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3) Israel's song of praise for the deliverance 6) The resurrection of the dead, and the conexperienced (xxv. 1-5).

cluding act in the judgment of the world (xxvi. 4) Zion as the place of the feast given to all 11-21). nations in contrast to Moab that perishes inglo 7) The downfall of the worldly powers and riously (xxv. 6-12).

Zion's joyful hope (xxvii. 1-9). 5) The judgment as the realization of the idea 8) The fall of the city of the world and Israel's of justice (xxvi. 1-10).

glad restoration (xxvii. 10-13).

1. THE BEGINNING OF DISTRESS: THE DESTRUCTION OF THE SURFACE OF

THE EARTH. CHAPTER XXIV. 1-12.

1 BEHOLD the LORD maketh the earth empty,

And maketh it waste,
And 'turneth it upside down,

And scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof. 2 And it shall be,

As with the people, so with the 'priest;
As with the servant, so with his master;
As with the maid, so with her mistress;
As with the buyer, so with the seller ;
As with the lender, so with the borrower ;

As with the taker of usury, so with the giver of usury to him, 3 The land shall be utterly emptied, and utterly spoiled :

For the Lord hath spoken this word. 4 The earth mourneth, and fadeth away,

The world languisheth and fadeth away,

The 'haughty people of the earth do languish.
5 The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof;

Because they have transgressed the laws,
Changed the ordinance,

Broken the everlasting covenant.
6 Therefore hath the curse devoured the earth,

And they that dwell therein are desolate :
Therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned,

And few men left.
7 The new wine mourneth,

The vine languisheth,

All the merry-hearted do sigh. 8 The mirth of tabrets ceaseth,

The noise of them that rejoice endeth,

The joy of the harp ceaseth. 9 They shall not drink wine with a song;

Strong drink shall be bitter to them that drink it. 10 The city of confusion is broken down:

Every house is shut up, that no man may come in. 11 There is a crying for wine in the streets;

All joy is darkener,

The mirth of the land is gone. 12 In the city is left desolation,

And the gate is smitten with destruction. 1 Heb. perverteth the face thereof.

? Or, prince.

3 Heb. the height of the people o emptiness.

earth.

TEXTUAL AND GP.AMMATICAL.

Ver. 1. pp?!3 (comp. xix. 3 and ver. 3; Hos. x. 1; Nah. | also Nah. ii. 11, where only the word occurs again, xl. 3; Jer. xix. 7; li. 2), part

, from PPP to pour out, to hay pervertere, conturbare (comp. xxi. 3 Niph, Piel be empty, forms with ap 519 (devastare, a paronomasia, as sides only Lam. iii. 9) is here applied to the surface of

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the earth in the sense of throwing confusedly together , punctuation shox, has the force of a dash in our laneverything found upon it.

guage. The application to personal beings of this pre

dicate, that had been used previously of lifeless things, Ver. 2. On 3-3 = As, so, os - is comp. Ewald, 2360.

is thereby emphasized. The abnormal employment of the article in an is Ver. 6. 70 in Kal only here, Niph, xli. 11; xlv. 24. occasioned by the endeavor to produce an assonance Ver. 7. nax (current only in Niph.) is found only here with oņgy. 78is creditor, and of like meaning in Isaiah, probably borrowed from Joel i. 18.

Ver. 10. Xied as xxiii. 1. with map, but the idea of usury seems to be involved Ver. 12. 18v is är.dey, and stands in apposition to in nv).

the object, or, as the word is passive, in apposition to . 3. , ,

the subject of na', to express what should bo made of garded as forms horrowed from the related W-stems, the object or subject. Translate: The gate is smitten and are here chosen for the sake of conformity with to ruins. Comp. vi. 11; xxxvii. 26. On the form na! the infinitive forms pian, ikan.

(Hoph, from no contundere, xi. 4; xxx. 14) comp. OlsVer. 4. The half pause, which is indicated by the | HAUSEN, Grari., $ 261.

-may be re תּבַּן תּבַּק instead of תּבּוֹז תּבּוֹק .3

.Ver

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

1. The Prophet transports himself in spirit to the Deuteronomy (comp. iv. 27 ; xxviii. 64; XXX. end of all things. He describes the destruction 3) is found besides in Isaiah only xxviii. 25; of the world. He sees, however, that this de- xli. 16. The LORD knows no respect of persons. struction will be gradually accomplished. He When the great forces of nature by God's comhere depicts the first scene : the destruction of all mand assail our race, then all are alike affected. that exists on the surface of the earth. This de- In a desolation wrought by human hands the case struction beurs the closest resemblance to such can be different. Then the more distinguished desolations of countries and cities as even now persons are often treated otherwise than the poor, occur in consequence of wars. Hence the Pro- and are reserved for a better fate (comp. 1 Sam. phet borrows the colors for this his first picture xv. 8 sq.; 2 Kings xxv. 27 sqq.). When “peoof the destruction of the world from such oc-. ple” and “priest” are put in contrast, and not currences in actual history. Jehovah empties, people” and “prince” or “ king,” the reason devastates, depopulates the surface of the earth is to be songht in the fact that the priests in the (ver. 1), and the inbabitants are without dis- theocracy form properly the nobility. The place, tinction of person swept away (ver. 2); and this moreover, is a quotation from Hos. iv. 9. ` Any work of emptying and devastation is thoroughly citizen may become a king; but he only can be accomplished (ver. 3). In consequence, inani- a priest who is of the priestly race. Comp. Lev. inate nature appears mourning, and every lieight xxi.; Ezek. xliv. 15 sqq.; JOSEPHUS Con. Ap. I, and glory of creation has vanished (ver, 4); and 7; Mishna Kiddushin iv. 4. [The rightful King this too is quite natural, for the earth has been of Israel must according to the divine appointdefiled by the sins of men (ver. 5). Therefore ment be of the house of David.-D. M.] The the curze has, as it were, devoured the earth; sentence ver. 2 contains six comparisons. As in therefore men, with the exception of a small the first half of the verse, the second and third remnant, are destroyed from the earth (ver. 6). comparisons are not specifically distinct from one Therefore the precious productions of the earth another, so is it too in the second half of the that gladden the heart of man have vanished, verse. With a repetition of assonant sounds, and with them all joy on earth (vers. 7–9). The which like waves or shocks succeed one another, head of the carth, the great city of the world is a the Prophet paints the emptying and plundering chaos of ruins, its houses no man enters any more of the earth. We have already remarked that (ver. 10). In the streets nothing is heard save he depicts the devastation of the surface of the lamentations over the loss of what gladdens the earth in colors which are borrowed from the heart of man. All joy bas departed (ver. 11). devastation of a single country by an earthly Nothing remains in the city but solitude and de- enemy. For that the subject treated of is the solation. The gates are broken to pieces (ver. 12). devastation of the earth, and not merely of the

2. Behold the LORD ... do languish. land of Palestine, appears from the whole scope - Vers. 1-4. 1797, with a participle following, of chapters xxiv-xxvii., which are intended to frequently introduces in Isaiah the prophetic dis- depict the judgment of the world; and this point course: iii. 1; viii. 7 ; . 33; xiii. 9, 17; xvii. the prophecy. It might be asked: if yox is the

coines ever more clearly to light in the course of 1; xxii. 17 et saepe. În general, this usage occurs in all the Prophets. But it is peculiar to earth, who then are the plunderers? But this is Isaiah, quite abruptly and without any intro- an idle question, . For the Prophet sees in spirit ductory formula to begin the prophetic discourse an occurrence which appears to him at the first with 13m. The description of the destruction sight quite like the devastation of a country in

war bý a hostile military force. He sees great of the earth begins with its surface (comp. ver. confusion, men shouting and fleeing, houses burn18 b sqq.). To it the inhabitants also belong, for ing and falling down, smoke rising to heaven, they can exist only on the surface. If now all etc. He sees no particular country; he sees no things on the surface of the earth are thrown definite persons in the plundering enemies. It confusedly together, the inhabitants, too, are nat. is a question if he really perceives plundering urally scattered.

For the whole representation is at first seems to be taken from the threatening words of la comparatively indistinct picture which gradu

an expression which ,הפיץ

persons.

curs,

ally attains greater clearness and definiteness. | (Rom. i. 20). The Prophet indicates here the On the expression “For the LORD hath spoken," deep moral reason why our earth cannot forever which occurs more frequently in Isaiah than in continue in its present material form. the other Prophets, coup. on i. 2. The addition 4. Therefore hath the curse-drink it.“this word” is found only here. It is evi- Vers. 6-9. On the statement of the cause, ver. 5, dently used in order to continue in the second follows anew with “therefore” the declaration half of the verse the play with words by means of the consequences, so that ver. 5 serves as a of lingual and labial sounds. The effect of the basis both for what precedes and what follows. devastation is that the land appears mourning The same condition is described in the main by and exhausted (ver. 4). Here too the Prophet vers. 6-12 as by vers. 1-4. Only in so far are heaps together assonant words. to mourn,

vers. 6–12 of a different import, as they promiis used by Isaiah iii. 26; xix. 9; xxxiii. 9. The nently, set forth not only the general, but the description in Joel i. 9 sq. seems to have been drawal of the noblest fruit, wine, and as they

special experiences of men through the withhere before his mind. 423, to all off, from being from verse 10 direct the look to the great centre withered, is used by Isaiah i. 30; xxviii. 1, 4; of the earth, the city of the world. Jeremiah has

our place in general before his eyes (xxxiii. 10). xxxiv. 4; Ixiv. 5. Son, the earth (either as The curse is conceived as the devouring fire of terra fertilis, or as očkovnévn, never as designation the divine wrath (Exod. xxiv. 17; Deut. iv. 24; of a single country) is a current word with Isaiah. ix. 3; Isa. x. 16 sq.; xxix. 6; xxx. 27-30; Comp. on xiii. 11. 1787 by, an expression xxxiii. 14). The expression box oba (mark which Isaiah does not elsewhere employ, seems

the assonance with ver. 4) occurs only here. to denote here the inhabitants of the earth in Dux (in Isaiah only here) denotes in this congeneral. This is the rather possible, as our place nection, not “to be guilty, to contract guilt,” but is the first and oldest in which the expression oc- “ to suffer the punishment of guilt." Comp.

It has not here the specific sense of “com- Hos. x. 2; xiv. 1 et saepe. The effect of that mon people,” plebs, in opposition to people of burning wrath which devours the guilty, extends rank, in which sense it afterwards occurs. Comp. first to men. These are parched by it, their sap my remarks on Jer. i. 18. Din is the abstract is dried up (Ps. xxxii. 4). But where the sap for the concrete, the height for the high and of life is dried up, death ensues, and, in conseeminent. Not only inanimate creation, man too quence, but few people remain on the earth. presents the sad look of decay. What among This surviving of a small remnant is confessedly men blooms and flourishes, as well as the fresh a very significant point in Isaiah's prophecy (iv. green vegetation, becomes withered and languid. 3; vi. 13; x. 19 sqq.; xi. 11, 16; xvii. 6).

3. The earth also is defiled -covenant. Isaiah uses the word wijs more frequently than -Ver. 5. This verse must be regarded as related the other Prophets. He employs it six times beto what precedes as the statement of the cause. side the case before us; viii. 1; xiii. 7-12; xxxiii. For here the sins of men are pointed out. But 8; li. 7; lvi. 2. Of the other Prophets only sin has punishment for its necessary consequence. Jeremiah uses it, and but once. In the book of We must say, therefore, that there lies a cansal Job the word occurs 19 times. is found power in the wav with which this verse begins; only in Isaiah ; x. 25; xxix. 17; xvi. 14. 777 as is not unfreqnently the case. That the land is defiled through blood-guiltiness and other sin also is found only Isa. xxviii. 10, 13, and Job is declared Numb. xxxv. 33, which place Isaiah xxxvi

. 2. 3? ning occurs only here. wivn has probably in his eye, (comp. Jer. iji. 1, 2, 9). occurs 17 times in the Old Testament; of these niin is to be taken in the local sense. The

10 times in Isaiah ; viii. 6; xxiv. 8 (bis), 11; earth lies as a polluted thing under the feet of its xxxii. 13, 14; Ix. 15; lxii. 5; Ixv. 18; lxvi. 10. inhabitants. How could such polluted ground be suffered to exist? It is an object of wrath, it Ver. 8 77 the tambourine v. 12; xxx. 32. jixy must be destroyed. The second half of the verse eight times in Isaiah (v. 14; xiii. 4; xvii. 12 tells by what the earth has been defiled; men (bis), 13; xxiv. 8; xxv.5; Ixvi. 6); in the whole have transgressed the divine laws, have wantonly old Testament 17 times. rhy, sare in two deslighted the ordinance, and broken the everlast- pendent places in Zeph. (ii. 15; iii. 11), only in ing covenant (xxx. 8; Iv. 3). _ninin only here pendent places in Zeph. (ii. 15; iii. 11), only in in Isaiah, is frequent in the Pentateuch : Gen. xxvi. 5; Exod. xvi. 28; xviii. 16, 20 et saepe. that uses 7032 is Isaiah; he has it five tinies: v.

v. 14. The only Prophet save Ezekiel (xxvi. 13) 9277 of the law only here. Mark the assonance 12; xvi. 11; xxiii. 16; xxiv. 8; xxx. 32. In with 7in. The radical meaning of the word is va observe the ? marking accompaniment. " to change," comp. on ii. 18; viii. 8; ix. 9; 70 is used five times by Isaiah (xxiii. 16; xxvi. xxi. 1. Not only to the people of Israel has God given a law, not merely with this people has 1; XXX. 29 ; xlii. 10). No other Prophet emGod made a covenant; the Noachic covenant is ploys the word so frequently. 97, to be bitter, for all men; yea, in a certain sense for all crea- in Isaiah in different forms three times: xxii. 4; tures on the earth (Gen. ix. 1 sqq., and ver. 9 xxiv. 9; xxxviii. 17. 7 intoxicating drink; sqq.). God has given witness of Himself to all with the exception of Micau who uses the word men (Acts xiv. 17), and made it possible for all once (ii. 11), it is used by no other Prophet sare to perceive His invisible power and godhead | Isaiah v. 11, 22; xxiv. 9; xxviii. 7 ter; lvi. 12.

Isaiah, after having foretold, ver. 7, the destruc- | The Prophet declares that the inward chaos would tion of the vine, the noblest fruit of the ground, also be outwardly manifested. Every thing here depicts its consequence, the cessation of joy is in accordance with the style of Isaiah. 720 which wine produces (Ps. civ. 15). 5. The city of confusion

is used very often by Isaiah (viii. 16; xiv. 5;

-destruction, -Vers. 10-12. In these three verses the Pro- xvii. 25, 29; xxvii. 11; xxviii. 13; xxx. 14, et phet proceeds to describe the destiny of the great saepe). 7? is found sixteen times in the proworldly city, the head and centre of the kingdom phets; of these, ten times in Isaiah (i. 21, 20; xxii. of the world. It is not surprising that he gives 2; xxiv. 10; xxv. 2, 3; xxvi. 5; xxix. 1; xxxii

. particular prominence to it, when we consider how largely Babylon figures in prophecy (comp. 13; xxxiii. 20). 17in occurs twenty times in the my remarks on Jeremiah l. and li. Introduction). O. T.; of these, eleven times in Isaiah ; one of the I would not, however, be understood as affirming places is admitted to be genuine (xxix. 21); the that our Prophet had Babylon specifically before other places where it occurs are assailed by the his mind. Isaiah intends just the city of the critics. We might wonder how one could speak world kar'içoxív, whatever name it might bear. of closed houses in a destroyed city. We may I do not think that 17'np is to be taken collec- not understand this, with DRECHSLER, of some

houses that remained uninjured. It was rather tively as xxv. 3. (ARNDT de Jes. xxiv-xxvii. the falling of the houses that rendered them inCommentatio, 1826, p. 10, DRECHSLER, etc.); For capable of being entered into. In the street too it is unnecessary to emphasize the cities beside (ver. 11) the lamentation at the loss of wine and the level country. No one looks for their speci: the departure of all joy is repeated (comp. xvi. 7 fication; for every one includes the cities in all that has been previously said of the p18 or San. Judges xík. 9 and here

. Its meaning is nigrum

-10). 37)occurs only twice in the 0. T.; viz.: But an emphatic mention of the city of the world, esse, obscurari, occidere. When all joy and life the proper focus of worldliness, corresponds to its have fled from the city, nothing remains in it but importance. The place xxv. 3 cannot be com- desolation (ver. 12). "If I am to state what future pared; for there the context and construction events will correspond to this prophecy of the first (plural verbs) are decidedly in favor of our act of the judgment of the world, it appears to me taking the word as a collective. That under this that the description of the Prophet, as it _refers city we do not understand Jerusalem, as most do, is solely to occurrences which have for their theatre self-evident from our view of this passage. The the surface of the earth, corresponds to what our city of the world is called the city of emptiness, Lord in His discourse on the last things says of (not confusion] because worldliness has in it its seat the signs of His coming, and of the beginning of and centre, and worldliness is essentially 17 i. e., Xox1.9 sqq.). And the beginning of sorrows cor

sorrows (Matt. xxiv. 6-8; Mark xiii. 7-8; Luke vanitas, inanity, emptiness. 17h is used in this sense responds again to what the Revelation of John (xxix. 21; xxxiv. 11; xl. 17, 23; xli. 29; xliv. represents under the image of seven seals, seven 9; xlv. 18, 19; xlix. 4; lix. '4; 1 Sam. xii. 21). I trumpets, and seven vials (chap. vi. sqq.).

2. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE GLOBE.

CHAP. XXIV. 13-23. 13 "When thus it shall be in the midst of the land among the people,

There shall be as the shaking of an olive-tree,

And as the gleaning grapes when the vintage is done. 14 They shall lift up their voice,

They shall sing for the majesty of the LORD,

They shall cry aloud from the sea. 15 Wherefore glorify ye the Lord in the 1bfires,

Even the name of the LORD God of Israel in the isles of the sea 16 From the ’uttermost part of the earth have we heard songs,

Even glory to the righteous.
But I said,
'My leanness, my leanness, woe unto me!
The treacherous dealers have dealt treacherously;

Yea, the treacherous dealers have dealt very treacherously. 17 Fear, and the pit, and the snare are upon thee,

O inhabitant of the earth. 18 And it shall come to pass,

That he who fleeth from the noise of the fear
Shall fall into the pit ;

And he that cometh up out of the midst of the pit
Shall be taken in the snare :
For the windows from on high are open,

And the foundations of the earth do shake. 19 The earth is utterly broken down;

The earth is clean dissolved,

The earth is moved exceedingly.
20 The earth shall reel to and fro like a drunkard,

And shall •be removed like a cottage;
And the transgression thereof shall be heavy upon it;
And it shall fall,

And not rise again.
21 And it shall come to pass in that day,

That the LORD shall punish the host of the high ones that are on high,

And the kings of the earth upon the earth. 22 And they shall be gathered together, bas prisoners are gathered in the pit,

And shall be shut up in the prison,

And after many days shall they be "visited. 23 Then the moon shall be confounded,

And the sun ashamed,
When the Lord of hosts shall reign in mount Zion, and in Jerusalem,
And before his ancients gloriously.

1 Or, vallcus.
4 Heb. visit upon.
7 Or, found wanting.
For thus it shall be.

2 Heb. roing.

8 Heb. leanness to me, or, my secret to me.
6 Heb, with the gathering of prisoners, 6 Or, dungeon.
8 Or, There shall be glory before his ancients.
the lands of light, the east.

o shake like a hammock.

TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL.

TT:

Ver. 13. The impersonal expression 7'7' 7] is to be with 720x; but mox is really in apposition to the understood as 1771 xvii. 5.

subject involved in 10 DX. The singular 70x need not Ver. 19. 7yh is a substantive as 723 in ver. 16 and cause surprise ; comp. xx. 4. The case before us comes

in ver. 22; three examples in this chapter of the under the category of the ideal number treated of, XAEinfin. abs. being represented by a substantive formed GELSBACH Gr., 8 61, 1 sq. Sy stands in the signification from the same stem. Ver. 22. Many would connect 70 of 58. Comp. on 1. 3.

אספָה

sea,

i. e.,

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The Prophet depicts here the second stage of earth will be broken up (ver. 18 b). The globe the world's destruction. This consists substan- of the earth will then rend, burst, break (ver. tially in the shattering of the globe of the earth 19), reel like a drunken man. The earth cannot itself. The transition is formed by the thought, bear the load of sin. It must, therefore, fall to ver. 13, that only few men, a gleaning, as it were, rise again no more (ver. 20). But the judgment will survive the first catastrophe. But these saved of God is not confined to the earth : The angelie ones are the pious, the elect of God. These flee powers that are hostile to God will, as well as to the promised land, to Jerusalem. From the the representatives of the worldly power on earth,

from the west, the prophet hears the song be cast into the abyss, and there shut up for a of praise (ver. 14). He answers by calling on time; but after a certain term has expired, they east and west to praise the name of the Lord (ver. will again be liberated (Pers. 21, 22). Sun and 15). This summons is obeyed. We perceive moon, too, will lose their brightness, so that only from this, that the elect of God are hidden in a in one place of the world can safety be found, safe place (ver. 16 a). But that is just the occasion namely, in Zion. For, although the rest of the for the signal to be given for the occurrence of the earth be shattered, Zion, the holy mount, relast and most frightful catastrophe. The Prophet mains uninjured. For there Jehovah rules 23 announces it with an exclamation of anxiety and king, and through the heads of His people there terror. At the same time he declares why it must gathered round Him will He communicate His be the sin of men provokes the judgment of glory to His people also (ver. 23). God (ver. 16b). He characterizes beforehand the 2. When thus it shall be-treacherouscatastrophe as one which shall take place in differ- ly.-Vers. 13-16. In the olive and grape harent successive acts, each more severe than the pre- vest the great mass of the fruit is shaken or ceding, so that he who has escaped the first blow will plucked off and cast into the press. Only few certainly fall under the second or the third (vers. berries remain on the olive tree or vine. The 17, 18 a).. For, as at the deluge, the windows of few remaining olives are struck off with a stick. heaven will be opened, and the foundations of the The few grapes remaining on the vine are after

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