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cause imploring the gods with tears availed nothing. [See Margin of Eng. Bib.: Also J. A. A., has the same rendering as DR. N.]. This construction is the more necessary because immediately after, ver. 5, 323,” is undoubtedly used in the sense: “with weeping.” Wer. 4. And Heshbon, etc. Ar-Moab and Kir-Moab are chief city, and chief fortress; Dibon and Beth-Bamoth are especially holy places of worship, Nebo and Medebah, too, belong to the latter, for there also the weeping was meant to propitiate the gods. Now that the centres of the power and of the national religion are shaken to pieces, and men flee from these in despair, so, naturally, dreadful terror seizes on the cities of inferior rank. Thus Heshbon (Num. xxi. 23 sqq.), cries, and Elealeh (Num. xxxii. 37; Jer. xlviii. 34), the two sister cities, the second of which is never mentioned without the first. They lay only a Roman mile distant from one another on limestone elevations in a fruitful plain. Their united cry of woe is heard as far as Jahaz. This fact is not opposed to the assumption that Jahaz is identical with mysl (Num. xxi. 23; Deut. ii. 32; Jud. xi. 2 in pausa), TXT (Josh. xiii. 18 out of pause), (Hitzig, KEIL). For Jahaz need not on this account, like Elealeh, have lain in the closest neighborhood. But the ancient rampart that lay on the east border toward the desert, where of old Suhon, king of the Amorites, opposed Israel, is named for this reason because the Prophet would indicate that the terrific intelligence shook the very bulwarks of the kingdom. If now all the strong cities of Moab so raise the cry of despair, how shall the men at arms of the nation not chime in 2 The choice

of the expression ‘b ‘son, “armed men of Moab,” seems to me to be explained by the idea that the information concerning the occupation of the land east of Jordan (Num. xxxii. and Deut. iii. 16 sqq.), comes before the Prophet. For in these chapters just cited, the expression

pion occurs relatively the oftenest in the entire

Old Testament, i. e., six times: Num. xxxii. 21, 27, 29, 30, 32; Deut. iii. 18. 4. My heart—no green thing.—Vers. 4–6. The Prophet hitherto had in mind northern Moab, the territory that the Amorites took from the Moabites, then the Israelites from the Moabites, and finally the Moabites from the Israelites, after the inhabitants had been carried into Assyrian o (2 Kings xv. 29). Almost all the cities that have been named in the foregoing |. were, according to Num. xxxii. 34 sqq., uilt by the Gadites and Reubenites, or at least rebuilt with a change of name (ver. 38). In what follows the Prophet turns his regards chiefly to the south. But in making this turn, he feels the need of giving expression to the impression made. The cry he has heard, though that of an enemy, has found in his heart an echo of compassion. Therefore he cries out from his innermost

bosom (3%) and turning himself toward Moab

(xvi. 11; xiv. 8, 9). Thus “shall cry” of ver. 5, corresponds to “shall cry” ver, 4. But his cry of terror is at the same time a watchman's alarm to southern Moab. We see this in the

anxious flight in which southern Moab is represented to be by the following context. Tino is taken by most expositors to be the same as on": “fugitives” (xliii. 14, comp. xxvii. 1; Job xxvi. 13). DELITzsch alone decides in favor of vectes, bars. But the thought that the bars, i. e., the fortresses of the land extend to Zoar finds nothing in the context to suggest it: whereas the thought that the Moabites flee from the enemy advancing from the north till they find shelter in a strong fortress, corresponds very well with the context.

A heifer of three years, (see in Tert. and Gram.), is one not yet brought under the yoke, whose strength is still entirely intact. GEs ENIUs cites PLINY, viii. 4, 5: domitura bonum in trimatu, postea sera, antea praematura. , Columella de re rest. vii. 2. It is therefore “a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke.” +25 so oy Jer. xxxi. 18. the contrary of which is ño noy “a heifer that is taught” Hos. x. 11. Comp. Isa. x. 11; Jer. xlvi. 20; 1. 11. Now Zoar was a fortified place. JERo ME says: “praesidium in ea positum est militum romanorum.” EUSEBIUs calls it a opoiptov as parta,Tār, STEPH. BYzANTINUs a kóum fueyážm # opposiptov. It was perhaps, in Isaiah's time a city that had never been captured, what we call eine jungsräuliche Festung (a virgin

fortress), and if in Trvov the notion of indomi. tum, jugo non assuetum esse prevails, then this would explain why Zoar is so named, and why the flight of the Moabites tends thither. They thought themselves secure in the strong fortress that had never been taken. [For an extensive comparison of views on the foregoing point see J. A. A., in loc.]. That Zoar is the point to which men flee is evident because the ways leading thither are full of fugitives. Regarding the site of Zoar opinions differ, varying between the southern point of the Dead sea to the mouthing of the Wadi Kerek on the east side. But wherever it was, Luhith and Horonaim were certainly localities that lay in the road that led

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stair, declivity of a mountain which the road traverses,” is found in connection with many names: Num. xxxiv. 4; Josh. x. 10; xviii. 7; Judg. i. 36; 2 Sam. xv. 30, etc.—Horonaim is mentioned only here and Jer. xlviii. 3, 5, 34. In Josh. x. 10, we read “the LoRD-chased them along the way that goeth up to Bethhoron.” Did this passage perhaps come into the Prophet's mind? A third matter that explains the flight of the Moabites, the Prophet makes to be the stopping up and drying | of the waters of Nimri. It is to be noticed that stopping up the fountains is described (2 * iii. 19, 25) as a form of hostility practised by the Israelites against Moab. If by “the waters of Nimrim’ we understand that Bet-Nimra, that is mentioned (Num. xxxii. 3, 36; Josh. xiii. 27) as a Gadite locality with a brook em '; into the Jordan, then the Prophet would suddenly transport us out of the south into the extremest north.

Therefore KNOBEL very fittingly has called attention to the fact that the more recent travelers, BURKHARDT, DE SAULCY, SEETZEN, mention a Wadi Nemeyra, and a spring brook Mojet Nimmery (i.e. little waters of Nimri) near the southern border of Moab, and that the ONoMASTICON names under Neffmptu a place Bovvauaphu, Benamerium, north of Zoar. This locality suits our context very well. In three short sentences the Prophet sets forth why he calls the waters of Nimrim desolations. Yoo is grass proper; xt, sward in general; P. all green things. The discourse thus contains a climax, it proceeds from what withers most easily (Ps. xc. 5; ciii. 15) to the totality of all vegetation. 5. Therefore — of the land.—Vers. 7–9. The fugitives of Moab have concentrated in the south of the land. But there, too, they do not feel safe: for the enemy presses incontinently after. Therefore they flee with their valuables across the Willow-brook that formed the boundary between Moab and Edom into the latter country. n)n, which occurs only here and in Jer. xlviii. 36 that borrows from this, is “provision on hand not yet used up” (Ps. xvii. 14). TP2 is more: it is the costly possession that is cherished as the treasure of the house: the word occurs only here in this sense. The thought of the Prophet is evidently, that Moab, when no longer safe in its extreme southern strongholds, flees across the border. It is therefore certainly more agreeable to the context to understand the stream referred to by

bonyn on to mean the southernmost boundary brook of Moab, rather than some stream farther north. DELITZSCH understands the Willow-brook to be the northern branch of the Seil-el-Kerek, that actually bears the name of Wadi Safsaf, i. e. Willow-brook. But that does not hinder that in Isaiah's time the southern boundary brook was also called Willow-brook, especially since among its various names (Wädi el-Karāhi, el-Achri, elHössa, el-Hossan, likely Sared too), is found the name es-Sāsījeh. (See under Text. and Gram.). In ver. 8 the need of fleeing over the border is renewedly set forth by the statement that the cry (ver. 4 sqq.) has gone about on the entire border of Moab. Eglaim is likely identical with the Eneglaim, Eze. xlvii. 10, which according to JEROME, lay “in principio maris mortui,” i. e. at the south end of the Dead Sea. It is doubtful if it be the same with 'Aya??eiu (Alyaxetu) which EUSEBIUs describes as trpèg Nórov 'Apeom:6Aeoc duaarāga

amueiotç 7', i. e. eight Roman miles, somewhat more than three hours. Comp. HERz. R. Encycl. XIV., p. 741.-If Beerelim is the same fountain mentioned, Num. xxi. 16–18, that the princes opened up, and that thereafter was called Heroes' fountain (for so, or Terebinth fountain the word may be translated), then the locality lay in the northeast of Moab, and thus directly opposite to the southwestern Eglaim (comp. Num. xxi. 13 sqq.). Accordingly the cry is gone around etc., would express that the cry went out on ali sides along the borders of Moab, because the inhabitants fled on all sides. If they dispersed on every side to the periphery of their land, that sufficiently indicates that the centre had suffered a heavy blow. Such a centre was Dibon, moreover, it is represented as a city in ver. 2 and in the inscription of Mesa, as being at that time a city of importance. The waters of Dibon are full of blood, therefore there is fearful, murderous work there.—As Dibon lies not far from Arnon, “the waters of Dibon" can, of course, indirectly mean the Arnon, like “the waters of Megiddo,” Judg. v. 19, mean the Kishon (RosBNMUELLER, HENDEWERK), but directly must still be meant the tributaries that lead out from Dibon to Arnon : for otherwise the latter could not receive bloo

shed in Dibon. The fearful blood-bath at Dibon shows that it is fated to receive full measure, poured, shaken down and running over. Perhaps the Prophet has in mind God's threat in Lev. xxvi. 18, 21, that if the first chastisement failed of its effect on Israel He would add to it “seven times more for their sins.” Moab's great and repeated transgression had also such additions as its consequence. If we are not referred by the second clause of ver, 9 a to what follows, then we are not necessitated to regard what is contained in 9 b, as the aggravation indicated by nob)]= additamenta, “things superadded ” (See Tert. and Grain.). Then ver. 9 b has reference to a part of Moab not coincident with that before mentioned. It is fugitives that succeeded in escaping the sword of the enemy. Shall these be rescued ? No. These escaped ones shall become a prey to lions, and as many as escape these shall at last have nothing more than the bare ground, whereon to leave their unburied bodies. The thought is therefore similar to xxiv. 18, comp. Amos v. 19. And how should the remnant of the nation be called Tipis nonswo The expression is unexampled. We would look for by no, or

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3 “Take counsel, execute judgment;

Make thy shadow as the night in the midst of the noon day;

Hide the outcasts;
Bewray not him that wandereth.

4 Let mine outcasts dwell with thee, Moab;
Be thou a covert to them from the face of the spoiler;

For the "extortioner is at an end, *The spoiler ceaseth,

*The oppressors are consumed out of the land. 5 And in mercy shall "the throne be "established:

And "he shall sit upon it in truth in the tabernacle of David,

Judging, and seeking judgment, and “hasting righteousness.

1 Or, Petra. 2 Heb. a rock. * Or, a nest forsaken. * Heb. Bring.

* Heb. wringer. * Heb. the treaders down. 7 Or, prepared.

a tribute lamb. b omit the. Oppressuon. d one sits. * prompt in equity. TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL.

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1. These words connect closely with what precedes, in that they assume that the fugitives of Moab that fled over the border (xv. 7) have arrived in Sela, the chief city of Edom (“from Sela,” ver. 1). The chief thought is that Moab is counselled to seek help and protection from Judah (vers. 1, 2), and therefore eventually itself to afford protection and help to Judah (vers. 3, 4 a). When then the time comes wherein all unrighteousness on earth shall have an end (ver.4b), and the righteous ruler shall sit on the throne of David (ver. 5), then—this is the necessary consequence—Moab, too, shall share this salvation.

2. Bend ye—Arnon.—Vers. 1, 2. No one but the Prophet can speak these words, as well as all that follows, because he only was able to give the prophecy contained in vers. 4 b, 5. In the summons to send lambs to Jerusalem there is evidently an allusion to the fact that the Moabite king Mesa, according to 2 Kings iii.4, was obliged

to send the wool of 100,000 lambs (Do) and of 100,000 rams (Bos) as tribute to the king of I

rael. “The lambs of the ruler” is evidently the tribute of lambs that belongs to the ruler of the land. But the king of Judah is called onx othp “ruler of the land,” in distinction from the Top BRip, “the king of Moab,” who was tributary to the former. They are to send the tribute to Jerusalem from Sela, the capital city of Edom (called Petra by the Romans; its ruins were discovered by BURKHARDT in Wadi Musa, comp. xlii. 11). We account for this by representing to ourselves that according to xv. 7 the Moabites have arrived in Sela as fugitives. Unto the wilderness—which is more exactly defined by “unto the mount of the daughter of Zion”—corresponds exactly to the description that STRABo gives of the region of Petra. He says: x&pa #proHoo & TActorm kai adžiara # spöc 'Iovdatav (KNo

BEL). On the subject matter comp. xviii. 7. But the fugitives are not in Sela only. According to xv. 8, they dispersed on every side. Therefore fleeing crowds appear also at Arnon, the northern border river of Moab. These are called “daughters of Moab.” Does not the feminine stamp the timid fugitives as those that have turned into women and lost all masculine courage? Comp. e. g. iii. 1. 3. Take counsel——the spoiler.—Wers. 3, 4a. These are not the words of the Moabites, but of the Prophet, who directs this petition to the Moabites in the name of his people. They are not only to put themselves in subjection to Judah, and purchase protection for themselves by tribute, but they are also on their part to afford protection. By the likeness of their contents, vers. 3, 4a belong together. The Prophet hereby assumes that there shall come upon Judah also such a visitation as xv., xvi. he proclaims to Moab. This was fulfilled by Nebuchadnezzar, and in Jer. xl. 11 Moab is expressly named among the lands into which oJudah (3773, Jer. xl. 12) had fled.

—The Prophet cannot mean that the Moabites
shall bring about justice between the Israelites
and their oppressors, for they lack power and
force to do this. But they are to do what is right
in that they receive to their protection those op-
pressed and driven out. This demand for pro-
tecting shelter is expressed by means of an admi-
rable figure of speech. Moab shall make its sha-
dow at clear midday dark as at midnight, so that
he who is concealed in this shadow shall be hid
as completely as if the darkness of night enclosed
him.
4. For the extortioner—righteousness.
—Wers. 4 b, 5. The Prophet now gives the reasons

why Moab should seek shelter from Judah and likewise afford shelter to the fugitives of Judea. This reason is one eminently prophetic. That is to say, Isaiah sees in spirit the end of the worldpower, therefore the cessation of all violent oppression and the dominion of the kingdom of God under a great one of the line of David. Would Moab share in this glory of the people of God, then it must now display such conduct as the Prophet imputes to it, vers. 1-4 a. This is the same thought, the correlative of which is expressed lx. 12 (comp. Zech. xiv. 16 sqq.) in the words: “For the nation and kingdom that will not serve thee shall perish.”—Yos", “the land,” according to the context, signifies the whole earth. For the world-power that is characterized in the preceding words dominates not a single land, but the whole earth. In contrast with the violent, unjust worldpower another throne shall be set up by mildness (TDT, see Tert. and Gram.). On this throne, which stands in the tabernacle of David (an expression of modesty, see Text. and Gram.), shall one sit in truth, i.e., one who is truthful and reliable, and he will do nothing arbitrarily; but he will keep to the forms of law (ow). But not only this—he will also interest himself to find out the (substantial) right (båtop vot)—and when he has found it, he will promptly execute it (PT: Yūp). That the Prophet has in mind here the great Son of David, whose friendliness and righteousness he had already celebrated, ix. 5 sq.; xi. 1 sq., cannot be doubted. Where ceasing from violence and injustice and a kingdom of righteousness and of loving mildness are spoken of, the Messianic kingdom is meant.

y) MOAB'S PRIDE AND RUIN.
CHAPTER XVI. 6–12.

6 We have heard of the pride of Moab; he is very proud : *Even of his haughtiness, and his pride, and his wrath;

*But his lies shall not be so. 7 Therefore shall Moab howl "for Moab, Every one shall howl;

For the foundations of Kir-hareseth shall ye “mourn;

*Surely they are stricken. 8 For the fields of Heshbon "languish,

And the vine of Sibmah: 'the lords of the heathen have broken down the 'princi

pal plants thereof,

They “are come even unto Jazer, they wandered through the wilderness: Her branches are 'stretched out, they are gone over the sea. 9 Therefore I will bewail with the weeping of Jazer the vine of Sibmah: I will "water thee with my tears, O, Heshbon, and Elealeh: For "the "shouting for thy summer fruits and for thy harvest is fallen. 10 And gladness is taken away, and joy out of the plentiful field; And in the vineyards there shall be no singing, neither shall there be shouting: The treaders "shall tread out no wine in their presses; I have made their vintage shouting to cease. 11 Wherefore my bowels shall sound like an harp for Moab,

And mine inward parts for Kir-haresh.

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*Or, the alarm is fallen upon, etc.

the vanity of his pretension. d to. s wholly stricken. h are withered. k reached. 1 to.

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Niph. xxxiii. 23, “spread themselves.”
Aey., “ the sprouts” of the vine.

Ver, 9. Tons Piel of m), with the second and third radicals transposed, xxxiv. 5, 7.—Trn is the shout with which the torcularii cheered their labor, and probably beat time, ver. 10; Jer. xxv. 30; li. 14; x', Trn Trn Jer. xlviii. 33–It is certain that the Prophet'ror the sake of similarity in sound wrote Insp instead of Thosa, the latter means the grape harvest. But n-sp must not be taken as – ox3. For why should not the grain harvest also have suffered under the trampling

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