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bring " the hire of a whore” into the house of in its details. Our prophecy does not refer to the God. I believe that the passage before us, which siege by Shalmaneser, because the Prophet (ver. bears in this point a great resemblance to xix. 18 13) expressly declares that he has the Chaldeans sqq., belongs to those uiterances which must have in view as the enemies that would cause the ruin been obscure to the Prophet himself, because the of Tyre. After what has been already said I key to their interpretation is not furnished till cannot acknowledge that there is anything to they are fulfilled. This fulfilment, however, justify an alteration of the text.

But the conseems to be afforded by the Christian Tyre, re-flicts of Shalmaneser with Tyre can have furspecting which we shall say more immediately. nished the occasion for our prophecy. The olject {"Instead of a queen reinstated on the throne, at which the Assyrian, and afterwards the BabyTyre appears as a forgotten harlot suing once lonian rulers ainied for the extension and securimore for admiration and reward. This metaphor ty of their kingdom towards the southwest, was necessarily imparts a contemptuous tone to the the conquest of Egypt. The conquest of Syria, prediction. The restoration here predicted was Phenicia, Palestine, Philistia and the adjoining to be a restoration to commercial prosperity and territories of Arabia was only in order to the atwealth, but not to regal dignity or national im- tainment of that end. The possession of Pheniportance. Notwithstanding the apparent cia, that ruled the sea, was especially of the import of the figure, the conduct of Tyre is not in greatest importance for the war with Egypt, beitself unlawful. The figure, indeed, is now com cause Phenicia, with its fleet in the hands of the monly agreed to denote nothing more than com- Assyrians, could be just as useful to them as, in mercial intercourse, without necessarily implying the service of the Egyptians, it could be hurtful to guilt. In ancient times when international com- them. For this reason the Prophet (ver. 5) demerce was a strange thing, and nearly monopo- picts the terror which the capture of Tyre would lized by a single nation, and especially among produce in Egypt. For that party in Jerusalem the Jews, whose laws discouraged it for wise but ihat was disposed to rely on the alliance with temporary purposes, there were probably ideas Egypt against Assyria, the integrity of Tyre must attached to such promiscuous intercourse entirely for this reason be a matter of prime moment. different from our own. Certain it is that the We might say : they relied on Tyre as the right Scriptures more than once compare the mutual arm of Egypt. As now the Prophet combated solicitations of commercial enterprise to illicit the reliance on Egypt, he must also be concerned love. That the comparison does not necessarily to destroy the false hopes that were placed on involve the idea of unlawful or dishonest trade, is Tyre. He does this in our chapter, while he sufficiently apparent from ver. 18.” ALEXAN- represents Tyre as a city devoted by the LORD to DER. D. M.].

destruction (ver. 8 sqq.). Why should Judah 4. In regard to the fulfilment of this prophecy we

trust in such a power and not rather in Him who can get at the righi view only when we attend is able to decree such a doom on the nations ? To carefully to the peculiarity of the prophetic vi- set this before his people for due consideration, sion. The Prophet does not see every thing, but was certainly the practical aim of Isaiah. But only the principal matters, and he sees all the we must now inquire more precisely : Did Isaiah chief things which are essentially identical, not see himself prompted to this discourse before the one after the other, but as it were on one surface campaign of Shalmaneser against Tyre, during beside each other. Hence it happens that that the same, or after it? It is not indeed impossible appears to him an immediate effect, which in for the Prophet to have uttered this prediction reality is the result of a long course of develop- before the conflicis which Shalmaneser, according ment extending over thousands of years. Hence to the fragment of Menander in JOSEPHUS (Anfrequently the appearance is as if fulfilment did tigg. IX. 14, 2), carried on with the Tyrians; but not correspond to the prophecy, while yet the any ground in facts for making this assumpfulfilment only happens in another way than it tion is entirely wanting. It is also in itself not seemed from the point of view of the Prophet impossible for Isaiah to have composed the prothat it ought to happen. I have, to cite an ex- phecy after the blockade of Tyre had been raised, ample, shown in detail in my Commentary on Jer- perhaps at the same time with those prophecies emiah, I. and li., that Babylon was never de- against Egypt (xviii., xix., xx.), and against the stroyed by the hand of man. It has been various nations whose subjugation was a necessary pretimes captured. The conquerors injured the city, liminary to attacking Egypt (xv., xvi., xxi. 11 the one on this, the other on that part, but none sqq.). We might even appeal in support of this of them at once so entirely destroyed it, as, accord- view to xx. 6, where under 17707 87 it would be ing to Jeremiah l. and li., apparently should have proper to understand Phenicia and specially Tyre. been done. And yet the final result corresponds But this prophecy belongs to the year 711 B. C., qnite to the picture which Jeremiah draws of consequently to a time when the blockade of Babylon's destruction. The same is the case Tyre by Shalmaneser was long past. For Shalhere. Isaiah affirms two separate things: 1) maneser was in the year 722 already dead. But Tyre shall be destroyed, and that by the Chal- now it is certainly less probable that a Prophet dæans; 2) It shall be restored after 70 years, should make a matter the subject of a prophecy and its wealth shall be serviceable to the kings at a time when this matter has been partially dom of God. And these announcements have disposed of and engages less the general interest, also on the whole been fulfilled; but because the than that he should do this at a time when the separate constituents of the prophecy were accom- matter in question is going on, and is attracting plished at varions times, widely apart from one the greatest attention. I therefore hold it to be another, the fulfilment, while it corresponds to more probable that our prophecy was delivered the prophetic picture as a whole, is not evident before the year 722, and that it consequently be

one.

longs to a time when the conflict with Tyre was would not have served the interests of the Chalstill lasting. The prophecy published at this deans, it became a province of the Babylonian juncture was, moreover, intended to tell the Is- empire, whence it passed over into the hands of raelites that the Assyrians would not conquer the Persians, Grecians and Romans, as Jerome Tyre, as then seemed likely, but that the Chal- on Ezek. xxvii. says: "Quod nequaquam ultra sit deans would do so. The prophecy then belongs regina populorum nec proprium habeat imperium, uti to the same time as chapter xxviii. (comp. the habuit sub Hiram et ceteris regibus, sed vel Chaldæis introduction to xxviii.-xxxiii.), which first as- vel Macedonibus vel

. Ptolemæis et ad postremum Rosails the Egyptian alliance, and, as we will there manis servitura sit.. The conquest by Nebuchadshow, must have been composed before the cap- nezzar was the act in the world's history which ture of Samaria (comp. xxviii. 1), and therefore originated the complete destruction of Tyre, though before the contemporaneous blockade of Tyre its ruin was not all at once etfected. This act had (comp. SCHRADER, ut supra, p. 155). The block- involved in it what should take place in the fuade by Shalmaneser and his successor Sargon, al- ture, and this future gradually unfolded the sigthough the expression ėkaptépnoav in Menander nificance of that act which was such a beginning would warrant our inferring a final surrender, does as presaged the coming end, as was the earnest not seem to have been attended with consequences of the final doom of Tyre. Its capture by Alexparticularly hurtful to the Tyrians. The Assy. | ander the Great (333 B. C.; comp. Curt. iv. 7 rians were themselves interested in sparing the 599.; ARRIAN II. 24) was one of the chief events resources of the Tyrians, that they might use in the accomplishment of its predicted ruin. them for their own advantage. From this time But Tyre outlived even this visitation. CURTIUS till the commencement of the Chaldean wars there says expressly: "Multis ergo casibus defuncta et is a complete gap in the history of Phenicia post excidium renata, nunc tamen longa pace (Movers, II., I., p. 400). That Nebuchadnezzar cuncta refovente sub tutela Romanæ mansuetudinis besieged Tyre is now no more disputed by any acquiescit.” Who can help thinking here on the

That the siege lasted thirteen years has at restoration which Isaiah, yer. 15 sqq., promises least great internal probability. JOSEPH US states to the city? Isaiah indeed promises this restoit on the authority of Philostratus (Antiqq. X. 11, ration after 70 years. But these 70 years denote 1) and of the Tyrian Menander (although, without only the duration of the rule of the Chaldeans. expressly mentioning his name, Contra Apion, 1, The Prophet sees only one master of the Pheni21). We have, besides, the authority of the pro- cian capital—the Chaldeans (ver. 13). This is phet Ezekiel (xxvi.- xxviii., xxix. 16 sqq.); But the relative defect in his vision. He sees too the the question is: Did Nebuchadnezzar also destroy restoration immediately after the disappearance Tyre? On this subject many needless words have of this one enemy. This is likewise a relative been used by those who thought that the honor defect. For, as in reality the destruction of Tyre of prophecy absolutely required that Tyre should had many distinct stages, so also was it with the have been destroyed at once and directly by Ne- restoration. The occasion and starting point of buchadnezzar. This did not happen, and 'is by the restoration is seen by the Prophet in the passno means necessary to save the credit of prophecy. ing away of this one arch-enemy. But to Isaiah We know from IIERODOTUS (II. 161) and Dió- this flourishing anew of Tyre was only a revival DORUS (I. 68) that the Egyptian king Apries, who of its commerce, and this was really the fact. was cotemporary with Nebuchadnezzar, under- Thus JEROME on Ezekiel xxvii. states that Tyre took a successful expedition against the Pheni usque hodie perseverat ut omnium propemodum cians who had hitherto been his allies. How gentium in illa exerceantur commercia.” Pliny, would this be conceivable if Phenicia (to which however, remarks (Hist. Nat. V. 17): Tyrus olim doubtless Tyre is to be reckoned) had not been clara ... nunc omnis ejus nobilitas conchylio atque for the Egyptians the country of an enemy, i.e., purpura constat." Tyre became afterwards & a Babylonian province ? According to the ac- Christian city. When our Lord was upon earth, count already mentioned, which JOSEPHUS (Con- longing souls came from the borders of Tyre and tra Apion 1. 21) communicates from Tyrian Zidon to see and to hear Him; and He, on His sources, there arose difficulties in regard to the part, did not disdain to honor these borders with succession to the throne of Tyre after the thirteen His presence (Mark iii. 8; Luke vi. 17; Matth. years' sicge. A king Baal ruled for ten years af xv. 21). Paul found there (Acts xxi. 3 sqq.) a ier Itobaal, in whose reign the siege began. But Christian church. In the beginning of the fourth then follow two judges, one high-priest, then again century Methodius was bishop of Tyre. In 315 two judges, who govern in conjunction with a a church erected there at great expense was dediking. The duration of these governments was, in cated by Eusebius of Cæsarea. In 355 a Synod the case of some of them, very brief. At last the convoked by the Eusebians against Athanasius Tyrians procure for themselves a king from Ba was held there. In 1125 it was taken by the crubylon in the person of Merbaal, and after his saders and incorporated in the kingdom of Jerudeath they obtain from the same place his brother salem. In 1127 it became the seat of an archbiHiram. For, according to 2 Kings xxv. 28, there shop. William of Tyre, the celebrated historian, were, beside Zedekiah, other captive kings in occupied the see of Tyre from the year 1174. Babylon. If now Nebuchadnezzar brought the Not till the end of the 13th century did the Sararoyal family with him to Babylon, is not that a cens destroy the fortifications. After Alexander proof of his having conquered syre? (comp. the Great had connected Tyre with the main land MOVERS, ut supra, p. 460 sqq.). So much is esta- by means of a mole, it ceased to be an island, and blished, that Tyre, since the close of the conflicts it is now a village of fishermen's huts, with about with Nebuchadnezzar, ceased to be an independ- 3,000 inhabitants (Sur). All that the Prophet ent state. Although it was not destroyed, which I announced has thus in fact been fulfilled. But in

error.

the language of prophecy and in the language of God's word and sacrament.” CRAMER. [This is its fulfilment, divine thoughts clothe themselves quite too indiscriminate a censure of merchants in such strangely different forms that only he can and traders. CICERO (De Off. Lib. 1) expresses a perceive the identity who understands how to similar opinion as to the necessity for hucksters combine the long-drawn lines of history into one to practise deceit in order to make a profit. Happicture in perspective. This picture will exactly pily the book of Ecclesiasticus is not inspired correspond to that of the Prophet. [The remarks Scripture, and Christianity has so far improved of our author, when carefully studied, vindicate the spirit of men of business that the language of the Prophet from the charge of even a relative the Apocrypha as quoted above and of CICERO

The Prophet does not say that the pre- would not now be tolerated, but would be unidicted restoration of Tyre should all at once take versally regarded as most unjust and calumniaplace on the expiration of seventy years, or the tory.-D. M.] close of the rule of the Chaldeans. The require.

2. On vers. 8 and 9. “This place affords us ment of the prophecy is satisfied if Tyre should consolation. As the threatening of the Prophet begin to flourish after its deliverance from the against Tyre was not vain, so also the tyranny of Chaldean oppression. The Spirit of God again our adversaries will come to an end. Neither the saw in the capture of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar Pope nor the Turk believes that they can fall the germinant force which would issue in its final but they shall fall, as Tyre fell.” LUTHER. complete destruction, and accordingly foretells

3. On ver. 18. "Ego intelligo de futuro regno that the ruin of Tyre would follow that event. Christi, quod et ipsa Tyrus convertenda est ad DoBut whether this should happen at once, or in the minum. Dicit igitur, postquam reversa fuerit ad course of time, is not declared. Nebuchadnezzar suas negociationes, imminebit regnum Christi

, quod brought Tyre to ruin; for his capture of it led Tyrus quoque amplectetur, sicut testatur Act. xxi.” to its entire destruction, though there intervened LUTHER. a long line of operations and issues which it re

On ver. 18. They who dwell before the Lordquired many ages to develop. The remark of A barbanel, that has been often quoted, is here in i. e., who believe on Him, will have: 1) their point," that it is the custom of the prophets in merchandise, 2) will eat and be satisfied, 3)

will be well clothed. Therefore money and their predictions to have respect at once to a near very distant times are found among others which tical application against monkery and the Anaand remote period, so that prophecies pointing to property, food and goodly apparel, are not to be

condemned and renounced. This admits of pracrelate to the immediate future. Whence we may the more certainly conclude that God might of Germany maintained a community of goods.

baptists." CRAMER. [The original Anabaptists threaten the Tyrians with the destruction of their

-D. M.] city, though it might be brought on at different times and by gradual advances.” There is no mistake made by Isaiah in the picture which he drew. It fully served the object intended by 1. (On vers. 1-14. Why did God bring these God. The relative mistake is in the exponent calamities on Tyre? Not to show an arbitrary of the prophecy.-D. M.]

and irresistible power, but to punish the Tyrians for their pride (ver. 9). Many other sins, no doubt, reigned among them : idolatry, sensuality

and oppression--but the sin of pride is fastened 1. On ver. 1 sqq. “Commerce and seaports are upon as that which was the particular ground of not in themselves evil—but where commerce God's controversy with Tyre. Let the ruin of prospers and is in full bloom, there God's gift and Tyre be a warning to all places and persons to ordinance are to be recognised. Solomon engaged take heed of pride-for it proclaims to all the in commerce (2 Kings x. 28). When trade de world that he who exalts himself shall be abased. clines, this is to be looked upon as a punishment After HENRY.-D. M.] from the hand of God on account of the extortion 2. [Vers. 8 and 9. An appropriate text for a practised by merchants. For a merchant shall discourse on God's moral government over the hardly keep himself from doing wrong, and a nations, Dan. iv. 3.-D. M.] huckster shall not be freed from sin (Ecclesiasti 3. On ver. 18. Concerning the right use of cus xxvii. 29). Sin is committed not only where worldly goods: 1) We ought not to gather them merchants deal falsely, but also where they are as a treasure, nor to hide them. 2. We ought to proud of their riches and magnificence, and move consecrate them to the Lord, and therefore apply along as princes and lords, and forget the poor, them: a) to sacred objects, b) for the wants of the and at the same time neglect divine service, I body according to the will of the Lord.

HOMILETICAL HINTS.

DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL.

B-THE FINALE TO THE DISCOURSES AGAINST THE NATIONS: THE LIBEL

LUS APOCALYPTICUS. CHAPTERS XXIV.-XXVII. If there is a living God who concerns Himself consequently there is such a thing as prophecy with the history of mankind and directs the same which demonstrates the divine rule in history for according to His counsel, without detriment to our consolation and warning, then we need not be tbat human freedom which is the basis of the surprised if prophecy should refer even to the moral responsibility of every individual,—and if' very close of history. Must not God, who directs

history, foreknow what is most remote as well as as composed during the exile, at a time when the what is near at hand? And can He have no rea- fall of Babylon was imminent (axiv. 16 sqq.; son for causing the things that will take place at xxvi. 20 sq.; xxvii. 1). BOETTCHER (de inf. the end of the world to be predicted by the inter- 435, 440) attributes the discourse to a merchant preters of His will, the prophets? There is just who, resident in the neighborhood of the country the same reason for His doing this which there is of the Moabites, journeyed on business between for prophecy at all. We ought to know that the Assyria and Egypt, and appended his poem on history of the world is moving toward a certain the fall of Babylon (composed in the year 533) to goal fixed by God, in order that one class may that of another merchant on the fall of Tyre fear, and that the other may have a firm support (xxiii.). EWALD refers the piece to the time in every temptation, and the certain hope of final " when Cambyses was preparing his Egyptian victory. And we ought therefore not to be aston- campaign." These are the more important of ished if Isaiah, the greatest of all the prophets, the views of those who deny that Isaiah wrote penetrates by the spiritual vision given to him these chapters. Ile who wishes to learn the into the most distant future. This only would other opinions may consult ROSENMUELLER, GEwith reason surprise us,-if Isaiah should de- SENIUS, HITZIG and KNOBEL. scribe the distant future as one who had ex

There are four points which seem to me to perienced it and passed through it. But this is prove to a demonstration that the Prophet has not the case. For we clearly perceive that the not in view ordinary events of history. First, the pictures of the future which he presents to us are destruction of the globe of the earth announced, enigmatical to himself. He takes his stand in xxiv. 18-20. For, when it is aflirmed of the the present time; he is not only a man, but also earth with a repetition of the word 7-78 five times, an Israelite of his own age. He depicts the destruction of the earth in such a way that we can

that its foundations are shaken, that it is utterly see that it appears to him as the occurrence on a broken, clean dissolved, moved exceedingly, and grand scale of what was weil known to him, “the reels to and fro like a drunkard or a hammock, wasting of cities and countries." From his point more is certainly intended thereby than a political of view he distinguishes neither the exact chrono- revolution, or an occurrence in nature accompanylogical succession of the different objects, nor the ing such a revolution. It is the shaking of the real distance which separates him from the last earth in a superlative sensema shaking from things. And he is so much an Israelite that the which it will not rise again (ver. 20 b). judgment of the world appears to him as the Secondly, it is declared (ver. 21 sqq.) that the closing act in the great controversy of Israel judgment will extend to the stars and the angelic against the heathen nations. For DELITZsch is powers, and that sun and moon will cease to rule perfectly right when he regards our chapters as

the day and the night (Gen. i. 16), because Jethe fitting finale to chaps. xiii-xxiii. The Pro- hovah alone will be the source of light and glory phiet is, moreover, an Israelite of his own age. (comp. the Exposition). Thirdly, xxv. 6-8, we For, although he knows that the judgment will have set before us in prospect the gathering toextend to all the nations that constitute the gether of all nations on Mount Zion, the removal worldly power, nevertheless Assyria and Egypt of the covering from their eyes, the abolition of stand in the foreground as its prominent repre

death and of every evil. This is no picture of sentatives (xxvii. 12, 13). Only once, when he earthly happiness. It points beyond the bounds places the countries of the second exile over of this world and of this dispensation. against those of the first, do the former appear in Fourthly, the resurrection of the dead is foretold their natural double form as the countries of the (xxvi. 19 sqq.) together with the last judgment Euphrates and of the Tigris, or, as it is there ex- which brings to light all hidden guilt. Every pressed (xxvii. 1), the straight and the crooked restriction of this prophecy to a mere wish inLeviathan. Under the latter we are to under- volves a contradiction. For that this place restand Babylon (see the Exposition). And in ally contains the doctrine of the resurrection of the another place (xxv. 10 sqq.) Moab appears for dead is acknowledged by all. But no one will afa particular reason (see the Exposition) as the firm, much less be able to prove that this resurrecrepresentative of all the nations hostile to the tion was expected in the time of the exile, theocracy. The same criticism, which would and in order to the re-peopling of Palestine; or, make the Almighty get out of the way wherever if the latter is the case, then the resurrection of He makes His appearance within our sphere, has the dead is not the subject of discourse. For it endeavored in various ways to refer this prophecy would be an unheard-of assertion to affirm that to particular situations in the world's history. the Israelites expected that their return to PalesBut here one interpreter is arrayed against the tine and the resurrection should take place at the other, and one testimony destroys the other. same time. And how arbitrary is the exegesis After BERTHOLDT (Einleit., p. 1390), KNOBEL is which limits “the inhabitant of the earth” ver. of the opinion (shared by UMBREIT) that the 21, to any particular people, and puts into the prophecy points to the time when Jerusalem, latter part of the verse the thought: the earth which had been captured by the Chaldeans, was will restore the blood of those who were slain in completely destroyed by Nebuzaradan (2 Kings a certain time! Passages can indeed be quoted IXV. 8 sqq.). EICHHORN (Hebr. Proph. III., p. in which we read of innocent blood that had been 205 sqq.) refers the piece to the destruction of the shed not penetrating into the earth (Job xvi. 18; empire of the Chaldeans, and assumes as its Ezek. xxiv. 7 sq). But the bringing forth again anthor a Hebrew dwelling in the ruined and of all shed blood, and the coming forth of all desolate Palestine. ROSENMUELLER (Scholia 1 that had been killed out of the earth belong Ed.), GESENIUS and MAURER represent the piece naturally to eschatology. For these are pre

Both are

this is not the case, the circumstance that they / We make out the following plan of the piece:

liminaries to the realization of the final judg- does not contain thoughts and words that are new ment, If the view which refers this prophecy to and peculiar to it alone. This is not surprising events in the world's history were correct, must in a mind so inexhaustibly fertile as that of there not be some mention of Nebuchadnezzar Isaiah. The objection drawn from the occurrence and of the Chaldeans, in order to justify the of ideas that are said to belong to a later age, interpretation of BERTHOLDT, UMBREIT and might be of more weight. To this class of ideas KUOLEL? When we reflect what a mighty im- is referred the curse of the law (xxiv. 6). But pression this worldly power made upon Jeremiah, apart from Deut. xxviii.-xxx. (comp. espec. xxix. and how, after the battle of Carchemish, he never 19), that the curse should fall on transgressors of comes forth as a Prophet without mentioning the law is so obvious an idea, that it is inconNebuchadnezzar and the Chaldeans, it is incon- ceivable that it should be regarded as the sign of ceivable how a Hebrew who was among those a later time. That it happens not to occur in who suffered the crushing stroke from the hand writings universally admitted to precede the age of Nebuchadnezzar, could speak only of Egypt of Isaiah may appear strange, but is no proof of and Assyria, and at most, allusively and covertly, the later origin of these chapters. That gods are of the Chaldeans (xxvii. 1) as enemies of the spoken of as protecting powers of kingdoms, xxiv. thcoracy. But if our piece refers to the capture 21, is just as little established as that the sun and of Babylon by Cyrus, why is there no mention moon, xxiv. 23, are named as objects of idolatrous of the Persians? And the same objection avails homage (comp. our Exposition). The cessation against all other interpretations which apply the of death (xxv. 8), and the resurrection of the passage to events in the history of the world. dead (xxvi. 19) are closely connected. Against all of them the want of any specification confessedly ideas which could not have entered of such events may be justly objected. In regard clearly into the consciousness of the Israelites till to the style, and to the range of thought that cha- they had attained an advanced stage of religious racterize this piece, the exact and minute investi- culture. But that the Israelites first received gation which lies at the basis of our exposition this doctrine when, in exile, from Parseeism is, as will show that the language is altogether that of KLOSTERMANN says, an unfounded, unproved, Isaiah. If there are found in it manifold points modern tradition." Von Hormann is certainly of connection with other pieces which criticism right when he sees in the first, and fundamental has pronounced spurious, we have simply to say: promise [Gen. ii. 15) the basis of the hope that in view of the large amount of words and expres finally everything will have an end that has sions that we find here, undoubtedly germane to come into the world through the enemy of Godthe authentic style of Isaiah, we are entitled to sin and death.” This does not prevent this draw the reverse conclusion, and to affirm that passage from belonging to the oldest documents those pieces must be genuine, because they resem- of the awakening consciousness of this hope of ble so much our prophecy which undoubtedly faith. As we cannot see in this a proof of the comJias proceeded from Isaiah. The accumulation position of this piece during the exile, so it apof p:ironomasias, which are pronounced devoid pears to us equally improbable that this event, of taste, has been made a cause of reproach to which belongs to the final history of the world, our piece. But it must be shown that these paro- could escape the eye of an Isaiah. nomasias are more tasteless than other such forms In regard to the time of composition, it is very of speech, which we meet with in the acknow- difficult to say anything definite. More particuled zed compositions of Isaiah, and that they are lar indications fixing the date are entirely wantof a different kind. So long as this is not done, ing. The Prophet, as it were, soars high above I venture to affirm that this ingenious facility in his time, and as if cut loose from it, lives wholly the management of language best corresponds to in the future. Nevertheless, he beholds the theocthe eminent intellectual gifts of Isaiah, which racy in conflict with Assyria and Egypt; and we know sufficiently from other sources. Persons even Babylon appears, although but dimly disof such mental power, and possessing such a closed, among these foes. If we add that these command of language, are at all times rare. Ac- chapters follow immediately the prophecies cor:ling to our modern criticism there must have against the heathen nations, and appear as the been dozens of them among the Israelites at the winding up of the same, the supposition very time of the captivity. But I fear that such a readily suggests itself that they were composed in judgment is only possible when the critics, be- the time of Hezekiah, and as DELITZSCII says, cause they cannot, or will not perceive the as finale to chapters xiii.-xxiii. The manifold divinely great in these works of genius, so de points of connection with later pieces by Isaiah, grade them by the aid of their intolerably petty which we will particularly point out in the course and vulgar standard, that, in sooth, any bungler of our exposition, favor this view. might have composed them. Further, against The structure of the piece indicates no little art. regarding Isaiah as the author of these chapters The number two lies at its basis. There are it has been objected that they contain many pe- twice two chapters, of which the first and third culiar thoughts and expressions which occur have the final judgment of the world for their only here. But what does this objection amount subject, the second and fourth the deliverance of to? Do these thoughts and expressions contra- Israel. Each of these four chapters again condict Isaiah's manner of thinking and speaking ? sists of two parts. No one has yet been able to prove this. But if

1) The beginning of distress; the destruction occur only here is of no significance whatever. of the surface of the earth (xxiv. 1-12). For among the chapters of Isaiah that are acknow 2) The destruction of the globe of the earth ledged genuine, there is not a single one which |(xxiv. 13-23).

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