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all the possibility of deliverance. This media- | Himself that will be watcher over this vineyard, tion is through the Cross of Christ. It is only and will send it gracious rain.” VEIT DIETRICH. when this mediation has not been accepted that [“ The church is a vineyard of red wine, yielding punitive justice has free course. It should not the best and choicest grapes, intimating the reforsurprise us that even the Evangelist of the Old mation of the church, that it now brings forth Covenant, who wrote chap. liii., did not possess good fruit unto God, whereas before it brought perfect knowledge of this mediation. Let us re- forth fruit to itself, or brought forth wild grapes, member John the Baptist (Matt. iii. 7; xi. 11) chap. v. 4." God takes care (1) of the safety and the disciples of the LORD (Luke ix. 54). [Let of this vineyard; I the Lord do keep it. He speaks us not forget that Isaiah was a true Prophet, and this, as glorying in it, that He is, and has underspoke as he was moved by the Spirit of God. The taken to be, the keeper of Israel; those that A postle Paul did not find fault with the most ter- bring forth fruit to God are, and shall be always, rible denunciations of judgment contained in the under His protection. (2) God takes care of the Old Testament, or affect a superiority over the fruitfulness of this vineyard: I will water it every men who uttered them. On the contrary, he moment; and yet it shall not be over watered. quotes them as words which could not be suffered We need the constant and continual waterings of to fall, but which must be fulfilled in all their the divine grace; for if that be at any time withdreadful import. See e.g. Rom. xi. 9, 10.-D. M.]. drawn, we wither and come to nothing.” HENRY.
18. xxvi. 12. “It is a characteristic of true, D. M.]. sincere Christians, that they give God the glory 23. xxvii. 4. “Est aurea promissio, qua praeand not themselves, and freely confess that they cedentem confirmat. Indignatio non est mihi, fury have nothing of themselves, but everything from is not in me. Quomodo enim is nobis irasci poGod (1 Cor. iv. 7; Phil. ii. 13; Heb. xii. 2).” | test, qui pro nobis est mortuus! Quanquam igitur CRAMER.
appareat, eum irusci, non tamen est verum, quod 19. xxvi. 16. The old theologians have many irascatur. Sic Paulo immittitur angelus Satanae, comforting and edifying thoughits connected with sed non est ira, nam ipse Christus dicit: sufficit this place: “A magnet has the power to raise tibi gratia mea. Sic puter filium delinquentem and attract to itself iron. Our heart is heavy as castigat, sed non est ira, quanquam appareat iron. But the hand of God is as a magnet. When ira esse. Custodia igitur vinene aliquando cogit that hand visits us withi affliction, it lists us up, Deum immittere speciem irae, ne pereat luxurie, and draws us to itself." “Distress teaches us to sed non est ira. Est insignis textus, which we pray,
and prayer again dispels all distress. One should inscribe on all tribulations: Non est indigwedge displaces the other.” Er ibus curis natio mihi, non possum irasci. Quod autem videtur impellimur ad pia vota." “ Ec monte myrrhae irasci est custodia vineae, ne pereas et fias securus. procedimus ad collem thuris (Cant. ix. 6). In LUTHER. " In order to understand fully the docamaritudine crucis exsurgit odor devotae precationis trine of the wrath of God we must have a clear (Ps. lxxxvi. 6 sq.).” “ Ubi nulla crux et tentatio, perception of the antithesis: the long-suffering ibi nulla vera oratio. Oratio sine malis est tunquam of God, and the wrath of God, wrath and mercy.” avis sine alis. Optimus orandi magister necessitas. LANGE. Tà tronuara javnuara. Quae nocent, docent. Ubi 24. xxvii. 7-9. "Christ judges His church, tentatio, ibi oratio." Mala, quae hic nos premunt, ad i. e., He punishes and afflicts it, bui He does this Deum ire compellunt. Qui nescit orare, ingrediatur in measure. The sorrow and cross is meted out, mare." “When the string is most tightly drawn, and is not, as it appears to us, without measure it sounds best. Cross and temptation are the right and infinite. It is so measured that redemption prayer-bell. They are the press by which God must certainly follow. But why does God lei His crushes out the juice of prayer.” CRAMER and Christians so suffer? Why does He not lay the FOERSTER.
cross on the wicked ? God answers this question 20. xxvi. 20. As God, when the deluge was and speaks: the sin of Jacob will thereby cease. about to burst, bade Noah go into his ark as into That is : God restrains sin by the cross, and subhis chamber, and Himself shut the door on him dues the old Adam.” VEIT DIETRICH. (Gen. vii. 16); so does the Lord still act when 25. xxvii. 13. [“ The application of this a storm is approaching; He brings His own into verse to a future restoration of the Jews can neia chamber where they can be safe, either for their ther be established nor disproved. In itself contemporal preservation and protection against sidered, it appears to contain nothing which may every might (Ps. xci. 1), or, on the other hand, to not be naturally applied to events long past." J. give them repose by a peaceful and happy death."
A. ALEXANDER. This prediction was com“His anger endureth but a moment; in his fa- pletely and entirely fulfilled by the return of the vor is life (Ps. xxx. 6)." CRAMER.
Jews to their own country under the decree of 21. xxvii. 1. (“Great and mighty princes Cyrus.” BARNES.D. M.). [nations] if they oppose the people of God, are in God's account, as dragons and serpents, and
HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL. plagues of mankind; and the Lord will punish them in due time. They are too big for men to 1. On xxiv. 4-6. Fast-day sermon. Warning deal with, and call to an account; and therefore against dechristianization of the life of the people. the great God will take the doing of it into His 1) Wherein such dechristianization consists: own hands.” HENRY.-D. M.].
transgression of the commandments that are in 22. xxvii. 2-5. “It seems to the world that force; 6, alteration of the commandments which God has no concern for His church and Chris- are essential articles of the everlasting covenant, tians, else, we imagine, they would be better off. as e. g. removing of all state institutions from the But certain it is, that it is not the angels but God / basis of religion. 2) Its consequences: 4, Dese
cration of the land (subjectively, by the spread of 4. On xxvi. 1-4. Concerning the church. a profane, godle se sentiment; objectively, by the 1) She is a strong city in which salvation is to secularization of relations hitherto held sacred); be found. 2) The condition of having a portion b, the curse consumes the land, ver. 4.
in her is faith. 3) The blessing which she is in2. On xxv. 1-5. The LORD, the refuge of the strumental in procuring is peace. needy. 1) Vie has the power to help. This we 5. xxvi. 19-21. The comfort of the Christian perceive u, from His nature (LORD, Gud, Won for the present and future. ?) For the present derful); b, from His deeds (ver. 16, ver. 2). 2) the Christian is to betake himself to his quiet He gives His strength even to the feeble, (ver. chamber, where he is alone with his LORD and 4). 3) These are thereby victorious, (ver. 5). by Him made cheerful and secure. 2) For the
3. On xxv. 6-9. Easter Sermon, by T. SCHAEF- future he has the certain hope, a, that the LORD FER (Manch. Gab. u. ein Geist III., p. 269) : will judge the wicked, b, raise the believer to ever“ The glorious Easter-blessing of the Risen One: lasting life. 1) Wherein it consists? 2) who receive it? 3) 6. xxvii. 2-9. How the LORD deals with what are its effects ? Christmas Sermon, by Rom- His vineyard, the church. 1) Fury is not in BERG (ibid. 1869, p. 78): Our text represents to Him towards it; 2) He protects and purifies it; us Christmas joy under the image of a festive 3) He gives it strength, peace and growth ; 4) board. Let us consider, 1) the host; 2) the He chastens it in measure; 5) lle makes the guests; 3) the gifts.”
chastisement itself serve to purge it from sins.
THE RELATION OF ISRAEL TO ASSYRIA IN THE TIME OF KING HEZEKIAH.
CHAPs. XXVIII.-XXXIII. As chapters vii.-xii., resting on the facts re- 1 2 sqq.) that those secret machinations were with lated vii. 1 sqq., contain the first great cycle of a view to an alliance with Egypt. But he certiIsaiah's prophecies, so our chapters (xxviii. fies at once by a written declaration (ver. 8), that xxxiii.), which have for their basis the facts nar- this Egyptian alliance will be of no benefit. The rated in the historical appendix (xxxvi.-xxxvii.) LORD only will deliver Israel. He will certainly contain the second great cycle. Chapters vii.- do it. In chaps. xxxi. and xxxii., which belong xii. depict the relation of Israel to Assyria in the together, the Lord proclaims the vanity of Egyptime of Ahaz. Our chapters set forth this rela- tian succor. Assyria will not fall by the sword tion as it stood in the time of Hezekiah. As the of a man (xxxi. 8), but the Lord will overturn sin of Ahaz consisted in his seeking protection it; and to this promise of the impending deliveragainst Aram-Ephraim not in the LORD, but in ance of Israel from Assyrian oppression the ProAssyria, so Hezekiah erred in seeking protection phet immediately attaches a glorious picture of against Assyria, that had become a scourge the future, which, while it praises the truly noble through Ahab's guilt, not in the LORD, but in disposition of those high in rank in the Messianic Egypt. Hezekiah, the otherwise pious king, time, is very severe on the existing aristocracy, must have been weak enough to yield so far to composed of the nobility and of public functionathe influence of those around him, as to sanction ries; and at the same time (as in chap. iii.) ada policy which aimed at concluding a league with dresses wiih an impressive warning the women Egypt, as the infallible means of deliverance. who have great influence
, and occupy high posiIsaiah now in chapters xxviii.-xxxiii. assails tions. Finally (xxxiii.), the Prophet speaks diwith all his might this Egyptian alliance, which rectly to Assyria in order to announce its speedy the government of Hezekiah, knowing it to be and sudden destruction. This last chapter concontrary to the will of God, was seeking behind tains matter which is for the most part of a joyful the back of the Prophet to bring about with all character for Israel. It has a dark side for the diplomatic skill, and at great sacrifices of money people of the Lord only so far as it sets forth and property. He follows it from its rise through that the predicted glorious deliverance will make all stages of its development. He leads us, chap. a disagreeable impression on the sinners in Isxxviii., to its source. The Prophet assigns as its rael, who desire to know nothing of Jehovah. source a swamp, if we may employ a figure; the Although therefore @haps. xxviii.-xxxiii. are swamp of low carnal passion for drink. From arranged according to a certain plan, they do not this swamp the policy had already issued which form one connected speech. There are rather Ephraim was pursuing to its destruction. From five speeches delivered at different times, each of this swamp too the disposition was produced which which in itself forms a whole, while each preled Judah to contemn the admonitions of the sents a complete picture of what the Prophet beLORD, and to place wicked confidence in its own held, embracing threatening and promise. We carnal prudence (xxviii. 14 sq.). In chap. xxix. have here to remark that the Prophet always the Prophet lets it be clearly perceived that the draws the most remote Messianic future into the secret plotting behind his back did not remain sphere of his vision, though he does so every time concealed from him (xxix. 15 sqq.). But it is from a different point of view. The first speech not till chap. xxx. that he plainly declares (ver. I must have been composed before the destruction
of Samaria (722 B. C.), for it addresses Samaria | and hear, xxxi. 1 sqq., the futility of Egyptian as yet standing.. Nay, more, as Samaria is seen help again emphatically asserted, and then read flourishing in all her pride, and her inhabitants xxxii. 10 that, after an indefinite number of days indulge their evil passions without fear or re- above a year had expired, Jerusalem should be straint, the speech must have been written before cut off from its fields and vineyards by the enemy, the cominencement of the three years' siege of we may draw from all this the conclusion, that Samaria by the Assyrians, say in the year 725, chaps. xxx.-xxxii. were produced not long after and therefore in the commencement of the reign chap. xxix. But when we read, xxxiii. 7 $99., of Hezekiah. Chap. xxix. belongs to a later time. that the ambassadors of peace sent by Hezekiah In ver. 1 the Prophet declares that the city of return in sorrow, because the Assyrian king in Jerusalem should be shut in. He can only mean addition to the great ransom (2 Kings xviii. 14 that isolation of the city in regard to which Sen- sqq.) demands the surrender of the city itself; nacherib states in his inscriptions (comp. SCHRA- when that passage describes the occupation of the DER, pp. 176 and 187), that he had enclosed He- surrounding country by the enemy, in consezekiah as a bird in a cage." This event, ac- quence of which Judah (xxxiii. 23) is compared cording to the usual chronology, happened in the with a ship whose ropes no longer keep the mast year 714, while according to the Assyrian mon- firm, when at last the Lord, xxxiii. 10, exclaims uments (comp. SCHRADER, Cuneiform Inscriptions, “Now will I rise; now will I be exalted; now p. 299, and our Introduction to chaps. xxxvi. I will I lift up myself,” we shall not err in assuming xxxix.), it took place in the year 700. As this that this prophecy belongs to the time immedidifference, as we will attempt to show in the in- ately after the return of those ambassadors of troduction to chaps. xxxvi.-xxxix., was occa- peace, and was therefore uttered shortly before sioned by a misunderstanding of later writers, the summons given to Hezekiah by Rabshakeh. there being originally no disagreement between Each of the five speeches of our prophetic cycle the biblical and Assyrian chronology, but loth begins with "977. From the absence of '17 at the originally agreeing in referring the expedition beginning of chap. xxxii., as well as from the of Sennache. ib against Phenicia, Egypt and Ju- tenor of this chapter, we see that it forms with dah to the 28th year of Ilezekiah, i. e., the year chap. xxxi, one whole. '177 is found once, xxix. 700 B. C., the speech contained in chapter xxix. 15, even in the middle of the discourse. would consequently have been delivered about That Isaiah is the writer of these speeches is the year 702." We have an aid to fixing the date almost universally admitted. The donbts which in the words ver. 1: “Add year to year, let the were raised by Eichhorn in regard to separate festivals complete their round." According to parts, were seen by GESENIUS to be unfounded our exposition the Prophet intimates by these 1 Comment. I. 2, p. 826,; and Ewald's conjecture words that after the expiration of the current year as to the composition of chap: xxxiii. by a disanother year should complete its revolution, and ciple of Isaiah, has been sufficiently refuted by then the hour of decision should arrive. That at K NOBEL. this time the Egyptian alliance had been already, We have not in the section before us one oras is hinted in ver. 15, arranged to a considerable ganic discourse, but five speeches, which from the extent in secret consultations, is extremely pro- initial word common to all of them we shall debable. And when we find, xxx. 2 sqq., the Jew- signate as first woe, second woe, etc. ish Ambassadors already on the way to Egypt,
1.—THE FIRST WOE.
CHAP. XXVIII. 1. SWAMP EPHRAIM, SWAMP JUDAH, AND WHAT ARISES OUT OF THE SWAMPS.
CHAP. XXVIII. 1-13.
Whose glorious beauty is a fading flower,
Of them that are 'overcome with wine.
Which, as a tempest of hail,
Shall cast down to the earth with the hand.
Shall be trodden ’under feet.
Shall be a fading flower,
Which, when he that looketh upon it seeth,
While it is yet in his hand he seateth it up. 5 In that de ky shall the LORD of hosts be for a crown of glory,
And for :/ diadem of beauty, unto the residue of his people, 6 And for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment,
And fox strength to them that turn the battle to the gate. 7 But they also have erred through wine,
And through strong drink are out of the way;
They err in vision, they stumble in judgment. 8 For all tables are full of vomit and filthiness,
So that there is no place clean.
And whom shall he make to understand doctrine?
And drawn from the 'breasts.
Line upon line, line upon line;
Here a little, and there a little : 11 For with @staminering lips and another tongue,
Will he speak to this people. 12 To whom he said,
This is the rest wherewith ye may cause the weary to rest ;
Yet they would not hear.
Precept upon precept, precept upon precept;
4 Heb. the hearing. 6 Or, hath been.
6 Heb. stammerings of lips. 7 Or, he hath spoken. • of the drunkards of Ephraim.
• of the drunkards of Ephraim. d early fig.
• followed by note of interrogation. 't followed by note of interrogation. shall come.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. Ver. 1. saj py as subst. cun adj. would be here ab- Hebrew language an ideal subject can be readily under
stood. The proud crown is Samaria. But this one grent normal, inasmuch as nothing can come between the
crown includes many smaller ones. The plural can be women rectum and regens. The normal construction
referred to this ideal multitude (comp. NAEGELSBACH'S would be sain inoxon '3) 1". But we know from Gr., S. 61, 1). [It appears to me simpler to say with the 1 30 and xxxiv. 4, that Isaiah uses the participle of 532 Jewish grammarians that the word crown is to be taken substantively in the signification of that which is with
here as a collective noun.-D. M.). In ver. 4 73'looks ered, falling off. We have then to regard haj here not
as a hint for the right understanding or saj. We have as an aòjective qualifying 1"'3, but as a substantive co
already remarked on ver. 1 that haj is to be taken as a ordinate with the other members in the series of geni- substantive. If this could be seen from the mere gram
matical construction, and from the parallel places, i. 30; tives. Comp. on hay nyoy ver. 4. The absolute state xxxiv. 4, it is obvious from the word ni's. For we Dijou need cause no surprise. The word does not clearly perceive from this nominal form which occurs stand in the genitival relation to what follows. But two only here, and which is certainly intentionally chosen, genitives are dependent on vxh, namely, d'Inw x'd that haj is to be regarded as a substantive, and as a coand poison. [We prefer to say with Delitzscu that ordinate member of the series of genitives. cipo, although standing connected with what follows,
Ver. 7. P!!, Kal, only here. Besides only Hiphil has the absolute forrn, the logical relation carrying it viii, 10.75059 (accus. loci) only here. Comp. svi. 3; over the syntax. Comp. xxxii. 13; 1 Chron. ix. 13. Ver. 9. On the preposition between the governing and D. M.).
the governed noun, see Naegelebaci's Gr., 263, 4 c. Ver. 3. The verb 730397 in the plural has no ex Ver. 12. x for 10$ comp. OLshausen's Gr., & 226, pressed subject. This is not necessary. For in the 16, p. 449 sq.
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1 Samaria is still standing in proud pomp, but | Samaria (1 Kings xvi. 24; Amols iv. 1; vi. 1). Prophet proclaims a woe upou it (ver. top, and 12. paba? (comp. xvi. 8) are vino dotusi, percussi. announces that a mighty foe as a tempest will Compare Qui se percussit flore Liberi, Plant. Cas. cast it to the ground (ver 2), and tread the proud 3, 5, 16; multo percussus tempora Baccho, Tib. 1, 2, crown under foot (ver. 3). Then shall this glo- 3; mero saucius Mart., 3, 6, 8; oivonang, oivóricus but already decaying flower quickly disap- 12.nktos, etc. Two images are here blended; pear, as an early fig which a man no sooner sees namely, that Samaria is the crown of the hill, and than he eats it (ver. 4). Not till then is the mo- the crown or garland on the head of the Ephraimment come when the Lord Himself will be to the ites. The accumulation of predicates shows off remnant of His people for an adorning crown, the vain-glorious pride of the Ephraimites; and and for a guiding spirit in judgment, and for at the same time it is intimated by 103 ;3 and strength in war (vers. 5 and 6). With Jerusalem it stands no better than with Samaria. There, "p360 ext by that this garland, this crown too, the vice of drunkenness prevails fearfully? will not endure long. For the garland is withEven priests and prophets are under its sway. ered, and the crown totters upon the head of the Evenain the sacred moments of prophetic vision drunkards. For the avenger of this drunken [?] and of judging, its effects are visible on them; pride is already prepared. The LORD has him the holy places are polluted by their vomiting at hand (ii. 12)." He is the Assyrian. He will (vers. 7 and 8). And, moreover, they mock the overturn to the ground (Amos v. 7) Ephraim's servant of Jehovah who warns them : Whom glory with his hand (7) siands over against does he think that he has before him? Are they the following 0.5273), as a storm of hail (xxy. mere children? (ver. 9). We hear from him con- 4; xxx. 30), as a shower of destruction tinually trifling moral preaching, broken into lit- (ru and 30p only here in Isaiah), as the rushtle bits, which are scoffingly imitated by short, ing of mighty waterfloods (739 only Job oft-repeated words, which resemble stammering sounds (ver. 10). For this they will have to hear viii. 2; xv. 10; xxxi. 25; xxxiv. 17, 24; xxxvi. the stammering sounds of a foreign nation of bar- 5 bis and Isa. x. 13 ; xvi. 14; xvii. 12, and in barous speech (ver. 11). Because they would not this place; 700, vers. 15, 17, 18; chap. viii. 7 hear the word of Jehovah which offered rest and comfort to the weary (ver. 12), the will of God sq., 10, 22; xxx. 28; xliii. 2; Ixri. 12). The will be made known to them in words, which in meaning is that Ephraim, when standing, shall be sound resemble their scornful words, but in im- dashed to the ground with the hand; when lying,
Ver. 4. The port are short, sharp words of command. That shall be trodden with the feet. will of God has this significance, that they will flower of the fading one is like the expresbe ensnared in inextricable ruin.
sion 19777 xxii. 24. This flower will be de2 Woe -eateth it up:-Vers. 1-4. It is no stroyed as quietly as an early fig, which is no honor for Jerusalem, when it is said to her that sooner seen than it is eaten off-hand by him who she walks in the footsteps of Samaria. Jerusalem discovers it. Such a dainty morsel (comp. ix. should be ashamed of this likeness, and seek to 10) is not laid by, as the other fruits which ripen remove it. This is, doubtless, the reason why the at the usual time, which are afterwards eaten at Prophet first directs his look to Samaria in order table out of the dish or off the plate. This is the to describe the there prevailing vice of literal meaning of 7771ya. The intentionally lengthened (and in connection therewith of spiritual) drunk- sentence Onix 778777 787' paints how the inquienness, and to threaten it with punishment from ring look passes slowly and gradually over the God. Thence his look passes over to Jerusalem. tree. The Prophet predicts not a hasty capture Micah had before Isaiah done just the same. In of the city (Samaria, as is known, did not fall till chap. i. 6 sq. Micah first of all threatens Samaria after a siege of three years, 2 Kings xvii. 5; with judgment, although “Judah and Jerusalem SCHRADER, The Cunciform Inscriptions and the 0. were the proper objects of his mission ” (comp. T., p. 157 sqq.), but a change of affairs in general, CASPARI, Micah the Morasthite, p. 105). Isaiah which should take place in a surprisingly brief himself had once already (viii. 6 sqq.) announced time, considering the proud security that then that the storın of jndgment would first come upon prevailed. If our prophecy was delivered in one Ephraim, and thence spread into the territory of of the first years of Hezekiah, it was fulfilled in Judlah. This way of the judgments of God is not such a manner that four or five years later a kingdetermined simply by the geographic situation. dom of Israel was no longer in existence. Of this There is also a deeper reason when Jerusalem no one could have had a presentiment when the goes in the ways of Samaria. On '17 comp. on Prophet uttered these words. . . . It
3 In that day to the gate.-Vers. 5 and 6. on xxvi. 10. 1"} stands in conjunction with 953
as a prophetic date, which is not to be judged acbesides only xl. 7 and 8. On 17780n '33 comp. cording to the ordinary human measure. It simon iv. 2; xiii. 19. This proud crown of ply intimates that when Ephraim has lost the deEphraim, this flower of his glorious orna- ceptive carthly crown, Jehovah will take the ment which lay upon the head of the val- place of it. Judgment must make it possible for ley of fatnesses (comp. v. 1; xxv. 6) i.e., on ihe LORD to assume the place at the head of His a beautiful hill commanding a fertile valley, is people which belongs to ilim. This has virtually