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again all the children born of me. But it must glorious and powerful city was Tyre, and this appear strange in the highest degree that Tyre, foundation of its joy was deep and broad. For because it is situated in the sea, and lives from its origin (777?? principium, origo, in Isaiah the sea, should itself be called sea." And I only here) dates from ancient time, and its power have not brought forth," etc.,” is something quite extended to the nost distant countries. HEROdifferent from "I have lost again my children.” JE DOTUS, who was himself in Tyre, relates (11. 14) ROME takes the words “ I have not travailed,” etc., that the priests in the temple of tercules had deas words of the sea used metaphorically: "frustra clared the age of the city and temple to be 2,300 dirtits comportavi, . illu dives illa luxuriosa et
As HERODOTUS was in Pliænicia in the populorum quondam gaudens multitudine, in qua nas
year 450 B. C., this woului carry back the found. cebutir turba mortalium, caterva puerorum, juventutis ing of Tyre to the year 2,750 B. c., and Movers examina, cujus plateae virginum .. ac juvenum (II. 1, p. 135) tinds this quite credible. More
lusibus perstrepebant, nunc ad solitudinem over, this age in comparison with that of the redacta eat.'' But even according to this view a oldest Egyptian things of which we have acmeaning is artificially put upon the figurative counts, would not be a very high one. Comp. speech which is not necessarily contained in its STRABO XVI. 2, 22; Curt. IV.4. Her feet car
I believe that a literal, and not meta- ried her afar' (see on xxii. 3) to dwell. It phorical interpretation suits better both the cannot be objected to our explanation that Tyre context and the words employed. Zidon comes to reached by ship those distant places, and that Tyre, her daughter, to look aronnd her. But therefore not flight into regions beyond the sea, with shame must the mother behold the place but carrying away into captivity, therefore painempty where her daughter with her many children ful migration on foot is held out in prospect to had dwelt. She sees nothing but the sea, and the her. For it is unjustifiable to press the expresnatural bulwark on which the waves of the sea sion “ feet," and we dare not think on a future break, the bare rocks of insular Tyre. And the sea migration to a distance, because such a thought Logether with the bulwark calls to Zidon, ashamed is here inept. It would be proper in ver. 6, and at the sight: “I have not travailed," etc., i. e. thou also in ver. 12 it suits the connection; but in ver. seekest children, but findest nothing else than 7 it makes the impression of tautology: Ver. 8. rock and s22, which do not travail nor bring But who is he who had the power to decree this forth, nor nourish children. (ALEXANDER seems concerning the rich old Tyre of far-reaching to me to set forth in brief terms the correct view might? The Prophet in the following verses of ver. 4: “The Prophet hears a voice from the shows a great interest in answering this question. sea, which he then describes more exactly as Tyre was not merely the wearer of crowns, but coming from the stronghold or fortress of the also the bestower of crowns (74000). This can sea, i. e., insular Tyre as viewed from the main- hardly mean that she herself had crowned kings. land. The rest of the verse is intended to ex- (Comp. Hiram, 2 Sam. v. 11; 1 Kings vi. 1; press the idea, that the city thus personified was Jer. xxvii. 3). For many cities had these, which childless, was as if she had never borne chil- are not for this reason called coronatrices. We dren.”—D. M.). Ver. 5. As Zidon is ashamed must, therefore, think of dependent cities, either after the fall of Tyre so Egypt is terrified. Phænician (therefore the king of Tyre is called Translate: “when the report comes to Egypt.” Great-king, comp. VAIDINGER in Herzog's, R. The concluding words of the verse seem to con- Encycl
. XI. p. 617 sqq.), or colonial cities. Of tain an empty pleonasm. But this is not the Tartessus (HEROD. i. 103; Ps. lxxii. 10) Citium
The Prophet intends to say: Egypt is af- and Carthage (originally) it is expressly stated frighted, as the report (reaches, comes to) it, that they had kings Comp. GESENICS on this namely, the judgment of Tyre. The terror will passage, Movers, Phæn. II. 1, p. 529 sqq.; escorrespond to the importance which the fall of pecially p. 533, 535, 539. Jeremiah too mentions Tyre must have both positively and negatively for Egypt. The words of the sixth verse I take besides the kings of Tyre and Zidon also isso as a call uttered by those who have heard the X7 Jer. xxv. 22. Moreover, the rich and report concerning Tyre, first of all, by the Egyp-mighty metropolis had also in her midst citizens, rians. These are forth with impressed by the who, though only merchants, equalled princes in thought that nothing further remains for the sur- wealth, pomp and power. How exactly too the viving Tyrians to do than to flee with howling as far away as possible to the opposite end of the Prophet distinguishes only and d'959. earth, to Tarshish. There is yet another reason seen from x. 8. The Phænicians called their wly Tarshish is the place to which Tyre should country is and themselves Canaanites. But flee. There, according to ver. 1, its ships are because they were the chief representatives of staying, which cannot return home, and which trade, merchants in general are called Canarnites; are now the only property and refuge of the
as at a later period Chaldean denoted an asmother country.
trologer; Lombard, a money changer; and Swiss, 5. Is this your joyous no rest.–Vers. 7-12. These verses contain words of the Pro- stands for 'Jyjd (comp. Gen. xv. 2, Damascus for
a porter or body guard. Observe that here ju32 phet. He contrasts what Tyre was once with Damascene). Above all this pomp and power what it is now. 7877, etc., is a question. Must it so happen to you? Must this be your lot, as
the might of Jehovah is highly exalted. He
has decreed its destruction in order to profane it were, the end of the song? And must such a conclusion follow the joyful beginning? Welshn) the pride of all glory. - This is to hapfeel the antithesis between ihy and the condi-pen by delivering up and casting down into the tion to which nNi points. A joyous, because I mire of the earth. From the use of the expression
“profane” the conclusion has not improperly meaning of ver. 12. Tyre had been called “joybeen drawn that the Prophet had especially in ous” ver. 7. But the rejoicing shall depart from his mind the famous, nagnificent and ancient her. She is now a npois a virgo compressu, temples of Tyre (comp. HERODOTUS, ut supra). vitiata (Pual only here comp. lii. 4), and such a Jehovah purposed further by the ruin of Tyre to humble all the proud (proudest) of the earth.
one does not rejoice. That Tyre is here called An essential part of this humiliation is that the
daughter of Židon," i. e., Zidonian, is perhaps colonies hitherto drained of their resources for
not merely a generalization of the name Zidon, but the benefit of the mother country, and kept under possibly at the same time a blow designedly given rigorous restraint, now become free. This is il- to the pride of Tyre, which named herself on lustrated by the instance of the most remote
coins "the mother of the Zidonians” (comp. colony Tartessus. Tarshish (ver. 10) is now told Movers, Phan. II. 1, p. 94, 119 sq.), and perthat she may be independent, and may dispose haps called herself so in the time of Isaiah. freely of her own territory and products. This Tyre must be punished, must be destroyed. verse has been explained in a great variety of Therefore the remnant are summoned to emiways by the old interpreters. (Comp. ROSEN- grate to Cyprus, into the hitherto dependent MUELLÉR). Since Koppe the explanation which been given (ver.'6) to pass over to Tarshish.
colony of Chittim, as the command had already we have given is commonly adopted. As the Nile But Tyre arrives in Chittim, not as mistress, but overflows Egypt (comp. Amos viii. 8; ix. 5) so shall Tarshish (daughter of Tarshish, comp. excites in those who had been hitherto oppressed
as an exile without power; a situation which on xxii. 4) spread herself without restraint over her own land. This must have been previously Hence even there poor Tyre finds no rest.
by her the desire to revenge themselves on her. prevented; and the phrase "there is no more
6. Behold, the land -is laid waste.girdle” must have a meaning that refers to this. The word rim is found besides only Ps. cix. 19. Vers. 13 and 14. We had been told (vers. 11 and of the same signification is n'ıp Job xii. 21. 12) in general terms how Tyre should be de
stroyed, and ver. 13 informs us regarding the Both words can only denote in these places the particular instrument, i. e., regarding the people girdle. This meaning does not well suit the that the LORD had destined to execute punishpassage before us.
But it seems to me that the ment. We receive from ver. 13 the impression Prophet hy the word “girdle" intends an allu- that the prophetic vision is turned in another sion which is unintelligible to us. Possibly an direction. Ii is as if his look were suddenly dioctroi-line restricting commerce for the benefit verted from west to east. He sees suddenly of the lords paramount, a cordon or something before him to his own astonishment the land of of a like nature, was designated by a Phænician the Chaldeans. The land of the Chaldrans, not term cognate with the Hebrew ni?. How, and the people! The people he might see everyby what means does the LORD execute His pur- where marching, fighting. The land he can berose against Tyre? This is answered in ver. 11 hold only in its own place. The very part of in general terms. He sets the sea and the king- the earth's surface where the country of the doms of the earth for this purpose in motion. Chaldeans lay, apart from its relation to Tyre, Here as little as in ver. 4 would I understand was of great importance for the Prophet and his under “ Sea,” Tyre (HITZIG), or all Phoenicia people. Thence should the destroyer of Jeru(KNOBEL); nor do I take the expression he salem come; there should the people of Judah stretched out his hand, etc.
, as meaning that pass 70 years in captivity. And because the look He simply reached His hand over the sea (DE- of the Prophet is here for the first time directed LITZSCHI); for does the Prophet imagine Jehovah to the Chaldeans, he is prompted to characterize to be dwelling on the other side of the sea ? But them in brief terms. He does this with two, the expression “to stretch the hand over the but with two very significant strokes. The first sea” denotes here, as in Exod. xiv. 21 (which describes the past, the second the future of the place the Prophet had perhaps before his eye), people. He first declares—This is the people such an outstretching of the hand as sets the sea that was not. He certainly does not mean to in motion. And so 77777 denotes here not to say thereby, that the people of the Chaldeans was pot in terror, trembling; but to put in commo
not at all, or was not in the physical sense. tion in order that they may arise to execute what Could the Prophet have known nothing of Nimthe LORD commands them (xiv. 16). The sec
rod (Gen. x. 10), nothing of Ur of the Chaldeans, ond part of the verse tells for what purpose the the original home of Abraham? But prophecy, sea and kingdoms are put in motion. The Lord in its grand style, confines, as is well known, the has given them a commandment (1793 as x.
whole history of the world to a few kingdoms; 6: the pronominal object being omitted, as often and what does not belong to them is regarded as
if it were not. But it was after the Assyrians happens) against Canaan (jy??=Phænicia, as that the Chaldeans first came upon the theatre the Phoenicians themselves gave the country this of the world's history. Hence from the prodesignation, comp. on ver. 8) in order to destroy phetic view of history the Chaldeans appear to (790? comp. on iii. 8) its bulwarks. The us a people that hitherto was not. But why does meaning of the whole verse is: Land and sea he say Dyon, the people? If he had said “a will conspire to destroy the bulwarks of Tyre. people," this would not have been at all singular. Tyre shall be successfully assailed both by land | There were such nations without number. But and sea. But Tyre shall be destroyed not merely the Chaldeans do not belong to the common for the moment, but permanently (although at nations. They were a leading nation. There first not forever, vers. 15 sqq.). This is the 'were then in the sense of prophecy only two
leading nations, i. e., representatives of the worldly | Accad (names of tribes and territories in South power. The one was Assyria; the other, the Babylonia) surrendered to his rule" (ibid. p. 42). Chaldeans, had not yet appeared. With the From the language of this inscription it is clear second stroke 33
hex he describes the future that a Semitic people then dwelt in those regions. of the Chaldeans. I decidedly agree here with But this can have been none other than the peoPAULUS and Del. who regard has as the object C. Asurnasirhabal speaks of the mat Kaldu as
ple of the Chaldeans. In the tenth century B. of 70' placed absolutely before the verb. Ash- a part of his dominion (ibid. p. 44). Resting on ur—this has it (viz.: the Chaldean nation) set, all these grounds SCHRADER utters the following founded for the beasts of the desert.-This judgment: We can assume that since the Chalview alone suits the context. If we take Ashur as deans immigrated in the second or third millen
nium B. C. into these regions on the lower Euthe subject, then we must connect it with 7785 as the old versions and some modern interpreters do, phrates and Tigris, they were uninterruptedly but contrary to the Masoretic punctuation.
proper ruling nation, the dominant one under
· This people, which is not Assyria” will then signify certainly not aboriginal in the country. They
all circumstances. On the other hand, they were either; this people will be more fortunate than found already there a highly cultivated people the Assyrians (were under Shalmaneser against of Cushite or Turanian extraction, froin who Tyre), or: this people, when it will be no more
they borrowed the complicated cuneiform mode Assyrian, or: which is not civilized as the Assy- of writing. If the Chaldeans on the lower Eurians. This suffix in 770' is then referred by phrates and Tigris were not aboriginal, it is naall to Tyre. It is manifest that all these expla- tural after what has been said to assume that they nations of ivx 77'7 s's are arbitrary. But if we migrated from the territories at the source of the take 10x according to the accents as subject of Euphrates and Tigris into the region at the mouth 1770' then this will mean: Ashur has appointed of these rivers (comp. EWALD, Hist. I., p. 404 them to be dwellers of the desert, i. e., Ashur sq.). But it is a mere hypothesis derived from has transplanted them to the Babylonian plain, this passage, and entirely without evidence, to and made of mountaineers dwellers of the desert." assume a transplantation of the Chaldeans in later It is then assumed that the Chaldeans after their times by Shalmaneser. It is also very questionfirst migration from the Carduchian mountains, able whether by can denote inhabitants of the which event belongs to a very early time, were desert; for the only place which is adduced, Ps. subsequently strengthened by additional settlers Ixxii. 9 ought to exclude the possibility of any sent by the Assyrian kings (So KNOBEL, ARNOLD other interpretation, in order to be able to counin Herzog's R.-Enc. II., p. 628 sqq.). It is cer terpoise the weight of all other places where the tain that there were Chaldeans in Babylonia and word signifies“ beasts of the desert.” It is quesin the Armenian mountains. The first point tionable, too, whether the very fertile country of needs no proof; the second point is clear from Babylon could be described as 17'y before it was the narrative of XENOPHON (Cyrop. III. 1, 34; visited by the divine judgments (comp. xiii.; Jer. Anab. IV. 3, 4 sqq.; V. 5, 17; VII. 8, 25) and 1.). Many attempts have been made at conjecis determined by the statements of STRABO (xii.
tural emendations of the passage. EWALD would 3, 18 sqq.), and of STEPHANUS BYZANTINUS (s. substitute Canaanites, and MEIER, Chittim for v. Xansaiol), and is also generally acknowledged. Chaldeans. OLSHAUSEN (Emendations of the Old It is also quite possible that the Chaldeans sepa- Testament, p. 34 sqq.) would make much greater rated at a very early time, and that one part re
changes. But all these attempts are capricious mained in the old seats, i. e., in the Karduchian and unwarranted. I have already remarked that mountains, while another part, pursuing the na the view proposed by Paulus and DELITZSCH tural routes, i. e., the river-valleys, migrated to (taking Ashur as the object of 70' placed absothe south, and settled on the lower Euphrates. lutely before it) alone corresponds to the context. For according to the Assyro-Babylonian monu- Only in this way is something said of the Chalments, here lies the mat Kaldi or Kaldu. Ac. deans that briefly, but completely, characterizes cording to them it extended to the Persian Gulf | them. For they are then described as the people (comp. SCHRADER, Cuneiform Inscriptions, p. 44). that hitherto had not appeared as the great With this agree ihe classic authors who (as worldly power, but that will now supplant the StraBO XVI. 1, 6, 8) designate this border of Assyrians in this character. There is yet another the Gulf and the swamps in which the Eu- proof of the accuracy of our view. There are in phrates loses itself as lacus Chaldaici (Pliny VI. this paragraph various allusions to the ninth chap31; comp. STRABO XVI. 4, 1, rà enn tà katà Xa)- ter of Amos. Three times Amos employs in that sulovs). That these regions were even in very chapter the Piel 773 in the signification of “ap. remote times peopled by the Chaldeans, is established by the fact that the ancient Ur of the point, order, command,” in which meaning the Chaldeans, the home of Abraham, has been lately (ver. 5) twice makes use of the comparison with
word occurs here also (ver. 11). Amos again discovered in Mugheir, which lies south-east of the overflowing Nile; comp. in our paragraph, Babylon on the right bank of the Euphrates. For upon all the clay tablets found there in great ver. 10. In Amos ix.
' , number, the naine U-ru-u, i. e., 74x occurs (comp. the object of the sentence is placed first absolutely, SCHRADER ut supra, p. 383 sq.). SCHRADER re- and then repeated by means of a feminine suffix fers further to an inscription of king Hammurabi attached to 70'. In the word Ashur the Prophet dating from the second millenninm B. C., com- has before him the idea of the country and of the posed in the purest Assyrian, in which he states city rather than that of the people. Hence the femiihat " Il and Bel, the inhabitants of Sumir and nine suffix to 70'. Such constructions karà ouve
אשור יסרה לצייס a8 in
.before us ציים
OLV occur in Hebrew in the most varied forms.- | a germ we have here. The words Dyno o to 70' is constituere, to found, to establish (Hab. i. O'sh form a parenthesis which quite inci12; Ps. civ. 8). The Chaldeans, says Isaiah, dentally, in language brief and enigmatical, and make of Ashur, i. e., the country and city, but probably not understood by the Prophet himself, especially the city, as it were an establishment deposit a germ which even Nahum and Zephafor beasts of the desert, i. e., a place of residence niah have only partially developed. Not till the appointed for them as their legitimate possession time of Jeremiah and after the battle of Carand permanent property. Finally we inust point chemish, which determined Nebuchadnezzar's to Zeph. ii. 13 sq., as the oldest commentary on supremacy in the earth, could it be completely this passage. For not only does Zephaniah say unfolded. And if I assume that Isaiah could clearly what 013' 70' means, but we can also the Chaldeans, I must much more affirm that he
already prophesy the destruction of Nineveh by regard his words as a proof of the accuracy of our could also predict the destruction of Tyre by view in general. For they show that Zephaniah, the same people. The Assyrian invasion untoo, understood this passage of the destruction of doubtedly gave occasion to this prophecy. The Nineveh. When Zephaniah (ii. 15) says of Ni- Assyrians had a design on Egypt. The taking neveh “This is the rejoicing city," had he not ver. 7 of our chapter in his eye? The words and he countries lying east and west of it, were only
of Samaria, and the attacks on Judah and on the will stretch out his hand” (Zeph. ii 13) recall “ He stretched out his hand” (Isa. xxiii. 11). I and 5 that Tyre then stood in close relation to
means to that end. We perceive from vers. 3 Comp., too, in Zeph. ii. 13 73?? ?? with the Egypt. The power of the Tyrians on the sea was
. If then there are clear traces that naturally of the greatest importance for Egypt. Zephaniah, when he wrote the second chapter of The Assyrians had therefore all the more occahis prophecy, had beside other passages in Isaiah sion for depriving Egypt of this valuable ally. (xiii
. 21 ; xiv. 23; xxxiv. 11) also this twenty- Let us add, that Isaiah had then to warn Judah third chapter in his mind, and if he gives in his most emphatically against forming an alliance prophecy a description of the ruined Nineveh, with Egypt
. Would not Tyre also have been an which by the word 'y connects itself with our believing Jews placed in Egypt the ally of Tyre?
object of the untheocratic hopes which the unpassage, and appears as a more detailed descrip- This would aptly explain to is the reason why iion of what is only slightly indicated by Isaiah, Isaiah lifted his voice against Tyre also. Israel may we not in such circumstances be permitted should trust in no worldly power, therefore not to affirm that Zephaniah understood the place even in Tyre. Tyre too is doomed to destrucbefore us as we do? Further, there is contained tion; but it will not be destroyed by the Assyin Zephaniah's reference to this passage the proof rians. This might then readily have been conthat it must have been already in existence in his jectured when the Assyrians were actually entime, consequently in the reign of king Josiah gaged in hostilities with Tyre. But it was a part (624 B. C.). If now Zephaniah did not hesitate of the task assigned to Isaiah to counteract the to understand this passage of the destruction of dread inspired by Assyria. He therefore deNineveh, we will vot allow ourselves to be pre- | clares expressly : another later nation that is not vented from doing the same, either by the objec- vet a people, namely, the Chaldeans will destroy tion of DELITZSCH that this would be the only Tyre. What follows (ver. 15 sqq.), agrees with place in which Isaiah prophesies that the worldly this. The 70 years are undoubtedly the years supremacy would pass from the Assyrians to the of the Chaldean supremacy. As we observed Chaldeans, or by the objections of others who re already, the words Djin 17 to Oy (ver. 13) are gard it as absolutely impossible that in the time to be treated as parenthetical. With 15 por the of Isaiah a destruction of Tyre by the Chaldeans Prophet proceeds to describe the action' of the should have been foretold." In regard to DEL- people of the Chaldeans, as the appointed instruITZSCH's objection, I would wish it to be remarked ment for the destruction of Tyre. They set up that the prophecy of Isaiah is related to that of his watch-towers, i. e., the many set up the those who come after him, as a nursery is to the watch-towers belonging to the whole body (comp. plantations that have arisen from it. Do not the touching this change of number i. 23; ij:8; vers. germs of the later prophecies originally lie to a 23, 26; viii. 20). With ver. 14 the paragraph large extent in the prophecy of Isaiah? Such I closes as it began.
b) The Restoration of Tyre.
CHAP. XXIII. 15-18. 15 And it shall come to pass in that day,
That Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years,
'Shall Tyre sing as an harlot ;
Thou harlot that hast been forgotten :
That thou mayest be remembered.
That the LORD will visit Tyre,
With all the kingdoms of the world upon the face of the earth. 18 And her "merchandise and her hire
Shall be holiness to the LORD;
b splendid. TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. Ver. 15. On the form nnous comp. Ewald, ở 194 b. Ver. 18. piry is är dey. [The word in Arabic means
Ver. 17. The II of the suffix is without Mappik. old and then excellent.-D. M.]. Comp. EwALD, 2 217 d.
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. After 70 years, which will have a character of in a well-known song often sung by frivolous unity as the period of the reign of one king, the young people, is under a certain condition set wish will be fulfilled in Tyre that is expressed in forth in prospect to a courtesan who is no longer a well-known song which advises a forgotten har- sought after, shall be fulfilled in the case of Tyre. lot, by singing and playing in the streets of the She shall regain the lost favor. But the Prophet city, to cause herself to be again remembered intends at the same time to say that Tyre must (vers. 15, 16). The Lord will again assist Tyre, do as the harlot in order again to attain favor.
she will renew her commercial intercourse, which Tyre shall, after 70 years, endeavor to recover · is compared with amorous solicitation, with all the favor of the nations, and again employ her
the countries of the earth (ver. 17). But the gain old commercial arts in order to form business of her harlotry will be consecrated to the LORD, connections. And the Lord will vouchsafe sucand be assigned by Him to His servants for their cess. [The translation of the latter part of ver. rich enjoyment.
15, in the text of the E. V., cannot be fairly made 2. Vers. 15, 16. Regarding the expression In out of the original Hebrew. The rendering in t'at day comp.on vii. 18. Seventy years shall the margin is the right one. Ver. 16 is a snatch Tyre be forgotten.-This is the duration of the of the song of the harlot, and might have the Chalde in supremacy, which according to Jere- marks of a quotation. D. M.]. miah (comp. my remarks on Jer. xxv. 11), lasted froin the battle of Carchemish to the conquest of 17, 18. That commercial intercourse is compared
3. And it shall come-clothing.–V'ers. Babylon by Cyrus, consequently according to the with unchaste intercourse has its ground herein information we now possess, from 605 (4) till 538 that the former serves Mammon and the belly B. C., or 67 years. This period of 67 years may (taken in the widest sense). But mammon and possibly, when we have more exact knowledge, be the belly are idols, and idolatry is fornication extended to quite 70 years or thereabouts. It can, (comp. Nah. iii. 4). Tyre will return to her hire however, be taken as a round number of 70 years, for harlotry (Micah i. 7), and will practise forniaccording to prophetic reckoning. Tyre will be cation with all the kingdoms of the earth. And so far forgotten, as it will be lost in the great em- her gain (ver. 3), or her hire as a harlot, will be pire of the world. This period of its being for- holy unto the Lord.— It will not be kept by the gotten shall last 70 years according to the days gainers and laid up in the treasury (xxxix.6), or of one king - The expression recalls xvi. 14; xxi. 16; but the meaning is different. Here the concealed, hidden in the ground (jon as a verb emphasis lies on 7778. The Prophet intends to de- only here), but it will serve those who dwell beclare that this period will have for Tyre a charac- fore Jehovah (not stand, for to stand before the ter of unity. It will happen to Tyre under the suc- Lord marks the service of the priests in the temcessor as under the predecessor.The change of ple, Deut. x. 8; Jud. xx. 28, etc.), i. e. the Israelrulers will produce no alteration. This time of ites in general, because the territory in which seventy years, during which Tyre will be for- they dwell is the holy land, which has the house gotten, will bear as uniform a character as if the of Jehovah for its all-dominating centre. We whole period were the time of the reign of only may ask here how it is conceivable that the LORD a single king. These words make the judgment can restore a people on which He has inflicted heavier; there will be no alleviation of its severi-judgment, in order that it may begin again its ty. [This interpretation is preferable to the com- öld business of fornication; and how the wages mon one which makes king stand here for king- of prostitution can be consecrated to the LORD, as dom or dynasty.-D. M.]. After 70 years, what in Deut. xxiii. 18 it is expressly forbidden to