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is to be referred neither שׁאר עמו
and in principle taken place, as soon as judgment and Prophets were addicted to it, and that not has done its wc prk. But when and how this coro- only in their private life; but they even pernation will be outwardly exhibited, is known to formed their_official functions in a state of inGod only. But although it should not happen toxication. This is strictly forbidden in the law. till after thou (isands of years, still the word of the Lev. x. 8, 9 (comp. Ezek. xliv. 21).
The exLORD is truqe, and faith may console itself with it
pression ?"17_jos 15a) occurs only here. It does to the Israelites left in the land after the carrying not mean that they in consequence of drinking away of the ten tribes, nor to the tribes of the wine have been swallowed up one of another. ;? kingdom of Judah, but to the total rempant pri- does not here mark what is mediately or remarily of Israel, of which those carried captive, motely causal; but it denotes the immediate yea, all who are still of the seed of Israel, form a cause. The wine itself has swallowed up those who part. For the Prophet here speaks first of all of greedily swallowed it (comp. ver. 4). Not only Ephraim. This brief word of promise, vers. 5 has the carouser the fit of intoxication, but the fit and 6, makes, moreover, the impression as if the of intoxication has him. yxi stands only here Prophet would herewith let Israel have his defi- for $? (Gen. xvi. 13; 1 Sam. xvi. 12 et saepe) nite and complete portion of threatening and promise. For in what follows he refers to Judah as 7117 vers. 15 for nyin. Even in such moments only. But it is obvious, that Ephraim is included when they should be under the influence of the in the promises which are given to the remnant Spirit of God alone, they are by a blasphemous of all Israel (comp. on iv. 2 sqq;; vi. 13; vii. 3; perversion under the influence of the spirit of x. 20 sqq.). The expression 33 703 is found alcohol. Not less wicked is it when judges, who only here. We frequently meet with n7x57.90 should speak judgment in the name and Spirit (Prov. iv. 9; xvi. 31; Isa. lxii. 3; Jer. xiii, 18; of God (Exod. xviii. 15 sq.; Deut. i. 17; xix. Ezek. xvi. 12; xxiii. 42). But Isaiah has here 17; 2 Chron. xix. 6), appear governed by that preferred for the sake of the assonance to join infernal spirit while performing this sacred func5789n with the term 1775% (from 793 in orbem tion. That pronouncing judgment in the highest ivit, orbiculus, hoop, diadem, besides only Ezek. instance pertained to a priestly tribunal, may be vii. 7, 10). But Jehovah will be not only the seen from Deut. xvii. 8 sqq." Comp. xix. 17; source of the highest honor for His people, but Herzog, R.-Encycl. V. p. 58. The wickedness, also the source of the wisdom and strength so therefore, of these priestly judges appears so much wanted in the present time. Jehovah Him- much the greater. For they sit in a commission self, who is one with His Spirit, will fill the judges that has not trifling matters, but the most diffias a spirit of judgment. (Comp. iv. 4; comp. xi. cult and important causes to decide. Every one 1 and 1 Kings xxii . 22). wovon big bu can
may convince himself that the Prophet has not mean to sit over a forensic cause as over the ob- said too much of the drunkenness of those people, ject submitted to the judge, and we may compare who will take the trouble to visit the places
He will find there palpable such places as 1 Sam. xxv. 13 0 5.27-by 120. where they sit.
traces of it; all tables full of filthy vomit Or by stands in a modified signification equiva- (*??? xix. 14 vomit, from * excrementa, lent to 5 (?), and such places as 1 Sam. xx. 24 sordes, dirt, iv. 4; xxxvi. 12), and consequently, . . no place to sit on, or to lay anything (osa
espemay be compared. \ is wanting before 'y'un. cially frequent in Job viii. 11; xxiv. 10; xxxi
59; xxxiii. 9 et saepe ; in Isaiah v. 13, 14; xiv. The which stands in the corresponding 2015 6; xxxii. 10; Dips comp. V. is to be regarded as carrying its force over to this 5. Whom shall He teach there a clause. (Comp. xxx. 1; xlviii. 17; Ixi. 7). To little.- Vers. 9 and 10. In these words the turn back the war towards the gate is to Prophet lets his drunken adversaries themselves be understood of the repulse of the enemy either come on the scene. He makes them utter scofto the gate through which he entered, or back fing words, that he may give the same back to even to the enemy's own gate. (2 Sam. xi. 23; them in another sense as a threatening of punish2 Kings xviii. 8; 1 Maccab. v. 22.)
ment. They are themselves Prophets and Priests, 4. But they also have erred -no place and therefore full grown men, educated men, and clean.-Vers. 7,8. The Prophet now turns from not children. They, therefore, ask indignantly:
Does he--namely the Prophet of Jehovah-not Samaria to Jerusalem. With 1778 he points to his know whom he has before him? To whom does own countrymen in particular. They, too, are he think that he has to impart right knowledge? seized by a spirit of giddiness which arises from the (7707 xi. 9). To whom has he to give underfearfully prevailing vice of literal drunkenness. standing by his preaching ? (nyiw ver. 19 and The Prophet ingeniously depicts the extent and besides only liii. 1, in the signification“ preachintensity of this vice, through the accumulation ing, announcement" = the Greek ákoń Rom. x. of words related in form : Shagu-ta-u, -shague 16, 17; in another signification Isa. xxxvii. 7), ta-u, shagu-paku. We hear and see as it were Is it to little children who have just been weaned the reeling and staggering of the drunken com from the milk (xi. 8), removed from the breasts pany. , to reel, is used only here by Isaiah, piny in this sense only here in Isaiah)? And non of a drunken person, also xix. 14 comp. now the Prophet exhibits them as ridiculing the xxi. 4. How fearfully the vice of drunkenness tenor of his preaching in monosyllabic words, had spread is seen from the fact that even priests which by their sound and repetition are designed
לַמַּבּוּל יָשַׁב 10 .and Ps . xxix וַתֵּשֶׁב עַל־הַלְחֶם
to produce merriment, while he at the same time taken from Micah ii. 10. Micah there reproaches turns his opponents into ridicule, as these mono- the false Prophets with withhold ling from the syllabic words admirably represent the stammer- people the genuine word of God, which is affecing of a person intoxicated. 13 from 77is tionate and kind, and with instigating the people praeceptum (besides here only Hos. v. 11); ?? find rest. [This is hardly the sense of the pas(comp. ver. 17; xviii. 2, 7; xxxiv. 11, 17; xliv. 13) is cord, measuring cord, direction, rule. They tion to this Isaiah characterizes the genuine
sage referred to in Micah.-D. M.]. In opposireproach the Prophet with bringing forward a mass of little sentences, precepts, rules in weari- preaching of Jehovah by the words OnU97nNi. some repetition, and without a right plan and For justly in reference to that of which the false order, here a little, there a little my besides Prophets say 7779pa nki-x's, the real Prophet Job xxxvi. 2, comp. ??? x. 25; xvi. 14; xxiv. must say nupp hai. This true “ rest of the 6; xxix. 17). The contemptuous designation people of God,” says Isaiah, Jehovah has not Oteppoabyos which the Athenian Philosophers merely shown from afar. He has also comgave the Apostle Paul, has been fitly compared manded io put the weary souls longing for salva(Acts xvii. 18).
tion in possession of it, (???) to procure rest for 6. For with stammering—and taken.-one, xiv. 3), and has offered the place of rest, i. Vers. 11-13. The Prophet replies to this mock- e., the real means of grace and salvation. nija ing speech, and conceiles that it is to a certain means elsewhere, place of rest; but here I take extent accurate and just. For these scoffing it in the sense of rest (comp. Ixvi. 1) in opposiwords will indeed be spoken. But not as those tion to 73.79 the place of rest (år.hey. Comp. drunkards think. For (? ver. 11) the LORD Jer. vi. 16). Isaiah, in thus referring to a word will speak them to them by a foreign and hostile of his colleague Micah, which he confirms and people, whose utterances will be to them as stam- hand. 'The words appear too general for us to
applies, reaches him here again the fraternal mering and strange jargon. Jy's
, balbutiens, bal- | find any political allusions in them. When in bus, barbarus is found besides only Ps. xxxv. 16. ver. 13 the scornful words of the Prophet's adIn chap. xxxiii. 19 Isaiah uses in the same sense, versaries are employed as a weapon turned against and likewise of the Assyrian language the par- themselves, it seems to me that what makes it ticiple Niphal 1993. It is easy to conceive that the not merely in the effect upon the ear, in the re
possible to put them in the enemies' mouth lies Assyrian language, as being much less cultivated semblance to stammering sounds, but in the than their own, and having only the three funda- actual meaning also. As we found in Pmental vowels a, i, u, made upon the Israelites the xviii. 2, 7 the meaning of a short, sharp order, impression of being as the lisping of children. this meaning seems still more to lie in the present What a Nemesis! Because this people to whoin place. The Israelites will hear nothing but such the LORD spake words of comfort in its own short, monosyllabic words. But they will be mother tongrie would not hear them, it must hear words full of meaning, whose effect will be seen from the enemy's mouth harsh sounds, which in what we read at the close of ver. 13. For to fall on the ear like the scoffing words uttered fall backward and be broken and snared against the Prophet, but have a quite different and taken captive will be the doom of the premeaning; for they are words of command intending the destruction of the vanquished and sumptuous people. Ver. 13 b, from thoz? captured people. The words Onidan nai are almost literal reproduction of viii. 15.
2. THE FALSE AND THE TRUE REFUGE.
CHAPTER XXVIII. 14-22. 14 Wherefore hear the word of the Lord, ye scornful men,
That rule this people which is in Jerusalem : 15 Because ye have said,
We have made a covenant with death,
And under falsehood have we hid ourselves : 16 Therefore thus saith the Lord God,
Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone,
17 Judgment also will I lay to the line,
And righteousness to the plummet :
And t the waters shall overflow the hiding-place.
And your agreement with hell shall not stand ;
Then ye shall be 'trodden down by it.
For morning by morning shall it pass over,
And it shall be a vexation only ’to understand the report.
And the covering narrower than that he can wrap himself in it. 21 For the LORD shall rise up as in mount Perazim,
He shall be wroth as in the valley of Gibeon,
And bring to pass his act, his strange act.
bands be made strong; For I have heard from the Lord God of hosts a consumption, Even determined upon the whole earth.
1 Heb. a treading down to it.
? Or, when he shall make you to understand doctrine. . Sheol.
d as often as.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. Ver. 15. 7oig nie. So we are to read with the Kori, which is both supported and discountenanced by ver. 1, because the Kethibh Myvi has in xxxiii. 21 the signifi. 18, is anyhow unnecessary, for the perfect can be taken cation “oar," which is not suitable here; 2, on account
as a futurum ezactum (comp. iv. 4; vi. 11).
Ver. 16. The Dagesh forte in is ioanifestly inof the assonance with 7910, which would otherwise be
tended to distinguish the word as a participle from the lost; 3, because in ver. 19 6 there is a blending of two
. figures for the sake of the alliteration. For viv is a
Ver. 20. Hithp. yonion se extendere, porrigere, only scourge (X. 26), and 700 is to overflow, inundate (comp. here, Kal yning only Lev. xxi. 18; xxii. 23. on ver. 2). A scourge when swung makes a flowing mo
Ver. 21. On the absence of the preposition of place tion; but it does not inundate, overflow. Only the divine judgments do this, and these for another reason
comp. i. 25; v. 18, 29; x, 14; GEcan be called the scourge of God. The K’ri ny!, I SENIUS Gr., $ 118, 3, note.
and הר before עֶמֶק
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. Those scoffers, who are here described as the ' nothing but terror (19). For Israel's might will rulers of the people in Jerusalem, had naturally then prove too weak (ver. 20). But the LORD a foundation on which they rested, in opposition will rise in might as formerly on Mount Perazim, to the foundation of the Prophet which they de- and in the valley of Gibeon, in order to execute rided. Their foundation was falsehood and de- His very strange work of destruction, which apceit, by the aid of which they hoped that they pears to the secure Jews impossible (ver. 21). would have nothing to fear from death and Therefore the scoffers should be quiet, that they Hades. (Vers. 14 and 15). Against this founda- may not remain forever in the snares mentioned tion the LORD NOW says to them: I have laid in ver. 13; for that they should not escape from Zion my strong corner-and foundation-stone: them is announced by the Prophet as the decree only he who holds fast to it will not yield (ver. of Jehovah, which cannot be averted (ver. 22). 16),, And on this foundation-stone the building We perceive, therefore, that the section vers. 14shall be erected by means of judgment and right- 22 corresponds exactly to the preceding one pers. cousness; but the flood of waters will sweep away 1-13, and especially to the vers. 9-13. For here that refuge of lies (ver. 17). And that covenant the right foundation is set in opposition to that with death and Sheol will not stand. They who false one, resting on which those scoffers think made it, shall be trodden down by those who that they may deride the Prophet (vers. 14–17); shall come upon them as the scourge of God then the vanity, yea destructiveness of that false (ver. 18). That scourge, moreover, shall come fonndation is shown (vers. 18-21), and the scofnot only once, but repeatedly by day and night. fers are accordingly exhorted to give up their Then shall they hear no more a preaching by mocking (ver. 22). word, but a preaching by deed ; and it will be 2. Therefore hear -hid ourselves.-Vers.
= is הנני יסר הִנְנִי הוּא אֲשֶׁר יִכָּר
14, 15. With 125 ver. 14, the Prophet introduces | foundation of truth is exhibited, is involves althe judgment of the Lord, which he has to publish ways eo ipso a promise. 125, as has been shown, on the ground of the accusation preferred vers. 9-13. This judgment is addressed to the scoffers corresponds to the ') in ver. 15. The false af(Prov. xxix. 8), whose derisive speeches (ver. 10) firmation necessitates a protest in which the truth
70' = are quoted, and who, after the judgment has been is testified. pronounced, are exhorted to mock no more (ver. comp. xxix. 14; xxxviii. 5. But what sort of a 22). These scoffers are not insignificant men. stone is that which the Lord has laid in Zion ? They are the leaders of the people (xvi. 1; lii. It must be a stone which really guarantees truth 5), its Priests and Prophets (ver. 7). ' in the and right._Consequently it cannot be Zion itself beginning of ver. 15 is " because ;" the illative (HITZIG, KNOBEL), nor the royal house of David particle in ver. 16 corresponding to it. The MAURER’and others; which explanation Theo
(REINKE), nor Hezekiah (RABBIS, GESENIUS, utterance is put in the mouths of these people, doret characterizes as åvora šo xátn), nor the which if not actually spoken by them, yet cer- temple (EWALD). As Isaiah does not say that tainly corresponds to their actual conduct: we they had made Egypt their refuge, but that they have made a covenant with death, etc. had made falsehood their refuge, the antithesis This explains why these people scoffed at the to this refuge of lies can only be a refuge of Prophet. They stand with their whole manner truth. As such we might, with UMBREIT, reof thinking and feeling upon another foundation gard the law, or, with SCHEGG, the word of Gol than his. Isaiah has the Lord Himself for his in general. But the law and the word of God, foundation. But they deride this very
founda so far as they are laid in Zion as objective means tion. They have another and better, as they of Salvation, suppose a still deeper, a personal imagine. This is the art of falsehood, of cunning foundation: the law supposes Him through whom policy, of fine diplomacy. By its help they hope the revelation of the law took place; the spoken to be safe from death and Hades. The Prophet and written word supposes the living, personal admonishes them to obey the Lord, and to trust word of God Himself, the Logos (So the Catholic in Him in order to find protection against As- expositors Loch and Reiscil, comp. REINKE, syria. But in their opinion these are fanatical the Messianic Prophecies I. p. 404). The Logos, means of defence, which good policy could not the only mediator between God and men, the employ. An alliance with Egypt, artfully planned, Messiah promised in the Old Covenant, who has carried out with all diplomatic skill, appeared to appeared in the New, this is the personal and those politicians to be a much more reliable, yea living foundation-stone laid in Zion, on whom the an infallible remedy against the threatening whole building fitly framed together grows unto evils. For they hope through that alliance to be a holy (erected therefore according to the line of proof against death and Ilades. They imagine right and justice) building (Eph. iii. 20 sqq.). that they have thereby as it were concluded a That the personal Word of the LORD can be friendly alliance with death and Hades (1793 173 called a stone, is apparent from viii. 14, where as lv. 3; Ixi. 8). n (comp. 1781 ver. 7), for Jehovah Himself is called 17 and 743. It is which below in ver. 18 nun stands, has only not impossible that Isaiah had this last passage here the signification “treaty, agreement.”. The Psalm had in ver. 22 regard to both these pas
in view, and perhaps the composer of the 118th lie of which they speak, may well refer to the relation of dependence on Assyria into which Ahaz, sagez. of Isaiah. Anyhow Peter (1 Pet. ii. 6-8) the predecessor of Hezekiah, had brought Judah combines these three places. The LORD Him(2 Kings xri. 7 819.). For they may even then self (Matt. xxi. 42–44) had in view the place in have considered the right policy to consist in a ix. 33, refers to both places of Isaiah; while in
the Psalms and Isa. viii. 14 sq.; and Paul, Rom. secret league with Egypt, while appearing to stand by the obligations entered into towards As-Acts iv. 11 reference is made to the 118th Psalm syria. A like course was subsequently pursued only; and in Rom. x. 11, solely to the place
The stone laid in Žion is further (2 Kings xvii. 4; Ezek. xvii
. 15, 599.): The called an ina ;-x, i. e., lapis probationis. The conjunction of non and 70 is characteristic of Isaiah, comp. ver. 17 and iv. 6.
termina can be taken in an active or passive 3. Therefore thus saith the whole sense: a tried and a trying stone. The former earth.-Verx. 16–22. The scoffers had declared would mark its tested firmness, the latter would that they had made falsehood their refuge, and express the idea, that the thoughts of the hearts that they hope relying on this refuge, to get the must be made manifest by it. For no one can better of death and Hades. The Prophet wishes escape it, but all must be tried on it, and it must to expose the vanity of this hope. There is only have some effect on all, and be either for their one refuge that guarantees safety. This is the fall or rising. The passages Matt. xxi. 44; Luke foundation, and corner-stone laid by the LORD ii. 34 speak strongly for the latter view. I do Himself in Zion. The water sweeps away the other not dispute it, but I believe that the Prophet false foundation, and they who rest upon it go designedly chose an ambiguous expression. For to ruin. Our passage contains, therefore, primarily the former interpretation is likewise recomnot a promise, but a threatening. For first of mended, being naturally suggested by the expresall, the confidence expressed in ver. 15 is to be sion employed, and by the context.' We expect shown to be unfounded. But naturally the (un- to hear the nature of the stone extolled, and not real, resting only on appearance) negation of the merely to be told what service it can render. truth can be overcome only by the positive setting That the praise should be expressed in this parfarih of the truth. And where this real positive | ticular form is in accordance with the usus ia
If .מנוחה stands therefore opposed to זועה
quendi obser pable in this chapter, in which so serves as the scourge of God. This host shall many designs tions of a property are denoted by a stamp the scoffers under foot, shall tread them substantive in the genitive (vers. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8). like dirt on the streets. The Prophet had ex739 is corrier.-And a stone which forms the pressly declared in x. 6 that the army of the Ascorner is naturally a corner-stone. (Comp. xix. syrians should do this. But the scourge will 13; Job. xxxviii. 6; Jer. li. 26; Ps. cxviii. 22). come not once only, but often. Ver. 19. The ex1777 is fuere, as perhaps also Ps. xxxvii. 20; pression np.? is suggested by another image, Prov. xvfi. 27, a substantive, preciousness, so that namely, the idea of something which takes away we must translate; a corner-stone of pre- (Jer. xv. 15), snatches, washes away, correspondciousness of a founded foundation (709ing therefore to 7010, as a mighty flood which after the form non, comp. 2 Chron. viii. 16; comes along by rushes. In fact, the invasions by TOP Isa. xxx. 32; Ezek. xli, 8; 7010 Part the Assyrians and by the Chaldaeans, who were
called to complete their work, were as waterfloods Hoph.), i. e., a corner-stone well suited (1 Kings that kept ever inundating
the land till it was env. 31 ;'vij. '9-11) for a firm foundation. The tirely desolated (xxiv. 1, 3). The second half emphatic expression par3 2017 is like op?? of ver. 19 is clearly related to nyingi ju?' in ver. opano Prov. xxx. 24. We have already ob
9. There the scoffers had asked: to whom will served that the Prophet shows here a predilec- he preach? They thought themselves much too tion for the accumulation of substantives in the high to need the preaching of the Prophet. In saving efficacy, not in a magical way; but this opposition to this language Isaiah now tells then:
would not hear my well-meant efficacy is conditioned by the inward susceptibil
. preaching by word, which was designed to give ity, or faith. The firm foundation itself requires a keeping fast to it. Therefore the Prophet adds: you oņus, you will be compelled to hear a He who believes flees not. This apotheg- preaching in act, and it will be naught but termatic addition 'reminds us, both by its form ror. and tenor, of chapter vii. 9 x'S 'ONA X'S Dx in ver. 9 nyno pa307 signified “ to make to know, 139xn. 7287 occurs further xxx. 21 ; xliii
. 10; nexion in which it here stands signify “to hear
or understand preaching," it must in the conliii. 1. Win7 is here not indirectly (to make some
preaching” (comp. xxix. 16; Job xxviii. 23; thing or another hasten, v. 19; lx. 22) but directly Micah iv. 12 et saepe). For it is not the preacher causative; to make haste, to flee hastily, to retreat. who experiences terror, but he who hears the There lies in it an antithesis to the idea of firm- preaching. ?? (only here in Isaiah, besides ness, which is contained in what is said of the comp. Dent. xxviii. 25; Jer. xv. 4 et saepe ; Ezek. stone, and in 1DX). The word has this meaning xxiii. 46) is concussio, commotio vehemens, formido. no where else. Where the firm foundation is ob- The subject of the sentence is 1977 and the predijectively laid, and the individual subjectively in cate 7774. Is not that a dreadful preaching, when faith keeps fast on it, then the erection of a holy temple in the LORD is possible, an erection in one finds himself in a situation which is fittingly which right serves for the line (2 comp. on
compared to a bed that is too short, or to a
covering that is too narrow ?—This is a disver. 10), and righteousness for the plummet tressful condition. For resistance is encountered (napo? only here, comp. napon 2 Kings xxi. on all sides, and the means are insufficient for any 13); a figurative expression, the meaning of undertaking. 73p in Isaiah besides only 1. 2; which can be only this, that this building will lis. 1. v$? stratum, in hey. 17202 besides only arise according to the rules of divine justice, and xxv. 7. DR, colligere, coacervare, Hithp. se ipsum will consequently be a holy building. povo and colligere, to make of one's self a heap, only here. mpty stand here related as in i. 27; v. 16; ix.6; ? in Donna marks coincidence
when one xxxii
. 16; xxxiii. 5; lvi. 1; lix. 9, 14. This bends one's-self together, coils one's-self (xviii. 3; building stands firm. But the refuge of lies and xxiii. 5). That such will really be the nature of the hiding-place of deceit the hail will sweep the situation is now further illustrated by two hisaway (ny, whence y, a shovel for the clearing torical examples. Israel will themselves be in a away of ashes from the altar, Ex. xxvii. 3; condition like that in which they through God's xxxviii. 3; Numb. iv. 14 et saepe, is är, hey.) | help twice brought their enemies. One of these and the waters wash away (ver. 2). In con
events to which the Prophet here alludes, is the sequence, that covenant with death and defeat which David inflicted on the Philistines Hades, of which they boasted (ver. 15), shall at Baal-Perazim (2 Sam. v. 20; 1 Chr. xiv. 11). be covered, i. e., obliterated, annulled. The David there said D;? p??? ??? ?-ng (. covenant is conceived of as a written document, whose lines are covered, i. e., overspread with the i. e., Jehovah has broken through my enemies fluid used for writing. Comp. obliterare offensio- perceived that Isaiah was led to think of thie
me, as water breaks through. VITRINGA nem, famam, memoriam. To 13813' seh in verse 15, passage by what he had said in ver. 17 and ver. 09775 on"771 corresponds. Comp. v. 6; vii. 2 of the Dippiü d'D. The other event I take, with 25; x. 6. The Prophet here leaves the inage most of the older interpreters, to be the defeat out of sight. The expression is shaped by his which Joshua inflicted on the Canaanites at Gibrealizing in thought the thing signified by the eon (Jos. x. 10). There, in ver. 11, it is said exprevious figure, namely, the invading host which I pressly that the LORD crushed the enemy by a