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justify that bold speech. It does not stand out- , So Isaiah would even prelude with two addresses, side by the gate, offering itself at once to every of which the first has an undertone of threatening profane eye, but one must first pass through two with which it begins and ends, while the element other portals, by which the mind is prepared and of promise is represented only by intermediate translated into that sentiment which is necessary chords,—the second, however, has promise for in order to understand and appreciate that ex- undertone, for this is represented by the two funalted vision, and the part that Isaiah plays in it. damental prophetic lights (ii. 2-4, and iv. 2-6) Jeremiah and Ezekiel were not sensible of the in the second introduction. Second : It seems to necessity of preparing in this way for the repre me also that the three portals are demanded by sentation of their calling, because they behaved the architectonic symmetry. On the assumption in respect to the divine calling in quite a normal that these introductions have Isaiah himself for way, i. e., declining it. The one, Jeremiah, de their author, which so far as I know has never clined in express terms Jer. j. 6; the other, at been disputed, we have therein a strong presumpleast by silence, let himself be so understood, tion in favor of the composition of the whole book Ezek. ii. 8.
by Isaiah (therefore also the second part, xl.But why does Isaiah let two doctrinary intro- lxvi.). For a small building one entry is suffiductions, if I may so call them, precede the his- cient. A great, comprehensive, complex buildtorical one, whereas Jeremiah follows his histori ing, however, that pretends to artistic completecal introduction by only one doctrinary one, Jer. ness, may very well require various graded ii ? I believe this has a double reason. First: approaches that the introduction to the chief threatening and promise form the chief contents building may stand in right proportion. Thus of Isaiah's prophecy, as of all prophecy. In the book of Jeremiah has a twofold introduction, every single prophetic address one or the other but the book of Isaiah, which is still grander, and ever preponderates. Either threatening forms more comprehensive, and altogether more artistic the warp and promise the woof, or the reverse. even down to minutiæ, has a threefold entrance.
A. THE FIRST INTRODUCTION.
CHAPTER I. As regards the time of the composition of this, time, than in that of Ahaz. For Isaiah undersection, it seems to me all depends on the questook the collection of his book certainly not in tion: was Isaiah prompted to utter this prophecy the midst of his ministry, but at the close of it. by a definite historical transaction that demands Moreover what is said in 2 Kings xviii. 13, and his prophetic guidance? No such transaction xix. 32, fits admirably the description of chap. i. appears. Expositors on the contrary recognize 7, 8. For in the first-named place it is said Senthe chapter to be of a general character. Comp. nacherib took all the fenced cities of Judah, the complete proof in DRECHSLER I. p. 93 sq. which quite corresponds to on nigg bo'? i. If, therefore, the address was not composed for a definite historical event, according to which it 7. In the second-named place, however, we read: must be understood ; if it is rather meant to be “The king of Assyria shall not come into this only an introduction to the whole book, then the city, nor shoot an arrow there, nor come before time of its origin is in itself a matter of indiffer- it with shield, nor cast a bank against it.” This ence. Bui it is probable that Isaiah wrote the corresponds to the specific situation in which, acaddress at the time he began to put his book to cording to chap. i. 7, Jerusalem must have been. gether, or when he had completed it. This does We say, therefore, chap. i. was written at the not exclude the possibility that some important time of Sennacherib's invasion. We know this events are reflected in the address. And such is from vers. 7 and 8, but do not assert that chap. really the case.
The verses 7-9 and especially was written for that time, but regard the historiver. 8, are so specific in their contents that one cal trait that points us to this time only as a proof must say : the prophet describes here his personal of the charge that the prophet raiscs against the experience, and in fact a present one (comp. the Israel of all times. The prophet adduces this exposition).
proof from the present, because the conduct of the Now, during Isaiah's life time. Jerusalem was people during and after the invasion of Sennacheonly twice hard pressed by enemies in its imme- rib could be regarded as a characteristic symptom diate neighborhood: once in the war with Syria of a stiffneckedness that was not to be subdued by and Ephraim (2 Kings xvi. 5); the other time any blows. Moreover the vain ceremonial ser by Sennacherib (2 Kings xviii., xix.). If, then. vice spoken of in ver. 10 sqq. would suit the times chap. i. was written as a preface, it is by far the of Hezekiah. But I lay no stress on that, since most probable that it was written in Hezekiah’s 'there is nothing specific about it. If the prophet
warns against such ceremonial service, and ex- | the second introduction see above the general rehorts to sincere repentance; if, further, to the marks on the threefold introduction. The analy. purified Israel he holds up the prospect of a glo- sis of the chapter is as follows: rious future, while, to those persevering in their 1. The Title, i. 1. apostacy from Jehovah, he displays a frightful 2. The mournful present, i. 2-9. one, it is not that he speaks of a specific occasion ; 3 The means to securing a better future, i. but that, like the whole book, has regard to all 10-20. times; even primitive time may be reflected in 4. Comprehensive review of the past, present the language.
and future, i. 21-31. Concerning the difference between this first and
1. THE TITLE.
CHAP. I. 1. 1 The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, Kings of Judah.
דִּבְרֵי אֲשֶׁר חָזָה ;1
.Isa . ii הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר חָזָה is the proper word for | pressions חזה .אשׁר חזה .1.Ver
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL.
. 1; prophetic seeing in the double sense named below; Amos i. 1; 7in 70x12.7 Mic. i. 1; 7int 108 xwa, whence 77in is used synonymously with X', 7799 Isa. xiii. 1; Hab. i. 1. These are the only places where (1 Sam. ix. 9; 2 Kings xvii. 13). Thence also the ex
min occurs as part of a superscription.
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. We must consider this title in reference to TRINGA, that in chap. ii. 1 a superscription of three things, viz., in its relation to chap. i. and to almost the same sound recurs; and he would infer chap. ii., where a title essentially like this recurs, from it that originally in this title the date (??? and to the entire collection. That the superscrip- 121 “in the days of”) was wanting, and the retion belongs to the entire collection, is evident at maining words were only a title to the first chaponce from the words, “in the days of Uzziah, Jo. ter. Against this the following is to be rememtham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.” bered: 1) The two superscriptions are not quite That the title is comprehensive enough to apply alike. In this one we have flim; in chap. ii. 1 to the entire book is clear when we consider that pion" the vision” has a collective meaning, (comp; port. It is better fitted, therefore, for the begin
7777. — Viņi is plainly a word of weightier imHos
. xii. 10; Ezek. vii. 26 ; Lam. ii. 9, etc.), and ning of the book, and in a certain measure for its that Judah and Jerusalem represent the centre of title; wherefore we see (2 Chron. xxxii. 32), that the prophetic view, around which also the pro- the book even at that time was known under that phecies that relate to Ephraim and the world po- title. 2) That a superscription almost alike octentates are grouped as radii servi. In this con
curs twice, has its reason in the fact that chap. ii. Dection CASPARI says very appropriately: "Je- 1 is the title of the second introduction. For the rusalein, Judah, Israel, are, from Isa. vii. on, the book of Isaiah has a threefold portal, as said centre of prophecy in such a way that they form above; and that the superscription
"vision or three concentric circles, of which Jerusalern is word that Isaiah saw concerning Judah and Jethe smallest, Jerusalem and Judah the wider, rusalem” occurs only i. 1, and ii. 2, and not again while Jerusalem, Judah and Israel is the widest. afterwards, is precisely proof
, that with chap. ii. To these three the heathen world joins on as a we enter the second portal which comprehends fourth circle.” (Beitr. 2. Einleit. in d. B. Jes., p. chapters ii.--v. 231 sq.). Therefore both print and “concerning Finally, as regards the relation of this superJudah and Jerusalem” make a denominatio a scription to chap. i., we may fittingly say that the potiori. The first, because prophetic sight, in the entire ver. 1, date included, is the title of chap. double sense of more or less bodily vision, (comp. i. For chap. i. is just the whole prophecy of chap. vi.) and of pure spiritual knowing, gave Isaiah in nuce, as he delivered it under the four origin to the nucleus of the book, so that about kings; an assertion whose correctness can only this nucleus doctrine, warning, comfort and his appear indeed as the result of exposition. tory should find their place. The latter because,
At the beginning of prophetic books as here as has already been remarked, Judah and Jeru- we find piiņ Obad. 1, Nah. i. 1.-Isaiah the salem must be regarded as those to whom the son of Amoz. For the meaning of the name prophet speaks first of all, and for whose sake he and the lineage of the prophet see the Introducspeaks of others.
tion.- Concerning Judah and Jerusalem. Bat it has seemed strange, especially to Ví. Jerusalem, as the holy city and centre of the
theocracy is made equal to the entire region of found beside chap. ii. 1, also iii. 1, 8; v. 3. BeJudah, and distinguished from it, which also hap- side this only in xxii. 21; xxxvi. 7; xliv. 26. pens elsewhere; Jer. xi 2; xvii. 20, etc. ; 2 Kings Comp. remarks at ii. 1. - In the days of, etc. xviii. 22, etc. ; 2 Chron. xxxiv. 3, 5, etc.; and in That Isaiah lived and labored under these four a reversed order, Jer. xxxvi. 31; 2 Kings xxiv. 1 kings cannot be doubted. Comp. the Introduc20; Ezra ii. 1. We have already remarked that tion. The time designated is identical with that the naming of Judah and Jerusalem presents no given Hos. i. 1, and with that in Mic. i. 1, only incongruity between the superscription and the that in the latter the name of Uzziah is wanting. whole book. It is worthy of special remark, that Even the asyndeton and the form 177pin instead only in chap. ii. 1 beside this does the expression form part of the title, and that it occurs in chap. of 1177??? (about which comp. DRECHSLER in loc.) ii.—v. relatively with most frequency. For it is are to be found in both the places named.
2. THE MOURNFUL PRESENT.
CHAPTER I. 2-9.
2 Hear, O heavens, and give ear, 0 earth :
For the LORD "hath spoken,
And they have rebelled against me, 3 The ox knoweth his owner,
And the ass his master's crib:
My people doth not consider.
A seed of evil-doers, children that are corrupters :
They are 'gone away backward.
Ye will 'revolt more and more:
"The whole head is sick, and the whole heart faint.
But wounds, and bruises, and putrifying sores :
Neither mollified with 'ointment.
Your cities are burned with fire:
And it is desolate, 'as 'overthrown by strangers.
As 'a lodge in a garden of cucumbers,
As a besieged city.
We should have been as Sodom,
8 Heb. increase revolt.
1 Heb. of heaviness.
a Sodom of strangers
2 Heb. alienated, or, separated.
Every head, every heart.
• Not pressed out.
עֲרַל along with עֲרֵל like בְּבַד along with כָּבֵר | ;8 .is found Joel ii ,כִּי י רְבֵּר er
is found in Isaiah כּי פי " דבר more extended_form
בָּנִים בֶּחָשִׁים לֹא אָבוּ שְׁמוֹעַ ;1
,גדלתי is taken as meaning just the same as רוֹבָכתִּי
• T: IT
TEXTUAL AND GPAMMATICAL.
only Cad. 18; Mic. iv. 4; Jer. xiii. 15. Beside these, in here).--ANNOS is not one who destroys anIsaiah partly in the simple form as here (xxii. 25; xxv. other, but one that acts ruinously (direct causative Hi8), partly somewhat extended (xxi. 17; xxiv. 3). The phil, 2 Chr. xxvii. 2). The expression is partly stronger,
partly more general than the kindred ones: D'ID " only, i. 20, and xl. 5; lriii. 14. —57) is often used by
. 1; Isaiah especially, for bringing up children, xxiii. 4;
xxx. 9. propio d'ya Jer. iii. 14, 22; iv. 22. Comp. ?
Isa. Ixiii. 8. We see that this form of I'x. 21; li. 18; comp. xliv. 14; Hos. ix. 12 It is to
expression is especially current with Isaiah, for, ex. be seen from the exposition that we take 'nopin in an
cepting the phrase just quoted from Jeremiah, it is to emphatic sense. Although elsewhere (xxiii. 4; Ezek.
be found in no other prophet. xxxi. 1) it means the same as 171, yet our construction
Ver. 5. 770, ver. 5, declinatio, defectus only in Deut. (which is found in LUTHER, KNOBEL, et al.) is justified xiii. 6; xix. 16; Jer. xxviii. 16; xxix. 32 and Isa. xiv. 6; here because y317 does not stand in a parallel phrase xxxi. 6; lix. 13. —- It is true that without the arto 572, but follows with epexegetical emphasis. For if ticle sometimes has the meaning of “whole" (ix. 11;
Ezek. xxix. 7 ; xxxvi. 5; 2 Kings xxiii. 3; see Delitzsch
in loc.; EWALD $ 290, c). But a comparison of these pas. it would be empty repetition. Besides, VITRINGA refers
sages shows that the expressions in question are partly appropriately to Deut. xxxii. 6. (Ezek. xxxi. 4. The proverbial, (see Drechsler in loc.) partly do not admit same words occur: Children I have made great and set of the meaning “all" in any wise. In the present case on kinh.-M. W.J.]
both meanings are in themselves possible. If, then, the Ver. 3. 72p properly “the buyer,” (comp. xxiv. 2) prophet would convey the meaning “whole,” he must then, the owner, the possessor," (Lev. xxv. 50; Zech.
use the article. Sob must, any way, be regarded as de*1.5). D:X is found only in Job xxxix. 9; Prov. xiv. 4, pendent on 1777 understood. But it is doubtful whether beside this place. From these places it is not evident that is to be taken in the sense of " belongs, is fallen to," whether ** stall" or "crib" is the correct meaning. As
or as meaning "is become.” The latter is the more little decisive is the root meaning "fatten
” (1 Kings
probable, because hos 77'n bears analogy to expres5.3, (Eng. Bib. iv. 23), Prov. xv. 17). Still in the later Hchrew, which uses the word for the platter of the la-sions like 1425, 025*17'n." It is a strong expression, horer (see Buxtorf Lex., p. 16. Gesenius and DELITZSCH stronger than is then to be taken as abin loc.) the meaning "crib” seems to prevail. The
stractum pro concreto. Apart from this concrete mean. earlicst versions, moreover, all give this rendering. The context demands that the object of yr and ing of the word, we may compare the construction of
. 9 () one take the words absolutely (RosenmuellER, Fuerst) and xviii. 17 (Sun-ya? 4-77). -7 . then the two members of the comparison do not harmo- 97 25 is found also Jer. viii. 18, and Lam. i. 22. 17 pize. Just what ox and ass do notice, Israel does not
does not occur again in Isaiah. notice. 2012.77 is used as verb. trans. by Isaiah, also aliii. 13; lii. 15. As substantially parallel we may com
. pire (Jer. viii. 7.)
only here. Every where else it reads 1777 TY!, (Deut. Ver. 4. 017 (frequent in Isaiah, also in the 2d part;
xxviii. 35; 2 Sam. xiv. 25; Job ii. 7).-13 g'X. We would xlv. 7.10; 1v.1; he uses it twenty-one times, whereas expect ,
as in ver. 5. But such changes in person in the rest of the prophets it occurs twenty-eight times; and number occur frequently in Hebrew, comp. xvii. for it is only fowd in the prophetic books, with the exception of 1 Kings xili. 30) is distinguished from is 13; Ps. v. 10.-on? integrum, sanum, is found beside
(from in that the latter is more substantive. the former more only Jud. xx. 48; Ps. xxxviii. 4, 8. —-33 adverb. Hence it is that 'ix, with few exceptions (Num. is fissura, a wound that comes from tear or seratch; xxiv. 23; Ezek. xxiv. 6, 9) has ” after it, whereas in found in Isaiah only hero. 77729n (joined to 1939, also is followed by ” only Ezek. xiii
. 18, and by by, Ezek. Prov. xx. 30) is “ the extravasated stripe or swelling," xili. 3; Jer. 1. 27, and by S, Jer. xlviii. 1; everywhere (sco Delitzsch in loc.); only here in Isaiah. 1790 npr else (e. g. 1 Kings xiii. 30; 1ša v. 8, 11, etc.) it is used on from 7779 - 750 recens fuit, found beside only without a connecting proposition. "177 therefore has in Jud. xv. 15) is the raw wound of a cut. 1; with ac. more the character of a prepositive exclamation, though cented penult cannot be derived from 777 dispersit : in regard to the meaning no essential difference is nor can it be the same as ; in Ps. lviii. 4. "It is either noticeable. It is taken for granted that an intentional
an intensive form analogous to 103, 173, 1 Sam. xiv. paronomasia influenced the selection of the word '90. On the other hand it is clear that a synonym of Dy was 29 ; 120, Num. xxiv.5; Song of S. iv. 10; or an archaic meant, as after this ya?? and d'un correspond to one passive form from 747 (comp. 104, Job xxiv. 24). The another.
latter seems to me likely for 7777777, Isa. lix. 5, “tho ° " guilt-encumbered.” Rogarding the meaning, comp. Gen. xiii. 2; Exod. iv. 10; squeezed, crushed" (egg), 799 (the foot shall crush Ezek. iii. 5, 6; regarding the form (the construct-form, it, Job xxxix. 15) 7999 (he squeezed out the fleece, Jud.
is found מכף רגל ועד ראש Ver
THE PROPHET ISAIAH.
vi. 38), as well as the substantive no compressio, com
that the first word is used only in reference to the prcssum, vulnus, (Jer. xxx. 13; Hos. v. 13) prove that
struction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the meaning of
cannot be doubtful. Fro there is a root 747 with the meaning “press together” xxix. 22 (23) we find the words cited in Amos iv. 11, 2
the original passage, De (comp. 973), to which then our 1971 would serve as a in Isa. xiii. 19 and Jer. 1. 40 exactly alike. In Jer. x passive, like 1994 to 019; comp. GESENIUS Thesaur., p. 18 we find them as in Deut. 412.
Ver. 8. 9-na niniji, The 1 here is not conversive dan in Isaiah beside this iii. 7 ; xxx. 26; Ixi.
but simple conjunctive, as the whole context proves, 1.- The first two verbs are in the plural, which
which is only a representation of things present shows that the substantives are to be understood col
from lectively: the third verb is fem. singular. No gram
“to weave together," the lair of the malical necessity appears for this. It seems as if the
lion as well as the foliage of the feast of tabernacles, prophet wanted to vary the form of expression and the
Lev. xxiii. 94 sqq., or the booth of the watchman, Job fem. sing. with its quality of taking a neuter construc xxvii, 18; found again Isa. iv. 6.tion offered the handle for it. Pual
of porno locus pernoetandi, night lodging x: 20, is used here; Kal of it is found Isa. vii. 4.
xxiv. 20, for the watchman's sleeping rug, that swings Ver. 7. 7990 occurs in Isa. also vi. 11 ; xvii. 9; Ixii. to and fro, having been hung up and spread out.4; Ixiv. 9. The expression wx niang (Ps. Ixxx. 17) is up?, from xp? cucumis, “ field of cucumbers," found only found here.- --The following iipowa does not also only Jer. x. 5. a ,
Ver. 9. The expression training namin as to its meanought not to be absent. But it is itself subject, to which ing, is borrowed from the usus loquendi of the Penta
teuch and Joshua. Only there it always reads, 78077 7707 must be supplied. The last, then, has the words Dr nonpa ns attribute. These last-named words 7'70, Num. xxi. 35 ; Deut. ii. 34; iii. 3; Josh. viii. 22; are explained quite variously. But as it is established
x. 25 sq.–Jer. xliv. 7 reversed ning nenin.
היא for then ,אדמתכם belong as a second predicate to
האזינוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאדבֵּרָה וְתִשְׁמַע הָאָרֶץ :it reads
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The prophet first introduces Jehovah Him As Isaiah begins his book of prophecy with self speaking, (vers. 2, 3). He calls heaven and almost the words of Deut. xxxii. i, he indicates earth to witness in order to enhance His lament that he had that prophetic song before his eyes, over the people Israel. For His beneficence the which, with DELITZSCH, may be called, "the Lord had only a harvest of disobedience, (ver. 2). compendious outline and the common key to all The ox and ass are attached to their lord. Is- prophecy." He does not indeed quote verbatim, rael is not, (ver. 3). Therefore the prophet pro- for the predicates 1?? and you are transposed nounces a war against the people that had forsaken the best and the greatest Lord, the Holy (comp., too, chap. xxviii. 23 ; xxxii. 9). But One of Israel, (ver. 4). Had the Lord been want the thought is the same. The same is true in re. ing in discipline? No. He had chastised the gard to the causal phrase, 197 2. In Deut. people so much, that for the future He hopes for nothing more from that. Israel is (inwardly,
: 7 ? morally) incurably sick, vers. (5, 6). While out
D'APR. What Isaiah assigns as the reason, is wardly' (from the chastisement) it is reduced to a in Deut. designated as object and effect. The minimum, (vers. 7, 8). Thus far, (directly and difference is substantially a formal one. Jehovah indirectly) the address of Jehovah. In the last is indeed Father of all men and all creatures. verse, (9), the prophet himself confirms the fact, He is even called (Num. xvi. 22; xxvii. 16) that still a little remnant exists on which to build “God of the spirits of all flesh ;" and Ps. cxlv. 15 the hope of a better future.
sq.-comp. civ. 27 sqq.—we read that the eyes of 2. Hear heaven-do not consider it, all wait on the Lord, and that He fills everything vers. 2, 3. When the Lord of the world speaks, the that lives with satisfaction (comp. Rom. iii. 29; world 'must hear in silence. Comp. Deut. xxxii. ix. 24 sqq.; x. 12 sqq.). But among the many 1; Ps. I. 1, 4; Mic. i. 2; vi. 1, 2. But here, as children that He has, there is one race that he elsewhere, (Derit. iv. 26; xxx. 19; xxxi. 28; Ps. has not only brought up to maturity, but has ele1. 4) the world is not invoked as simply an audi, vated to high honor. The Lord did not suffer all ence, but as a witness, before whom the Lord peoples to attain the grown-up state; or rather, would make good His claim of right. For it not all sons of the original Father, became the concerns a matter of universal interest. The fathers of nations. But to Abraham precisely this world must react with Jehovah against Israel's was granted as the first promise : “I will make infraction of law, that the '.?.'.?, foundations at thee a great nation," Gen. xii. 2; and, “ Unto of the earth, Ps. lxxxii. 5, may not totter. At the thy seed have I given this land, from the river of same time one must assent to ihe remark of DE- Egypt, unto the great river, the river Euphrates," LITZSCH : "heaven and earth were present and Gen. xv. 18. And this promise was fulfilled. participants when Jehovah gave His people thelaw Abraham's seed became a great and numerous (comp. Deut. iv. 36, and the places cited above) people. But this people also were the recipients -so then must they hear and witness what Jeho- of high honor. For it is the holy nation, Deut. vii. vah, their Creator and Israel's God, has to say and 6, to whom the Lord drew near and revealed Himcomplain of,” (after seven centuries.- M. W.J.] self in an especial manner, · Deut. iv. 6 sqq.;