comp. Deut. xxiii. 3-6; Ezek. xxxv. 5 s99.;
2. For my sword--of Zion.-Vers. 5–8. Amos i. 11: Obad. 10 sqq.; Ps. cxxxvii. 7, etc.). The relation of this section to what precedes is As Isaiah elsewhere, in a similar connection, this: the Prophet has said (vers. 2, 3), what the mentions the Moabites by way of exemplification LORD purposes to do on earth.
DIN) ver. 2 are to be understood of acts of the ing considerations show that our passage is the will, not of performance: ver. 3 describes pro- source from which Jer. drew. i) The grand, phetically what shall once take place on earth in drastic boldness and loftiness of the language of consequence of that divine decree. Ver. 4 pic- our passage, of which the words of Jer., after the tures the judgment that shall be executed on the fashion of that Prophet, are but a tempered imiheavens, but here the Prophet combines inten- tation. 2) Isaiah uses the expression 1? twice tion and performance. He contemplates the (vers. 5, 7); Jer. says, 777
It is much more judgment of God as beginning in heaven, and likely that Jeremiah would dilute the strong excontinued on earth. [On the construction of '? see Text. and Gram. fashion (see my comm. on Jer. Introd. & 3) than
pression of a predecessor, in his well-known “ It may be construed in its proper sense, either that an author living much later in the exile, with ver. 3 (Hitzig), or with the whole of the should intensify the normal but weaker expression preceding description. All this shall certainly of Jer. 3) Jer. says 1777?1; Isaiah opit oi. lake place for my suord (the speaker being God Now in general ops is the older form of the Himself) is steeped," etc.-J. A. ALEX., in loc.).
The expression is a bold poetic one. Isaiah word, and is used only in Lev. xxvi. 25; Dentspeaks of the sword of the Lord again xxvii. 1; xxxii. 35, 41, 43; Judg. xvi. 28; Ps. lvíii. 11; lxvi. 16. But only liere does he personify it. Prov. vi. 34; Mic. v. 14, and in Isa. (xxxv. 4; He may, as regards the sense, have in mind Deut. xlvii. 3; lix. 17; lxi. 2; lxiii. 4). In the
excepxxxii. 41-43. Inevitable and irresistible are the tions Ezek. xxiv. 8; xxv. 12, 071 Op? is evijudgments of the Lord. This the Prophet expresses by saying that the sword of the Lord, dently said for the sake of the effect of sound; in intoxicated with the judgment accomplished on
Ezek. xxv. 15 the expression opa ?" is used " the host of the high ones that are on high” along with 77777?: On the other hand 777? is (xxiv. 21), and thirsting for more blood, descends the form exclusively used by Jeremiah, and in to earth, and that first on Edom, as the nation Ezekiel it is the prevalent form (the exceptions that above all has become an object of the divine being given above) and beside these is used only ban. (0.??? the segregatio ad internecioncm, 1 here and there (Num. xxxi. 2, 3; Lam. iii. 60; Kings xx. 42; Isa. xliii. 23). Vers. 6, 7 describe Ps. cxlix. 7). But it is not probable that a writer the effects of the execution. The sword of the later than Jeremiah has introduced the old form Lord is not only full of blood, but is fattened, into a passage borrowed from Jeremiah. dropping fat. As in the second clause of ver. 6, 3. And the streams-emptiness.- Vers. the Edomites are regarded as a sacrifice, they
9-11. Edom was situated at the southern point are here compare:l to sheep, goats and rams.
of the Dead Sea. The following description reBozra stands for Edom also lxiii. 1. Concern- calls the pitchy and sulphurous character of this ing this city see on Jer. Ixix, 13.
sea and its surroundings. It seems as if the ProThe enumeration of buffaloes, bullocks and phet would allude to that event which, recorded bulls (ver. 7) denotes that the entire nation shall in Gen. xix. 24, 25, 28, had impressed that chaperish, great and small, high and low. 287 racter on the region. At least the sulphur, the (only here in Isaiah, elsewhere only Num. xxiji: overturning (2017) and the ascending smoke are 22; Deut. xxxiii. 17; Job xxxix. 9 sq.; Ps. xxii. traits that he seems to have borrowed from that 22; xxix. 6; xcii. 11). It is now universally passage.no occurs again only Exod. ii. 3. understood to mean the buffalo (see IIERZ. R.-1993 we had already where xxx. 33 the breath Encycl., XI. p. 23). O'n see on i. 11. 73of God is called "a stream of brimstone." When meaning "bull" occurs only x. 13 K'thibh. 779 the streams are flowing pitch and the dust of the meaning “to fell ” trees, beasts or men, is pecu
land is sulphur, the whole land will become a liar to Isaiah (see xxxii. 19). For Jer. xlviii. fearful place of conflagration. Day and night 15; 1. 27 ; li. 40 the use of the word is not quite (the expression occurs Deut. xxviii. 66, beside the same.
In consequence of the slaughter the comp. Isa. iv. 5: xxi. 8; 1x. 11), forever, for it earth itself is drunk with blood, and fat with fat, is the flame of the last judgment, the burning comp: on vers. 5. 6. The parallelism reigns not shall continue. The burning land is the subject only in these verses, but in the entire complexity of Don which is used intensively also xliii. 17; of vers. 6–8. For the description of the judg- lxvi. 24.–Ver. 10. On 17 as defining time see ment in ver. 6 a. and ver. 7 correspond, and the on xiii. 20. 7195 917 occurs only here. Son reasons assigned ver. 6 b. and ver. 8. But pro- exarcscere
, exsiccari, comp. xix. 5, 6; xliv, 27; lx. gress ppears in the thought because ver. 8 gives particularly the object of the “sacrifice" and the 12. again only lx. 15.
It does not " slaughter." The Lord will thereby satisfy agree well to say of the same land that it shall His vengeance, and give Zion justice by a right- become an everlasting burning, and that it shall eous recompense.
be a pathless desert. But the Prophet describes The expression for the day of the Lord's the future by means of the present, and contemetc., recalls ii. J2 and lxiii. 4. But the Prophet plates the earth as an Edom cursed of God, and seems morcover to have in inind Deut. xxxii. thinks of the latter as a scorched desert land. [The 35, 41. For in those passages, as here, the same may be said of the similarly inconsistent de notions of vengeance and recompense underlie the scriptions in all that follows in this section.discourse.
TP.]. But beside this, our passage lay before Jere Ver. 11. As such the land is inhabited only by miah. I'or Jer. xlvi. 10 is penetrated with ele- beasts of the desert. [On the names of beings ments drawn from Jsa. xxxiv. 5-8. The follow- l enumerated in this and the following verses see