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cheer one another with the cry: "Geba give us as yet. Both are directly threatened; so nothing lodging.” Thus they promise themselves good remains but to flee and save their goods. “Saving quarters in Geba, that lay so charmingly on an their goods” seems to be indicated by lyij elevated plateau (comp. SCHEGG in Delitzsch). (comp. Exod. ix. 19); yet it may very well be Geba cannot be the same as Gebea of Saul, as construed as synonymous with 7771 according to appears evident from our text. For if it were Jer, iv. 6; vi. 1. “To-day still in Nob, to make the same, why is it mentioned twice with a dif- a halt,” is likewise the enemies' shout to one ference in the form of the name, and with the another. The thing is to pass on to Nob to-day, name of another city coming between? Rama, but there make a preliminary halt in order to now er-Ram, the city of Benjamin, made no- make the necessary dispositions for the attack on torious by Saul (1 Sam. i. 19; ii. 11, etc.), seems Jerusalein. Nob (comp. 2 Sam. xxi. 16, 28; to have lain aside from their route though near Neh. xi. 32) without doubt quite near Jerusalem, by. For it looks with trembling on the passers is to the present not certainly identitied. SCHEGG by; but Gebea of Saul opposite, lying perhaps contends very decidedly that it may be Isavije still nearer, fled outright, It lay on the summit that lies South-west of Anata fifty-five minutes of Tuleil-el-Tul (the Bean mountain, see AR- North of Jerusalem. NOLD, Ilenz. Real. Encycl. p. 744) which com 3. Behold the Lord--a mighty one.mands a view of the whole neighborhood. In Vers. 33, 34. The proud expedition of the Assyrian a direct line the expedition encounters Gallim, falls like trees felled by the axe. Like the tempest (1 Sam. xxv. 44) which VALENTINER (Ztschr. d. tears away the branches
, so the terror that goes D. M. G. XII. p. 169) thinks he has discovered forth from Jehovah breaks the power of the Assyin the hill Chirbet el- Dschisr that lies South rian. “The high ones of stature (of the standing of the Bean mountain. Because immediately wood)” shall be cut down (ix. 9) the lofty ones must threatened, Gallim shall shriek out (75ıp accus.). cut down with the iron; but Lebanon (notice how Laishah, by no means identical with wis Judg. the Prophet before distinguished branches, trunks xviii. 29, cannot be located. But KNOBEL is and thicket, but at last combines all in the comlikely correct in finding evidence of its being a fall by a Mighty One.fVho this Mighty. One
mon, all comprehending name Lebanon) shall place near Gallim in 1 Sam. xxv. 44, where is will be the Prophet does not say. That it is the mentioned Phaltiel son of Laish from Gallim Lord Himself as the remote cause, who xxxiii. (comp. 2 Sam. iii. 15), singy 7'))", "O poor 21, comp. Ps. xciii. 4, is called 7'78 " glorious, Anathoth,” is evidently a play on words. By this and the emotion of the orător is to be ex- mighty,” is of course. But it may convey also an plained the order of the words, which is not quite allusion at the same time to that one among the normal (comp. liv. 11). Anathoth, now Anata, Lord's ministers, that was the principal instruis only three-fourths of an hour distant from Jeru- ment in annihilating the Assyrian army before salem – Madmenah (Dung-heaps) and Gebim Jerusalem (xxxvii. 36). For the ministers of (fountains, Jer. xiv. 3) are not mentioned else- the Lord, too, are called D'?'? “the excellent where, nor are any traces of the places discovered l or mighty,” (Ps. xvi. 3).
III. ISRAEL'S REDEMPTION IN RELATION TO THE MESSIAH.
CHAPTER XI. 1-XII, 6. 1. FROM THE APPARENTLY DRIED UP ROOT OF THE HOUSE OF DAVID SHALL GO FORTH A SPROUT THAT SHALL FOUND A KINGDOM OF MOST
GLORIOUS PEACE. CHAPTER XI. 1-9. 1 And there shall come forth a rod out of the estem of Jesse,
And a "Branch oshall grow out of his roots :
The spirit of wisdom and understanding,
The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD ;
And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes,
Neither øreprove after the hearing of his ears : 4 But with righteousness shall he judge the poor,
And "reprove with equity for the meek of earth :
And with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked. 5 And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins,
And faithfulness the girdle of his reins.
6 The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb,
And the sleopard shall lie down with the kid;
And a little child shall lead them.
Their young ones shall lie down together :
And the lion shall eat bstraw like the ox. 8 And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the
For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD,
2 Or, argue.
3 Or, adder's. • stump.
• bear fruit. & And his breathing will be done in the fear of the LORD. • administer judgment. Frighten. i panther.
-גזע דָּוִד and not גזע ישי in the ground
can (חגור instead of using once) אזוֹר repetition of
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL, On ver. 1. yta occurs again only xl. 24 ; Job xiv. 8. |--^ secundum, comp. p.?x? xxxii. 1: 1974, etc. The root yold is not found. The meaning is that of y noin withlike ii. 4. (X. 33). caedere“ to cut down." In the three places that On ver. 4. divin comp. xl. 4; xlii. 16. it occurs, yra is "the hewn, cut up stem that still sticks
On ver. 5. GESENIUS makes the remark here that the ”
() non again only Prov. xiv. 3, meaning: "rod, pliant give no surprise in Isaiah, because he often uses the twig."—73), xiv, 19; lx. 21; Dan. xi. 7 (from 73.) un same word in parallel clauses: xiv. 4; xv. 1, 8 ; xvi. 7; used root, splendere, nitere), "a hardy, fresh young xvii. 12, 13; xix. 7 ; xxxi. 8; xxxii. 17; xlii. 19; xliv. 3; branch."--Tuvp, though the accents are against it,
liv. 13; lv. 4, 13; lix, 10. But in saying this GESENIUS, as must be connected with 73). For what does it mean
DRECHSLER remarks, forgot that he denies Isaiah's authat the shoot right from the root on shall bear fruit? I thorship ci chaps. xl.-Ixvi. Is something unnatural and impossible said of this shoot? Or was not Christ a Tree when He bore fruit?
On ver. 6. 3X is found in Isaiah only here and lxv. The thought is rather that from tho extinct trunk and 25, that resembles this.--1099 is “the lamb;" comp. shoot a sprout shall proceed that shall give evidence of i. 11; v. 17. "the striped” is “the panther" adequate vital power, and grow up to be a fruit-bearing (Jer. v. 6; xiii. 23). Isaiah has it only here.--207) with tree. Hence it is quite unjustifable to impose upon the
3 like 1 Chr. xiii. 7; comp. on 13 waj ix. 3. verb 1779' the meaning of 17??? (Hitzig, UMBREIT).
On ver. 7. 779X xxxv. 9.On ver. 3. It is natural to regard 177797 as antithesis
-?m again only lxv. 25. of the objective communication of the Spirit spoken of, On ver. 8. yu yu Pilpel from yyw delinire, mulcere, ver. 2. For first, n'17 means "smell anything with
pass. lxvi. 12.-17 xlii. 22-ing only here pleasure” (Lev. xxvi. 31; Amos v. 21). But if" 187in Isaiah.--17489 is än dej. 7ix is “light,” i. e., should be the object of in'97, then it ceases to be pre
an illuminating body” (Gen. i, 16); 77798?) would then dicate, and then the sentence is without predicate; or if it is construed as predicate, then the emphatic use
be a “light-opening," and we might understand under
that term both the entrance of the cave and the sparkof 3 after verbs of sensation cannot be appealed to, be
ling eye of the animal gleaming like a precious stone cause then 3 no longer depends on the notion of smell
(so the TARG., ABEN Ezra, Kimchi, etc.). But the paraling, but on a modification of the notion of being (hap- lelism with 1m prompts the conjecture, that originally pens in the fear of Jehovah, is directed to the fear of
otherwise never occurs.--77?“cave," Jehovah), which must be supplied to accommodate the
stood in the text (GESENIUS). What is correct is hard subject to the predicate. Second: What means the onesided emphasis of smelling? If smelling may be con
to make out.--77777 doubtless kindred to 177', immitstrued in the wider sense as inhaling and exhaling air tere is är.dey.--The piyoy (lix. 5) is likely identical through the nose, so that it coincides with breathing, with yo(xiv. 2)). The root yay means halare
. that would suit. I construe it in this wider sense as do othere (CLERICUS, HENDEWERK, EWALD, MEIER). (See
Doubtless a very poisonous serpent is meant, per. Comment of J. A. ALEXANDER, added, p. 162, top.] Then haps the basilisk, which is said to have been called sib. Din is to be construed as direct causative Hiphil, in
ilus. Comp. GESENIUS, Thes. the sense of “ to make 717," as one says 19???? “to
On ver. 9. That the beasts are subject of lyr' (comp. make enrs” – to “ hear," greining "to make a tongue,” | Ixv. 25) the context puts beyond doubt.--Dy is here zingeln, “to blaspheme." 1797 then “ breath, life's manifestly the sea-bed, the bottom of the sea; (comp. breath," Gen. ri. 17; vii. 15, 22, etc. But still much de- Ps. civ. 6). The prefix 5 before D' is explained by the pends on whether bodily or spiritual breath is meant. causative sense in which Piel is used here, as it is often. The context decides for the latter. For our in17 " 7*7') stands in evident antithesis to nation, ---D) means “covering,” make covering,” like 5237 Ter. 2. The latter designates the objective communi- “ provide rescue,” pipin “provide justice," 7'7877 cation of the Spirit, the former the subjective reception. I "make length," etc., and is accordingly, like the verbs
named, construed with the dative. So, too, is sy op does in a grateful odor. In " NXT'] the is a con
" to make a cover, to spread as a cover over some. nective which the verb 11'777 commonly takes after it, thing" (Num xvi. 33; Job xxxvi. 32; Hab. ii. 14, where and adds no more to the meaning of the phrase than oʻir text is reproduced.-J. A. ALEXANDER on verse 3. the English prepositions when we speak of smelling to “And his sense of smelling (i. e., his power of perception, or of a thing, instead of simply smelling it." with a sceming reference to the pleasure it affords him) Ibid. On ver. 9. “They shall not hurt nor destroy," ctc. The shall be exercised in (or upon) the fear of Jehovah (as an absence of the copulative shows that this is not so much attribute of others "). The only sense of ini177 con a direct continuation of the previous description as a firmed by usage is to smell. This, as a figure, compre- summary explanation of it. The true construction, hends discernment or discrimination between false and therefore, is indefinite, and the verbs do not agree with true religion, and the act of taking pleasure as the sense the nouns (animals) of ver. 8."]
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The destruction of the proud, towering for- | cedar (p?!) that the Lord will plant on the high est, which, meaning primarily Assyria, compre- mountain of Israel (Isa. ii.) to show how He is hends also the world-powers generally, is followed able to bring down the high tree, exalt the low by a contrasted picture in the renewed flourishing tree, dry up the green tree, and make flourish the of the house of David and of his kingdom. That dry tree.” house of David will be reduced to a stunted and 3. And the spirit — fear of the Lord inconsiderable root-stock, when the world-power Ver. 2. The Prophet immediately forsakes the shall be at the summit of its prosperity, But figurative language. He speaks of the sprout as from this root-stock, that is regarded as dead, a of a person. For on Him shall settle down (vii. sprout shall still go forth (ver. 1). On it the 2, 19; Num. xi. 25; 2 Kings ii. 15) the spirit of Spirit of the Lord shall rest in the fulness of His Jehovah. This is a generic designation. For in manifold powers (ver. 2). This sprout will take what follows a threefold species of this genus is delight in the fear of Jehovah; He will practise named, each of which is represented in two modijustice not after the deceptive sight of the eyes fications. The candlestick of the sanctuary has (ver. 3); on the contrary He will so do it that rightly been regarded as symbol of the spirit of the poor and humble shall be helped, but the Jehovah. The stem corresponds to what we have wicked not merely outwardly, but also inwardly called the genus, the six branches to what we subdued (ver. 4). For Ile shall stand firm in have called the species (Exod. xxv. 31 sqq.; righteousnesss and truth (ver. 5). Thus His xxxvii. 17 sqq.). The first species comprehends kingdom shall be one of peace in such a degree (noon and j'a) “wisdom and understanding." that even the impersonal creatures shall
be filled It is not easy to determine wherein consists the with this spirit of peace (vers. 6 7), 8. For even difference between these. In not a few passages the wildest beasts shall be no more wild, and no longer do harm on Jehovah's holy mountain. they are placed opposite to one another in the The whole shall be full of the liveliest and deep-5, 7; ix. 10; Job xxviii. 12, 20, 28; 2 Chr. ii.
parallelism of the clauses :
Prov. ii. 2 sqq.; iv. est knowledge of Jehovah, like the bottom of the 12, etc. In all these passages is observed, first of sea is covered with water (ver. 9). 2. And there shall come -his roots.
all, a formal distinction, a certain distinction of Ver. 1. Without a hint as to the time when, the chief name of all right knowledge. As the notion
rank. “Wisdom” is the great all-comprehending Prophet announced that a revirescence of David's house shall be the correlative of destruction of the wisdom rises to personality, in fact to the dignity world-power that was compared to the forest of of divine personality (Prov. viii. 32 sqq.) the
word becomes almost a proper name.
“UnderLebanon. He says stock of Jesse, not stock of David, for he would intimate that David's stock standing ” ( 173') with 172259, ny?, etc.) takes up will be reduced to its rank previous to David, a subordinate position. It signifies always only when it was only the stock of the obscure citizen an element, although a very essential one of of Bethlehem. This explanation seems to me “wisdom" (comp. Prov. viii. 14). Many find in more correct than the other that understands that on the fundamental meaning of firmitas solida, by this term is intimated that the Messiah shall of TUKVÓTTIS, though the word is rather allied to be the second David, for He is such not alongside plaatum, and thus, as in sapientia, copía "sapor, of, but after and out of the first. David. The“ taste" (comp. Dyu ) is the fundamental notion. Messiah is in fact the Son of David (2 Sam. vii.). In any case 7:331 “wisdom” has more a positive If this stock, dead and mutilated, only exists as a meaning, whereas 173'3 " understanding” (comp. stump, (but we know when and how that hap- 12 and the meaning of the root-words in the diapenel,) then shall a slender twig emerge from lects) carries more the negative notion of diákplois, His roots, thus out of that part concealed under ground and still fresh, a harly shoot that shall the art of distinguishing between true and false, not perish, but bear fruit, and therefore (as in- good and bad.—.79and 777132" counsel” and cluded in the statement) develop to a new tree.
"might" (xxxvi. 5) are easily distinguished as He is called "branch" iv. 2; Jer. xxiii. 5; proofs of practical wisdom in forming and executxxxiii. 15; Zech. iii. 8; vi. 12.' At the begin? ing good counsel. A third pair is (nyl, stat. ning of liii. (ver. 2) is found a representation of const. and" nX?!) “knowledge and fear of the the Messiah closely resembling our verse: "and Lord;" for the first two pairs comprise those He raised Himself before Him like the tender effects of the spirit that relate to the earthly plant and like the root out of dry ground.” Ezek. life. The third pair appear to reach out beyond toy, (xvii. 22-24) speaks of the shoot of the this earthly life. It names a knowledge and a
fear whose object is Jehovah Himself. If the The girdle is the symbol of vigorous, unimfear of God is named last here, whereas accord- peded development of strength, because the aning to Prov. i. 7; ix. 10; Ps. cxi. 10 it is the be- cients could run, wrestle, and work only when the ginning of all wisdom, that has its reason herein, girdle confined their wide garments (comp. Job that what is the deepest foundation may at the xii. 18; xxxviii. 3 ; xl. 2; Jer. i. 17; Eph. vi. same time be designated as the loftiest height, 14; 1 Pet. i. 13). Let the loins be girt with like the great mountains form the inmost nucleus righteousness and truth, and the girded man and the highest summits of the earth's body. The stands strong and firm in righteousness and truth. entire enumeration progresses therefore from the He is strong by both. Therefore He does not bottom upwards. Moreover the view of the seven further His cause by unrighteousness and lies, spirits of God, that is found Rev. i. 4; iii. 1; iv. but by the contrary. 5; v. 6, rests on our text. . On the anointing of the Messiah with the Spirit of God, comp. xlii.
5. The wolf also--the sea.--Vers. 6-9. 1; Ixi. 1; Matth. xii. 18; Luke iv. 18; Jno: The Prophet's vision penetrates to the remotest
time: he comprises the near and far in one look. iii. 34. 4. And shall make his reins.-Vers.
The Assyria of the present, with its destruction 3-5. On 11'777 see Text. and Gram. He has not of His appearance, and the latest fruits of His
in the near future, the Messiah in the inception only received the spirit from without; He re
work of peace--all this he sees at once in a grand ceives it also within Him, so that He continually breathes in this spiritual air of life-this alone Prince of Peace (ix. 5) shall have done away
picture before him.
When the Redeemer, as and no other. He has received (objectively) the with all violence, and put justice on the throne, spirit in absolute fulness. There appears to me to lie in these words, too, an allusion
to Gen. ii. then will peace be in the earth, and that, not only 7. There it is said that God breathed in men
among men, but also among beasts. The ProHis spirit as the principle of life. But this prin- phet, it is true, does not explain how the beasts
are to be made accessible to this peaceful dispociple of life performs its functions, no master in sition. But it seems to me ceriain that only stuwhat element the man may find himself. Even pendous changes in nature, violent revolutions, in the godless it is constantly active. Yet how world-ruin and resurrection, thus the slaying of unsatisfying, how mournful is that breathing of the old Adam, and the regeneration of nature can the spirit in a sphere infected by sin; The bring forth these effects, (Rev. xx. sq.), Messiah lives wholly in "the fear of God."
hold I make all things new,” (Rev. xxi. 5) says therefore breathes in an atmosphere homogeneous He, that sits upon the throne. But we see from to Him. He therefore brings into use for mankind the right breathing by bringing them back himself had a presentiment of this grand, and
passages like xxxv.; xliii. 18 sqq., that Isaiah into the pure element of spirit. He is the all-comprehending world-renewal. I do not mean second Adam.
by this to defend a literal fulfilment of the word As king, the Messiah must display the divinity which the church fathers rejected as Judaizing, of His disposition pre-eminently in the perfectly but only themselves to fall into the opposite exadequate administration of justice. He will there, treme of spiritualizing and allegorizing. Jerome appearance, never on that which pleases the out- | appeals to Eph. i. 3). The point is to find the
happy medium. That, however, is not found by ward sense, but He will only suffer that to pass saying that Isaiah meant what he said in a real for right that is right. He will not, therefore, sense, only he deceived himself, but by recog; look on the person, but help the poor and lowly nizing that Isaiah, as organ of the Spirit of to their rights (comp. i. 26 sqq.; iii. 13 sqq.). God, beheld stupendous, spirit-corporeal reality, But the unjust He will punish. This is the mean- but paints this reality with human, earthly, even ing of ver. 4 b. For the earth (17) that He national and temporal colors
. In short there will smites with the rod of His mouth, (Rev. i. 16) be “a new creation,” (2 Cor. v. 17) and this new and that is put parallel with yun - the wicked" creation will be at the same time a restitution of can only be regarded as the territory of the world that oldest creation, that original one of Paradise, that is hostile to God. “The wicked” yun is but on a higher plane. But how in the picture by the CHALDEE, and since that by many ex po- absolute and relative reality, i. e., whether to ex
of the Prophet, to draw the boundary between sitors, construed not only as a collective diyor, but
at the same time, (or even exclu- clude only single traits as not literal, cr whether sively e. q. DELITZSCH) in the sense of 2 Thess. to divest the whole of its local and temporal ii. 8, as designation of an eschatological person, the latter.
construction, is difficult to say. Yet I decide for
For all the traits of the picture in whom enmity against God shall reach its climax. The staff of His mouth is the word that painted by Isaiah bear the stamp of the existing goes forth out of His mouth, and the breath of earthly corporality. But in this sphere the proHis lips is the same. For His word is in fact phecy cannot be realized. We must suppose a what His lips (spiritually) breathe out. Thus
new basis of spiritual, glorified corporality made He proves Himself to be the one that can de for this fulfilment. On this basis then the Prostroy in the same way as He created. By His phet's word will, mutatis mutandis, certainly be
fulfilled. word were things made; by His word they pass away. Comp. Ps. civ. 29.
In this righteous
The young lion (79) v. 29) will lie quietly ness, however, consists His proper strength, and between the calf and the fattened ox, hitherto his the guaranty for the eternal continuance of His favorite food; and a small boy will suffice to keep kingdom. The powers of the world must pass away this entire, extraordinary, mixed up herd. Cow on account of unrighteous
usness (Prov. xiv. 34). and bear graze, and their young rest by one
another, while the old male-lion will devour "holy mountain"), will be full of the knowledge chopped straw. Poisonous serpents will change of the LORD. No doubt the Prophet means here, their nature; the sucking child will play at the not merely a dead knowing, which even the hole (vid. Text. and Grum.) of the adder. The devils have (Jas. ii. 17); he means a living, exholy mountain of Jehovah (comp. on ii. 2 sqq.), perimental, practical knowledge of God, as is will not indeed physically comprise the earth, possible also to the impersonal creature. Therebut it will rule the earth, and so far the Prophet fore the whole earth, not merely man, shall know can say, there shall no more harm be done, nor God living, and thus on the holy mountain shall destruction devised on the holy mountain. The no harm or destruction be devised. By the gloriwhole earth, in fact, is only the slope of the ous picture of that knowledge filling the earth mount of God. But the reason why there is no like the water the bottom of the sea, the Prophet more harm, is that the whole earth (notice how signifies that he conceives of all creatures as in the second clause earth” is substituted for I filled with this living knowledge of God.
2. THE RETURN OF ISRAEL TAKES PLACE ONLY WHEN THE MESSIAH HAS APPEARED AND THE HEATHEN HAVE GATHERED TO HIM.
CHAPTER XI. 10-16. 10 And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse,
Which shall stand for an ensign of the people;
And his rest shall be 'glorious.
That the LORD shall set his hand again the second time
And from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. 12 And he shall set up an ensign for the nations,
And shall assemble the outcasts of Israel,
From the four 2bcorners of the earth.
And the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off:
And Judah shall not vex Ephraim.
They shall spoil Šthem of the east together :
5And the children of Ammon shall obey them.
And swith his mighty wind shall he shake his hand over the river,
And make men go over 6dry-shod.
Which shall be left, from Assyria ;
? Heb, wings. 3 Heb. the children of the east.
4 Heb. Edom and Moab shall be the laying on of their hand. 6 Heb. The children of Ammon their obedience. • acquire.
e against. d viz., the Philistines, Seaward.
• their subjects. s with the glowing puff of his breath. binto seven brooklets.
6 Heb. in shoes.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On ver. 10. 5 097 comp. on viii. 19, but it has more connect it with what follows as accus. instr. But the emphasis than there.
position conflicts with that. Others supply ni so'z; but On ver. 11. 7' 7'017 is only found here. Many would that is not something that may be left to be understood.