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justify that bold speech. It does not stand outside by the gate, offering itself at once to every profane eye, but one must first pass through two other portals, by which the mind is prepared and translated into that sentiment which is necessary in order to understand and appreciate that exalted vision, and the part that Isaiah plays in it. Jeremiah and Ezekiel were not sensible of the necessity of preparing in this way for the representation of their calling, because they behaved in respect to the divine calling in quite a normal way, i.e., declining it. The one, Jeremiah, declined in express terms Jer. i. 6; the other, at least by silence, let himself be so understood, Ezek. ii. 8. But why does Isaiah let two doctrinary introductions, if I may so call them, precede the historical one, whereas Jeremiah follows his histori. cal introduction by only one doctrinary one, Jer. ii ? I believe this has a double reason. First: threatening and promise form the chief contents of Isaiah's prophecy, as of all prophecy. In every single prophetic address one or the other ever preponderates. Either threatening forms the warp and promise the woof, or the reverse.

So Isaiah would even prelude with two addresses, of which the first has an undertone of threatening with which it begins and ends, while the element of promise is represented only by intermediate chords,-the second, however, has promise for undertone, for this is represented by the two fundamental prophetic lights (ii. 2-4, and iv. 2–6) in the second introduction. Second: It seems to me also that the three portals are demanded by the architectonic symmetry. On the assumption that these introductions have Isaiah himself for their author, which so far as I know has never been disputed, we have therein a strong presumption in favor of the composition of the .. book by Isaiah (therefore also the second part, xl.lxvi.). For a small building one entry is suffiçient. A great, comprehensive, complex building, however, that pretends to artistic completeness, may very well, require various graded approaches that the introduction to the chief building may stand in right proportion. Thus the book of Jeremiah has a twofold introduction

but the book of Isaiah, which is still grander, and more comprehensive, and altogether more artistic even down to minutiae, has a threefold entrance.

A. THE FIRST INTRODUCTION.

CHAPTER I.

As regards the time of the composition of this section, it seems to me all depends on the question: was Isaiah prompted to utter this prophec by a definite historical transaction that demands his prophetic guidance? No such transaction appears. Expositors on the contrary recognize the chapter to be of a general character. Comp. the complete proof in DRECHSLER I. p. 93 sq. If, therefore, the address was not composed for a definite historical event, according to which it must be understood; if it is rather meant to be only an introduction to the whole book, then the time of its origin is in itself a matter of indifference. But it is probable that Isaiah wrote the address at the time he began to put his book together, or when he had completed it. This does not exclude the possibility that some important events are reflected in the address. And such is really the case. The verses 7–9 and especially ver. 8, are so specific in their contents that one must say: the prophet describes here his personal experience, and in fact a present one (comp. the exposition).

Now, during Isaiah's life time. Jerusalem was only twice hard pressed by enemies in its immediate neighborhood; once in the war with Syria and Ephraim (2 Kings xvi. 5); the other time by Sennacherib (2 Kings xviii., xix.). If then, chap. i. was written as a preface, it is by for the most probable that it was written in Hezekiah's

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7. In the second-named place, however, we read: “The king of Assyria shall not come into this city, nor shoot an arrow there, nor come before it with shield, nor cast a bank against it.” This corresponds to the specific situation in which, according to chap. i. 7, Jerusalem must have been. We say, therefore, chap. i. was written at the time of Sennacherib's invasion. We know this from vers. 7 and 8, but do not assert that chap. i. was written for that time, but regard the historical trait that points us to this time only as a proof of the charge that the prophet raiscs against the Israel of all times. }. prophet adduces this proof from the present, because the conduct of the people during and after the invasion of Sennacherib could be regarded as a characteristic symptom of a stiffneckedness that was not to be subdued by any blows. Moreover the vain ceremonial service spoken of in ver. 10 sqq. would suit the times of Hezekiah. But I lay no stress on that, since there is nothing specific about it. If the prophet The analy

warns against such ceremonial service, and ex-) the second introduction see above the general re

horts to sincere repentance; if, further, to the marks on the threefold introduction.

purified Israel he holds up the prospect of a glo- sis of the chapter is as follows:

rious future, while, to those persevering in their apostacy from Jehovah, he displays a frightful one, it is not that he speaks of a specific occasion; but that, like the whole book, has regard to all times: even primitive time may be reflected in the language. Concerning the difference between this first and

1. The Title, i. 1.

2. The mournful present, i. 2-9.

3 The means to securing a better future, i. 10–20.

4. Comprehensive review of the past, present and future, i. 21–31.

1. THE TITLE. w
CHAP. I. 1.

1

The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Je

rusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, Kings of Judah.

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We must consider this title in reference to three things, viz., in its relation to chap. i. and to chap. ii., where a title essentially like this recurs, and to the entire collection. That the superscription belongs to the entire collection, is evident at once from the words, “in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.” That the title is comprehensive enough to apply to the entire book is clear when we consider that

min “the vision ” has a collective meaning, (comp.

Hos. xii. 10; Ezek. vii. 26; Lam. ii. 9, etc.), and that Judah and Jerusalem represent the centre of the prophetic view, around, which also the prophecies that relate to Ephraim and the world potentates are grouped as radii servi. In this connection CAsPARI says very appropriately: “Jerusalein, Judah, Israel, are, from }. vii. on, the centre of prophecy in such a way that they form three concentric circles, of which Jerusalem is the smallest, Jerusalem and Judah the wider, while Jerusalem, Judah and Israel is the widest. To these three the heathen world joins on as a fourth circle.” (Beitr. 2. Einleit. in d. B. Jes., p.

231 sq.). Therefore both pin and “concerning

Judah and Jerusalem” make a denominatio a 3. The first, because prophetic sight, in the ouble sense of more or less bodily vision, chap. vi.) and of pure spiritual knowing, gave origin to the nucleus of the book, so that about this nucleus doctrine, warning, comfort and history should find their place. The latter because, as has already been remarked, Judah and Jerusalem must be regarded as those to whom the prophet speaks first of all, and for whose sake he speaks of others.

(comp.

TRINGA, that in chap. ii. 1 a superscription of almost the same sound recurs; and he would infer from it that originally in this title the date ("2"3

11) “in the days of") was wanting, and the remaining words were only a title to the first chapter. Against this the following is to be remembered: 1) The two superscriptions are not quite alike. In this one we have oil); in chap. ii. 1

on-oin is plainly a word of weightier import. It is better fitted, therefore, for the beginning of the book, and in a certain measure for its title; wherefore we see (2 Chron. xxxii. 32), that the book even at that time was known under that title. 2) That a superscription almost alike occurs twice, has its reason in the fact that chap. ii. 1 is the title of the second introduction. For the book of Isaiah has a threefold portal, as said above; and that the superscription “vision or word that Isaiah saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem ’’ occurs only i. 1, and ii. 2, and not again afterwards, is precisely proof, that with chap. ii. we enter the second portal which comprehends chapters ii.-v. Finally, as regards the relation of this superscription to chap. i., we may fittingly say that the entire ver. 1, date included, is the title of chap. i. For chap. i. is just the whole prophecy of Isaiah in nuce, as he delivered it under the four kings; an assertion whose correctness can only appear indeed as the result of exposition. At the beginning of prophetic books as here we find in Obad. 1, Nah. i. 1–Isaiah the

son of Amoz. For the meaning of the name

and the lineage of the prophet see the Introduction.—Concerning Judah and Jerusalem. theocracy is made equal to the entire region of Judah, and distinguished from it, which also happens elsewhere; Jer. xi 2; xvii. 20, etc.; 2 Kings xviii. 22, etc.; 2 Chron. xxxiv. 3, 5, etc.; and in a reversed order, Jer. xxxvi. 31; 2 Kings xxiv. 20; Ezra ii. 1. We have already remarked that the naming of Judah and Jerusalem presents no incongruity between the superscription and the whole book. It is worthy of special remark, that only in chap. ii. 1 beside this does the expression form part of the title, and that it occurs in chap. ii.-v. relatively with most frequency. For it is vi. 38), as well as the substantive nitro compressio, comr pressum, vulnus, (Jer. xxx. 13; Hos. v. 13) prove that there is a root n}} with the meaning “press together" (comp. ox), to which then our in would serve as a - r passive, like '5" to Do" ; comp. GEsenius Thesaur., p. 412. tion in Isaiah beside this iii. 7 ; xxx. 26; lxi. 1. The first two verbs are in the plural, which shows that the substantives are to be understood collectively: the third verb is fem. singular. No grammatical necessity appears for this. It seems as if the prophet wanted to vary the form of expression and the sem. sing. with its quality of taking a neuter construction offered the handle for it. Pual |2) only found here; Kal of it is found Isa. vii. 4. Ver. 7. Topto occurs in Isa. also vi. 11; xvii. 9; lxii. T r : 4; lxiv. 9. The expression t’s nis)"ty (Ps. lxxx. 17) is only found here.——The following rippus, does not r r + belong as a second predicate to DEnronx, for then N'T ought not to be absent. But it is itself subject, to which Tin"Ti must be supplied. The last, then, has the words T : , r poli n>] To as attribute. These last-named words • r - ... : - ; are explained quite variously. But as it is established

But it has seemed strange, especially to VI- Jerusalem, as the holy city and centre of the

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found beside chap. ii. 1, also iii. 1, 8; v. 3. Beside this only in xxii. 21; xxxvi. 7; xliv. 26. Comp. remarks at ii. 1.-In the days of, etc. That Isaiah lived and labored under these four kings cannot be doubted. Comp. the Introduction. The time designated is identical with that given Hos. i. 1, and with that in Mic. i. 1, only that in the latter the name of Uzziah is wanting. Even the asymdeton and the form on Pin, instead of T.P.T. (about which comp. DRECHSLER in loc.) are to be found in both the places named.

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"The whole head is sick, and the whole heart faint. 6 From the sole of the foot even unto the head there is no soundness in it;

But wounds, and bruises, and putrifying sores:

“They have not been closed, neither bound up,

Neither mollified with ‘ointment. 7 Your country is desolate, Your cities are burned with fire:

Your land, strangers devour it in your presence,

And it is desolate, "as "overthrown by strangers. 8 And the daughter of Zion is left as a “cottage in a vineyard,

As a lodge in a garden of cucumbers,

As a besieged city.

9 Except the Lord of hosts had left unto us a very small remnant,

We should have been as Sodom,

And we should have been like unto Gomorrah.

1 Heb. of heaviness.
* Or, oil.
* Speaks.

* a Sodom of strangers a booth.

2 Heb. alienated, or, separated.
5 Heb. as the overthrow of strangers.

b Every head, every heart.

8 Heb. increase revolt.

Not pressed out. * a hanging mat.

xx

pe TEXTUAL AND threr. 2. The formula n2", " "B, is found Joel iii. 8; Coal is; Mic. iv. 4; jer. xiii. 15. Beside these, in Isaiah partly in the simple form as here (xxii. 25; xxv. s), partly somewhat extended (xxi. 17; xxiv. 3). The more extended form -37 - "a *::) is found in Isaiah only. i. 20, and xi. 5; iv.iii. i.-57, is often used by Isaiah especially, for bringing up children, xxiii. 4; xlix. 21; li. 18; comp. xliv. 14; Hos. ix. 12 It is to be seen from the exoosition that we take "nonin in an emphatic sense. - 4; Ezek. xxxi. 4) it means the same as bu. yet our construction

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beside this place. From these places it is not evident whether “stall" or “crib" is the correct meaning. As little decisive is the root meaning “fatten " (1 Kings v. 3, (Eng. Dio. iv. 23), Prov. xv. 17). Still in the later Hebrew, which uses the word for the platter of the laborer (see Buxton F Ler., p. 16. GEs ENIUs and DELItzsch in 12-.) the meaning “crib" seems to prevail. The earliest versions, moreover, all give this rendering. The context demands that the object of Jon and 1:2nn be supplied from what precedes. For would one take the words absolutely (RoseNMUELLER, Fu ERst) then the two members of the comparison do not harmonize. Just what ox and ass do notice, Israel does not notice. 12Y-Inn is used as verb. trans. by Isaiah, also xiii. 18; lii. 15. As substantially parallel we may compare (Jer. viii. 7.) wer. 4. "in (frequent in Isaiah, also in the 2d part; riv. o. 10; Iv. 1; he uses it twenty-one times, whereas in the rest of the prophets it occurs twenty-eight times; for it is only found in the prophetic books, with the exception of 1 Kings xiii.30) is distinguished from ox in that the latter is more substantive, the former more adverb. Hence it is that "ix, with few exceptions (Num. xxiv. 23; Ezek. xxiv. 6, 9) has % after it, whereas on is followed by h only Ezek. xiii. 18, and by hy, Ezek. : - xiii. 3; Jer. I. 27, and by ‘s. Jer. xlviii. 1; everywhere else (e.g. 1 Kings xiii.30; Isa. v. 8, 11, etc.) it is used without a connecting proposition. "Yin therefore has more the character of a prepositive exclamation, thou in regard to the meaning no essential difference is noticeable. It is taken for granted that an intentional paronomasia influenced the selection of the word *)). of the other hand it is clear that a synonym of by was meant, as after this yol and D'Je correspond to one - - “.. • r sy T22 is “guilt-encumbered.” Regarding the meaning, comp. Gen. xiii. 2; Exod. iv. 10; Ezek. iii. 5, 6; regarding the form (the construct-form,

another.

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that the first word is used onlv in reference to the struction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the meaning o cannot be doubtful. From the original passage, D xxix. 22 (23) we find the words cited in Amos iv. 11, in Isa. xiii. 19 and Jer. l. 40 exactly alike. In Jer. xoc18 we find them as in Deut.

Ver. 8. (x-ni, Ton).]], The here is not conversive but simple conjunctive, as the whole context proves, which is only a representation of things present—— n25 from pp, “to weave together,” the lair of the lion as well as the foliage of the feast of tabernacles, Lev. xxiii. 34 sqq., or the booth of the watchman, Job

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ExEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

1. The prophet first introduces Jehovah Himself speaking, (vers. 2, 3). He calls heaven and earth to witness in order to enhance His lament over the people Israel. For His beneficence the Lord had only a harvest of disobedience, (ver. 2). The ox and ass are attached to their lord. Israel is not, (ver. 3). Therefore the prophet pronounces a war against the people that had forsaken the best and the greatest Lord, the Holy One of Israel, (ver. 4). Had the Lord been wanting in discipline? No. He had chastised the people so much, that for the future He hopes for nothing more from that. Israel is (inwardly, morally) incurably sick, vers. (5, 6). While outwardly (from the chastisement) it is reduced to a minimum, (vers. 7, 8). Thus far, (directly and indirectly) the address of Jehovah. In the last verse, (9), the prophet himself confirms the fact, that still a little remnant exists on which to build the hope of a better future.

2. Hear heaven—do not consider it, vers. 2, 3. When the Lord of the world speaks, the world must hear in silence. Comp. Deut. xxxii. 1; Ps. l. 1, 4; Mic. i. 2; vi. 1, 2. But here, as elsewhere, (Deut. iv. 26; xxx. 19; xxxi. 28; Ps. l. 4) the world is not invoked as simply an audience, but as a witness, before whom the Lord would make good His claim of right. For it concerns a matter of universal interest. The world must react with Jehovah against Israel's infraction of law, that the os Pip, foundations

of the earth, Ps. lxxxii. 5, may not totter. At the same time one must assent to the remark of DELitzsch : “heaven and earth were present and articipants when Jehovah gave His people the law {. Deut. iv. 36, and the places cited above) —so then must they hear and witness what Jehovah, their Creator and Israel's God, has to say and complain of,” [after seven centuries.— M. W. J.]

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in Deut. designated as object and effect. The difference is substantially a formal one. Jehovah is indeed Father of all men and all creatures. He is even called (Num. xvi. 22; xxvii. 16) “God of the spirits of all flesh;” and Ps. cxlv. 15 sq-comp. civ. 27 sqq-we read that the eyes of all wait on the Lord, and that He fills everything that lives with satisfaction (comp. Rom. iii. 29 ; ix. 24 sqq.; x. 12 sqq.). But among the many children that He has, there is one race that He has not only brought up to maturity, but has elewated to high honor. The Lord did not suffer all peoples to attain the grown-up state; or rather, not all sons of the original Father, became the fathers of nations. But to Abraham precisely this was granted as the first promise : “I will make of thee a great nation,” Gen. xii. 2; and, “Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt, unto the great river, the river Euphrates,” Gen. xv. 18. And this promise was fulfilled. Abraham's seed became a great and numerous people. But this people also were the recipients of high honor. For it is the holy nation, Deut. vii. 6, to whom the Lord drew near and revealed Himself in an especial manner, Deut. iv. 6 sqq.;

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