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It is better with DREchsler to take "T" Tbin as an expression equivalent to T in: (Exod. vii. 4): manum ad+ -r
dere corresponding to manum dare. If the latter means “to lay the hand on one,” then our expression means “repeatedly to lay hands on one.”
On wer. 12. D"TWT) and IWYTE]], by this simple means the Prophet expresses the thought that the promised gathering shall extend to both sexes, men and women. mE: ;--R is only found here in Isaiah. The words are taken from Deut. xxii. 12, and are found beside Ezek. vii. 2.
onver.14 on An-2 'Byl. An: is without doubt here
used in a double sense. Every shoulder-shaped elevation is called An2. Thus we find Tux-d' Anx Num. xxxiv. 11; "DYa"n on> Joshua xv. 8; xviii. 16; bony-nn o ibid, ver, 10. In no o xviii. 12; mn', '5 xviii. 13. So, too, Josh. xv. 11 speaks of a inpy Anz. Therefore the shoulder-like watershed of the coast of Philistia toward the sea may be called Ann. But from the verb "By it is seen that the Prophet has in mind at the same time the figure of a bird of prey that flies on a man's shoulder in order to belabor his head. But is An: st. const. or absolutus. DElitzsch is of the opinion
-- r that, on account of the following B in ponto, the stat. absol is used in the sense of stat. constructus. It were possible that the Masorets might have punctuated in this way for the reason assigned, yet this kind of punctuation ought to occur oftener. But Delitzsch can only
Y3 agn v. 2, and ): ash x. 15, where no st. constructus “r -I agree, therefore, with DREchsler who takes D'nvo to be in apposition with Ann. “they fly on to the shoulder, the (so named) Philistine land ;” no", rir however, refers to the whole, and is contrasted, not with an eastern Ano ()n"Y" to Josh. xviii. 12), but with pop 'in-lin' comp. x.2—T nowp. notyp oc. curs again only Esth. ix. 19, 22 in the sense of missio (donorum). On the other hand T north occurs five times r - : . in Deut. (xii. 7; xv. 10; xxiii. 21; xxviii. 8, 20) in the sense of “something coming under the hand,” which is said of food, business, etc. Here it is what the master, the conqueror, the oppressor lays his hand on in order to hold it down; Ps. xxxii. 4; xxxviii. 3; Iv. 21; cvi. 26. 42; cz.xxviii. 7, etc. In this the abstract stands for the concrete as in nyntjp, which means audientia (audience) both in the sense of confidential hearing, as a title of honor (1 Sam. xxii. 14; 2 Sam. xxiii. 23) and in the sense of obedientia (= obedientes, subduti).
appeal to the accent not being drawn backwards in 32 sqq.).
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.
1. The Prophet now declares the relation of the last, glorious return of Israel to the appearance of the Messiah. In ver. 10, he puts in front the fact that the heathen will inquire after the root of Jesse, and that in this respect the place where the Messiah rests shall partake of great glory. By this he intimates plainly that the heathen shall turn to the Messiah before Israel, and that therefore the promised return of Israel shall only be afterwards. Then he speaks of this return very fully. As underlying thought, he represents that, as the LoRD after the Egyptian bondage would reject His people by a more extended captivity, so He would cause a second return out of this captivity. With this thought begins, and closes the section vers. 11–16. The remnant of the nation shall be gathered out of all lands (vers. 11, 12). The inward dissension between Ephraim, and Judah shall cease (ver. 13). They shall unitedly conquer, and subjugate their enemies of the past, both East and West (ver. 14). The Red sea shall be dried up, the Euphrates shall be divided into seven channels, so that both bodies of water that separated the holy land from the scenes of the first and second captivities may be easily crossed over. (ver. 15). Thus from the second captivity there shall be prepared as glorious a road for the remnant, as there was for the nation to return out of the first bondage. (16).
2. And in that day glorious.-Ver. 10. We must conceive of the subject matter of this description and of vers. 11–16 as falling between the sections vers. 1–5 and 6–9. For doubtless the human world must be first penetrated by the peace of God. Only after that can peace extend to the inserior creatures (comp. Gen. i. 26 sqq.). But the
Prophet has here combined the beginning and the end, because he thought he could characterize the Messianic dominion most clearly, by its consequences. In a similar way Jeremiah (iii. and iv.), proceeds from the description of the (58ty) return in the past to the description of the return in the far future, in order finally to join on after that the summons to return in the present. The Prophet's naming the Messiah Himself “root of Jesse” after calling him, ver. 1, “a shoot out of the root of Jesse,” has a double reason. The first seems to me to be the mere formal one, viz.: that for brevity's sake the Prophet would avoid
repeating p \, “a shoot from.” But he could justly omit this because the Messiah formed the
most prominent ingredient of the root of Jesse. He was in this root like He was in the loins of Abraham (Heb. vii. 10). But for Him, the root of Jesse had been a common root as any other. We have here therefore, not only a formal-rhetorical synecdoche, but also one justified in its substance. For the expression is in any case a synecdoche (comp. the so frequent synecdochical use of the word “seed ”). As root he could not be a standard of the heathen. He could be so only as a trunk or stem that has grown out of the root. In this sense he is called “root of David,” Rev. v. 5; but with omission of the synecdoche, he is called “root and offspring of David,” Rev. xxii. 16. Paul cites our passage Rom. xv. 12 according to the LXX. The Messiah is a standard to the heathen so far as He will be an appearance that will be observable to all, and mightily draw the attention of all to Himself. On the subject matter comp. ii. 2; lxvi. 18 sqq.; Hag. ii. 7; Zech. ii. 15. The standard “stands” (comp. iii. 13) for it is fastened to an upright pole (Num. xxi. 8, where the pole itself is called D2: Comp. so miraculously crossed in the journey out of Egypt (Josh. iii.). The LoRD shall wave His hand against it, as it were, adjuring it, and at the same time smite it with the breath of His mouth as with a glowing hot wind, that will dry it up, so that it will separate into seven shallow brooklets, which Israel may walk through in, sandals. Thereby, a “fenced way,” (via munita Top xix. 23; xl. 3; lxii. 10, etc., comp. vii. 3) will be prepared for the remnant of Israel out of the Assyrian exile, that will be as glorious as the n°5:3 on which Israel returned out of Egypt. As for “the remnant,” it must be understood with the same restriction explained x. 21 sqq. [J. A. ALEXANDER, on ver, 13. A consideration of the history of the enmity of Ephraim against Judah, of the nature of the schism they wrought and maintained in Israel, “explains why the Prophet lays so much more stress upon the envy of Ephraim than upon the enmity of Judah, viz.: because the latter was only the indulgence
Isa. v. 26). But it is not said who has planted the standard. It just stands there (comp. Keitat, Luke ii. 34). It sets itself by its own inward,
divine power. Unto “a root” stands first with
emphasis. *x “unto Him” resumes the subject. "Unto Him shall seek,” conveys the notion of longing desire. It is clear that by “nations” (DYA) are meant the heathen. For though
"il “nation,” in the singular, is used for Israel (comp. i. 4), it is never so in the plural. Israel did not receive the Lord when He came to His own (Jno. i. 11). It is the same thought that Paul expresses Rom. x. 20, in words taken from Isa. lxv. 1, 2 (according to LXX.). “I was found of them, that sought me not; I was manifest ("IntonTJ) unto them that asked not after
me.” Paul ascribes to partial blindness the exceeding remarkable fact, that after the appearance of the Messiah the heathen entered into the kingdom of God before Israel, (Rom. xi. 25)—simip “a rest,” the place of rest where moving herds or caravans settle down, (xxviii. 12; xxxii. 18; lxvi. 1, and Num. x. 33). The place where the Messiah sits down to rest is identical with the place where He reveals the fulness of His might and glory, it is His body, the church (Eph. i. 23). Still at the present time the church is a gentile church, and yet it is a glory (T22 abstr.
pro concr.), i.e., a realization of the idea of glory, (comp. Ps. xlv. 14) even though only a preliminary and relative glory. 3. And it shall com 2 to pass —— of the earth.-Vers. 11, 12. The Prophet now turns to Israel. Israel must first be broken up, and its separate parts be scattered into all lands, if it is to accept Him that is promised to Israel for salvation. Only out of a state of banishment and dispersion, and only after the heathen have previously joined themselves to Him, does Israel know and lay hold on its Redeemer. But when it shall have known Him, then will the dispersion cease, then shall Israel be gathered and be brought back into its land. The first exile was the Egyptian. Wonderfully was Israel redeemed out of it. A second exile is in prospect. The Prohet assumes it. He has already announced it vi. 1 sqq.; x. 5 sqq. What had already occurred at that time under Tiglath-Pileser (2 Kings xv. 29) was as much only a faint beginning of the exile, as the return under Zerubbabel and Ezra, was only a faint, beginning of the redemption. The Roman exile, which is but a part of the second exile, though the completion of it, must first have accomplished itself, before the second redemption can accomplish itself. The LoRD has acquired Israel (nūp), He let
it cost Him something, He expended great care upon it, therefore the nation is His property (His no “peculiar treasure,” Exod. xix. 5, etc.). n}} “purchased,” is found in this sense
syria,” but “from A,” etc., (vid. Exod. x. 5), for he would not so much intimate the locality where the banished are found, as rather designate a remnant, not yet quite exterminated by the nation in the midst of which they are found. He then names eight nations, Assyria in advance, for that is the world power that he sees immediately before him, and that represents all following owers, i.e., the world-power in general. . Next }. names Egypt, for this is not only to be the actual scene of future exile, but is also a prototype of such exile. Then follow two names that belong to Egypt, then three that belong to Assyria, finally a name belonging to a region more distant still, Pathros (Egyptian Pather-res, i.e., the southern Pather in distinction from other places sacred to Hathor, of this name, vid. EBER's, Egypt, und die Bücher Mose's, I. p. 115 sqq. On its relation to Dop comp. the remarks at chap. xix. 1), is Upper-Egypt (Jer. xliv. 15); “Cush” (Ethiopia) is a name “that acquired an extension from the south of India to the interior of Africa” (PREssEL). Elam (Elymais xxi. 2; xxii. 6) is southern Media; Shinar, southern Mesopotamia (Gen. x. 10); on Hamath comp. on x. 9; the islands of the sea are the western islands and coasts of the Mediterranean sea (xxiv. 15; xl. 15; xli. 1, 5, etc.). When it is said that the Lord will raise a standard to the nations, it is not meant that this signal shall concern the heathen nations, for ver. 10 spoke of the calling of the Gentiles; but in the direction of these various abodes of the nations, the sign shall be given to the Israelites. 4. The envy also – land of Egypt.— Vers. 13–16. It might be supposed that, having told of the gathering of the remnant, the Prophet would proceed at once to describe the return. But he does this only at vers. 15, 16. First, the idea of gathering and re-union brings up that of inward unity. He announces that the old enmity between Judah and Ephraim will cease, and that henceforth, both, strong from unity, shall conquer their outward foes. Are “the enemies of Judah” the Ephraimites (the Prophet would say, did the oppressors of Judah appear even among Ephraim, they would be exterminated) then the “envy of Ephraim,” is not the jealousy that Ephraim has, but that of which it is the object. But as the Prophet ascribes to Judah oppression in the second half, after referring to him in the first half as the one oppressed, so in the second half he ascribes envy to Ephraim, after having in the first part described him as the object of envy. There is therefore, an artistic crossing of notions. Israel, harmonious at last, shall at once be superior in strength to all its neighbors. It is very evident here, how the Prophet paints the remotest future with the colors of the present. Still in the period of the reign of peace (comp. too, ii. 4) he makes Israel take vengeance on his enemies, and subdue them quite in the fashion that, in the Prophet's time, would be the heart's desire of a true Theocrat. The “tongue of the Egyptian sea,” is the Arabian gulf or Reed-gulf, *D-D" (Exod. x. 19, etc.).
of an unhallowed feeling, to which, in the other case was superadded open rebellion and apostacy from God. Hence, the first three o: of the verse before us speak of Ephraim's enmity to Judah, and only the fourth of Judah’s enmity to Ephraim; as if it occurred to the Prophet that, although it was, Ephraim whose disposition needed chiefly to be changed, yet Judah also had a change to undergo, which is therefore intimated in the last clause, as a kind of after-thought. The envy of Ephraim against Judah shall depart —the enemies of Judah (in the kingdom of the ten tribes) shall be cut off—Ephraim shall no more envy Judah—yes, and Judah in its turn shall cease to vex Ephraim.
Ibid. On ver, 16. noop is a highway as explained by JUNIUs (agger) and HEND. (causey), an artificial road formed by casting up the earth, (from o to raise) and thus distinguished from a path worn by the feet (T) or no)].
3. ISRAEL’S SONG OF PRAISE FOR THE WRATH AND GRACE OF HIS GOD. CHAPTER XII. 1–6.
1 AND in that day thou shalt say,
O LORD, I will praise thee:
*Though thou was angry with me, "thine anger is turned away,
And thou comfortedst me. 2 Behold, God is my salvation; I will trust, and not be afraid:
For the LoRD JEHOVAH is my strength and my song;
He also is become my salvation.
3, 4 Therefore with joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation. And in that
day shall ye say, Praise à. ... y 'Call upon his name, Declare his doings among the people, Make mention that his name is exalted.
5 Sing unto the LoRD; for he hath done excellent things:
This is known in all the earth.
6 Cry out and shout, thou "inhabitant of Zion:
breviated instead of "n" or would not be Hebrew. The poetry of the Pss. where alone it occurs sometimes with',
sometimes as here with the accus.; Ps. xlvii.7; Irviii.5.33. n\N) is an expression of Isaiah; comp. ix. 17.—K'thibh nylo, Kori ngian. The Pual participle is found only in the plural with suffixes, meaning: “acquaintance,” amicus (Ps. lv. 14; lxxxviii. 9, 19 ; xxxi. 12; Job xix. 14; 2 Kings x. 11). As our chapter evinces so much borrowing from the language of the Psalms, I prefer Kothibh. In respect to sense, there is no difference. "nn is a verb easily supplied after nyTo. The femi nine may refer to n\N) or be construed neuter, and so more generally. The latter is perhaps the better.
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.
1. The Prophet concludes his grand prophecy strued as we do (vid Tert. and Gram.) appears
against Assyria with a short doxology. It has two subdivisions, both of which begin with the words: “and thou shalt (ver. 4: ye shall) say in that day.” Both are joined by a brief prophetic middle term (ver. 3). The first comprises six, the second seven members. In the first part Israel speaks in the singular (corresponding to “thou wilt say”), “I will thank the Lord,” etc. (ver. 12). After this expression of a proper sentiment, and, as it were, in response to the hope expressed in ver. 2, the promise of ver. 3 is given. After this interpretation comes the second summons, expressed in the plural. Corresponding to this Israel speaks in the plural, manifesting not merely its subjective disposition, but summoning to a general participation in it. Hence follow only imperatives, seven members, in elevated strain. And this little passage, so full of sentiment and art, according to EwALD, cannot be Isaiah's genuine writing Fortunately he is quite alone in the opinion. 2. And in that day—my salvation.— Vers. 1, 2. “In that day” points to the future— when all that has been foretold shall have been fulfilled (comp. xi. 10, 11). Then shall Israel say
“I will praise thee” (" This) that is an original
expression of David's, and thereafter of frequent occurrence in the Psalms; 2 Sam. xxii. 50; Ps. xviii. 50; xxx. 13; xxxv. 18; xliii. 4; lii. 11, etc. But the first thing for which Israel is to return thanks is that the Lord was angry with him —that He has punished him.—[See on the construction Tert. and Gram. J. A. ALEXANDER remarks here: “The apparent incongruity of thanking God because . He was angry is removed by considering that the subject of the thanksgiving is the whole complex idea expressed in the remainder of the verse, of which God's being angry is only one element. It was not simply because God was angry that the people praise Him, but because He was angry and His anger ceased. The same mode of expression is used by Paul in Greek, when he says (Rom. v. 17): “But God be thanked that ye were the servants of sin, but ye have from the heart obeyed,” etc. The particle but seems to be necessary to rendering our text into English.--TR.] :The holy anger of God is but a manifestation of His love, and he is as o to be thanked for His anger as for His ove. When, too, the turning of this wrath takes place, Israel may pray for the lasting continuance of favor and grace. That the Masorets also con
from the Athnach.
3. Therefore ye shall—of salvation.— Ver. 3. These words appear to be a response to the expression of believing trust that we find in ver. 2. That is, richly and endlessly ye shall partake of salvation. At the Feast of the Tabernacles water was drawn from the fountain of Siloam for a drink-offering. From the priest that so brought it with solemnity into the temple, another took it, and, while doing so, used the words of our text. Comp. in a Bib. Dict, art. Feast of Tabernacles. [This ceremony originated at a period long after Isaiah's time.—TR.] 4. And in that day—midst of thee.— Vers, 4–6. The second stage of the song. “Ye shall draw” leads the Prophet to proceed in the plural number. Excepting the change of number the words are the same as ver, 1. Thus, too, the verbs of the following two verses are in the plural. Notice, at the same time, that they are imperatives. From this it is seen that Israel no longer makes a subjective confession like ver. 1, but demands a participation in his faith: Jehovah shall be proclaimed to all the world. The last ver. (6) is distinguished from the foreoing by the verbs being no longer in the plural, . “the returned" of Israel are addressed in the singular. This, too, doubtless, is no accident. In vers. 4 and 5 the word goes out to the wide world: all nations must be taught; the majestic deeds of Jehovah must be made known to the whole earth. It seems to me that the Prophet would wish not to conclude with this look into the measureless expanse, but would rather fix his eyes, to conclude, on the beloved form of the inhabitant [fem. Germ. Bürgerin] of Zion (the expression only here in Isaiah). All honor and all salvation of Zion rest in this, that it has the Lord in the midst of it as its living and personal shield and fountain of life.
IdoctriNAT, AND ETHICAI.
1. On vii. 1. “Hierosolyma oppugnatur, etc. Jerusalem is assaulted but not conquered. The church is pressed but not oppressed.”—FoERSTER.
2. On vii. 2. “Quando ecclesia, etc. When the Church is assaulted and Christ crucified over again in His elect, Rezin and Pekah, Herod and Pilate are wont to form alliance and enter into friendly relations. There are, so to speak, the foxes of Samson, joined indeed by the tails, but their heads are disconnected.”—FoERSTER.“He that believes flees not (Isa. xxviii. 16). “The righteous is bold as a lion’ (Prov. xxviii. 1). Hypocrites and those that trust in works (worksaints) have neither reason nor faith. Therefore they cannot by any means quiet their heart. In prosperity they are, indeed, overweening, but in adversity they fall away (Jer. xvii.9).” CRAMER. 3. On vii. 9. (“If ye will not believe, surely ye shall not be established.”) “Insignis sententia, etc. A striking sentiment that may be adapted generally to all temptation, because all earnest endeavor after anything, as you know, beguiles us in temptation. But only faith in the word of promise makes us abide and makes sure whatever we would execute. He warns Ahaz, therefore, as if he said: I now promise you by the word, it shall be that those two kings shall not hurt you. Believe this word l For if you do not, whatever you afterwards devise will deceive you : because all confidence is vain which is not supported by the word of God.”—LUTHER. 4. On vii. 10–12. “Wicked Ahaz pretends to great sanctity in abstaining from asking a sign through fear of God. . Thus hypocrites are most conscientious where there is no need for it: on the other hand, when they ought to be humble, they are the most insolent. But where God commands to be bold, one must be bold. For to be obedient to the word is not tempting God. That is rather tempting God when one proposes something without having the word for it. It is, indeed, the greatest virtue to rest only in the word, and desire nothing more. But where God would add something more than the word, then it must not be thought a virtue to reject it as superfluous. We must therefore exercise such a faith in the word of God that we will not despise the helps that are given in addition to it as aids to faith. For example the Lord offers us in the gospel all that is necessary to salvation. Why then Baptism and the LoRD's Supper? Are they to be treated as superfluous? By no means. For if one believes the word he will at the same time exhibit an entire obedience toward God. We ought therefore to learn to join the sign with the word, for no man has the power to sever the two. But do you ask: is it permitted to ask God for a sign 2 We have an example of this in Gideon. Answer: Although Gideon was not told of God to ask a sign, yet he did it by the impulse of the Holy Spirit, and not according to his own fancy. We must not therefore abuse his example, and must be content with the sign that is offered by the Lord... But there are extraordinary signs or miracles, like that of the text, and ordinary ones like Baptism and the LoRD's Supper. Yet both have the same object and use. For as Gideon was strengthened by that miraculous event, so, too, are we strengthened by Baptism and the Lord's Supper, although no miracle appears before our eyes.” HEIM and HoFFMANN after LUTHER. Eliezer, the servant of Abraham, also asked the Lord to show him the right wife for Isaac by means of a sign of His own choosing, (Gen. xxiv. 14). It ought to be said that this asking a sign (opening the Bible at a venture, or any other book) does not suit Christian perfection (Heb. vi. 1). A Christian ought to be inwardly sensible of the divine will. He ought to content himself
with the guarantees that God Himself offers. Only one must have open eyes and ears for them. This thing of demanding a sign, if it is not directly an effect of superstition (Matt. xii. 39; xvi. 4; 1 Cor; i. 22), is certainly childish, and, because it easily leads to superstitious abuses, it is dangerous. 5. On vii. 13. “Non caret, etc. That the Prophet calls God his God is not without a peculiar emphasis. In Zech. ii. 12 it is said, that whoever touches the servants of God touches the pupil of God's eye. Whoever opposes teacher and preacher will have to deal with God in heaven or with the Lord who has put them into office.”—FoERSTER. 6. On vii. 14. “The name Immanuel is one of the most beautiful and richest in contents of all the Holy Scripture. ‘God with us” comprises God's entire plan of salvation with sinful humanity. In a narrower sense it means ‘God-man’ (Matth. i. 23), and points to the personal union of divinity and humanity, in the double nature of the Son of God become man. Jesus Christ was a God-with-us, however, in this, that for about 33 years He dwelt among us sinners (Jno. i. 11, 14). In a deeper and wider sense still He was such by the Immanuel's work of the atonement (2 Cor. v. 19; 1 Tim. ii. 3). He will also be such to every one that believes on Him by the work of regeneration and sanctification and the daily renewal of His holy and divine communion of the Spirit (Jno. xvii. 23, 26; xiv. 19, 20, 21, 23). He is such now by His high-priestly and royal administration and government for His whole Church (Matth. xxviii. 20; Heb. vii. 25). He will be snch in the present time of the Church in a still more glorious fashion (Jno. x. 16). The entire and complete meaning of the name Immanuel, however, will only come to light in the new earth, and in the heavenly Jerusalem (Rev. xxi. 3, 23; xxii. 5).”—WILH. FRIED. Roos. CHAP. VIII.-7. On ver. 5 sqq. “Like boastful swimmers despise small and quiet waters, and on the other hand, for the better display of their skill, boast of the great sea and master it, but often are lost in it, thus, too, did the hypocrites that despised the small kingdom of Judah, and bragged much and great things of the power and splendor of the kingdom of Israel and of the Syrians; such hypocrites are still to be found now-a-days—such that bear in their eye the admiranda Romae, the splendor, riches, power ceremonies and pomp of the Romish church, and thereupon “set their bushel by the bigger-heap." It is but the devil's temptation over again : “I will give all this to thee.’”—CRAMER.—“Fons Siloa,” etc. “The fountain of Siloam, near the temple, daily reminded the Jews that Christ was coming.”—CALVIN on Jno. ix. 7. 8. On viii. 10. “When the great Superlatives sit in their council chambers and have determined everything, how it ought to be, and especially how . will extinguish the gospel, then God sends the angel Gabriel to them, who must look through the window and say: nothing will come of it.”—LUTHER.—“Christ, who is our Immanuel, is with us by His becoming man, for us by His office of Mediator, in us by the work of His sanctification, by us by His personal, gracious presence.”—CRAMER.