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cheer one another with the cry: “Geba give us lodging.” Thus they promise themselves good quarters in Geba, that lay so charmingly on an elevated plateau (comp. SchEGG in DELITZSCH). Geba cannot be the same as Gebea of Saul, as appears evident from our text. For is it were the same, why is it mentioned twice with a difference in the form of the name, and with the name of another city coming between 2 Rama, now er-Ram, the city of Benjamin, made notorious by Saul (1 Sam. i. 19; ii. 11, etc.), seems to have lain aside from their route though near by. For it looks with trembling on the passers by ; but Gebea of Saul opposite, lying perhaps still nearer, fled outright, It lay on the summit of Tuleil-el-Tul (the Bean mountain, see ARNoLD, II ERz. Real. Encycl. p. 744) which commands a view of the whole neighborhood. In a direct line the expedition encounters Gallim, (1 Sam. xxv. 44) which VALENTINER (Ztschr. d. D. M. G. XII. p. 169) thinks he has discovered in the hill Chirbet el-Dschisr that lies South

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likely correct in finding evidence of its being a place near Gallim in 1 Sam. xxv. 44, where is mentioned Phaltiel son of Laish from Gallim (comp. 2 Sam. iii. 15). Thinly mory, “O poor Anathoth,” is evidently a play on words. By this and the emotion of the orator is to be explained the order of the words, which is not quite normal (comp. liv. 11). Anathoth, now Anata, is only three-fourths of an hour distant from Jerusalem — Madmenah (Dung-heaps) and Gebim (fountains, Jer. xiv. 3) are not mentioned elsewhere, nor are any traces of the places discovered

as yet. Both are directly threatened; so nothing remains but to flee and save their goods. “Saving their goods” seems to be indicated by Mi'yū (comp. Exod. ix. 19); yet it may very well be construed as synonymous with To according to Jer. iv.6; vi.1. “To-day still in Nob, to make a halt,” is likewise the enemies' shout to one another. The thing is to pass on to Nob to-day, but there make a preliminary halt in order to make the necessary dispositions for the attack on Jerusalein. Nob (comp. 2 Sam. xxi. 16, 28; Neh. xi. 32) without doubt quite near Jerusalem, is to the present not certainly identified. SchEGG contends very decidedly that it may be Isawije that lies South-west of Anata fifty-five minutes North of Jerusalem. 3. Behold the Lord—a mighty one.— Vers. 33,34. The proud expedition of the Assyrian falls like trees felled by the axe. Like the tempest tears away the lo. so the terror that goes forth from Jehovah breaks the power of the Assyrian. “The high ones of stature (of the standing wood)” shall be cut down (ix.9) the lofty ones must bow. The entire forest thicket (ix. 17) shall be cut down with the iron; but Lebanon (notice how the Prophet before distinguished branches, trunks and thicket, but at last combines all in the common, all comprehending name I ebanon) shall fall by a Mighty One. Who this Mighty One will be the Prophet does not say. That it is the Lord Himself as the remote cause, who xxxiii. 21, comp. Ps. xciii. 4, is called TTS “glorious, mighty,” is of course. But it may convey also an allusion at the same time to that one among the LoRD's ministers, that was the principal instrument in annihilating the Assyrian army before Jerusalem (xxxvii. 36). For the ministers of the Lord, too, are called D'Y'TN “the excellent

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III. ISRAEL'S REDEMPTION IN RELATION TO THE MESSIAH. CHAPTER XI. 1–XII. 6. 1. FROM THE APPARENTLY DRIED UP ROOT OF THE HOUSE OF DAVID SHALL

GO FORTH A SPROUT THAT SHALL FOUND A KINGDOM OF MOST
GLORIOUS PEACE. CHAPTER XI. 1–9.

1 AND there shall come forth a rod out of the "stem of Jesse,
And a "Branch “shall grow out of his roots:
2 And the spirit of the LoRD shall rest upon him,

The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might,

The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord ; 3 “And shall make him of 'quick understanding in the fear of the LoRD: And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither “reprove after the hearing of his ears: 4 But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, And "reprove with equity for the meek of earth: And he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, And with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked. 5 And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins,

And faithfulness the girdle of his reins.

6 The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb,

And the "leopard shall lie down with the kid ;

And the calf and the young lion and the
And a little child shall lead them.
And the cow and the bear shall feed ;

fatling together;

Their young ones shall lie down together:
And the lion shall eat "straw like the ox.

And the sucking child shall play on the
And the weaned child shall put his hand
They shall not hurt nor destroy in all m

hole of the asp, on the "cockatrice' den. y holy mountain:

For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord,

As the waters cover the sea.

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in the ground.” Hence "to yil and not my ytl.
- - r
npn again only Prov. xiv. 3, meaning: “rod, pliant
twig.”—nx), xiv.19; lx. 21; Dan. xi. 7 (from ny) un-
---- - r
used root, splendere, mitere), “a hardy, fresh young
branch.”—Y"tont.jp, though the accents are against it,
must be connected with oxx. For what does it mean
that the shoot right from the root on shall bear fruit?
Is something unnatural and impossible said of this
shoot ? Or was not Christ a Tree when He bore fruit *
The thought is rather that from the extinct trunk and
shoot a sprout shall proceed that shall give evidence of
adequate vital power, and grow up to be a fruit-bearing
tree. Hence it is quite unjustifiable to impose upon the
verb nonio" the meaning of nons)" (HITzig, UMBREIT).
- - -
On ver. 3. It is natural to regard in"n as antithesis
of the objective communication of the Spirit spoken of,
ver. 2. For first, non means “ smell anything with

pleasure" (Lev. xxvi. 31; Amos v.21). But if ^ nNY"> should be the object of \n"on, then it ceases to be predicate, and then the sentence is without predicate; or if it is construed as predicate, then the emphatic use of 3 after verbs of sensation cannot be appealed to, be

cause then a no longer depends on the notion of smell

ing, but on a modification of the notion of being (happens in the fear of Jehovah, is directed to the fear of Jehovah), which must be supplied to accommodate the subject to the predicate. Second: What means the onesided emphasis of smelling? If smelling may be construed in the wider sense as inhaling and exhaling air through the nose, so that it coincides with breathing, that would suit. I construe it in this wider sense as do others (CLE Ricus, HENDEw ERK, EwALD, MEIER). [See Comment of J. A. ALExANDER, added, p. 162, top.] Then n" on is to be construed as direct causative Hiphil, in the sense of “to make run,” as one says rism “to make ears" - to “hear,” syon “to make a tongue." rangeln, “to blaspheme.” na" then – “breath, life's breath,” Gen. vi. 17; vii. 15, 22, etc. But still much depends on whether bodily or spiritual breath is meant. The context decides for the latter. For our in” on * north-2 stands in evident antithesis to to not" n)^, ver. 2. The latter designates the objective communication of the Spirit, the former the subjective reception.

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* Or, adder's. * And his breathing will be done in the fear of the Lord. * grass.

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named, construed with the dative. So, too, is by n>> r .

“to make a cover, to spread as a cover over something" (Num xvi. 33; Job xxxvi. 32; Hab. ii. 14, where our text is reproduced.—[J. A. ALEXANDER on verse 3. “And his sense of smclling (i. e., his power of perception, with a seeming reference to the pleasure it affords him) shall be exercised in (or upon) the fear of Jehovah (as an attribute of others"). The only sense of "T"YNT confirmed by usage is to smell. This, as a figure, comprehends discernment or discrimination between false and true religion, and the act of taking pleasure as the sense

EXEGETICAL

1. The destruction of the proud, towering forest, which, meaning primarily Assyria, comprehends also the world-powers generally, is followed by a contrasted picture in the renewed flourishing of the house of David and of his kingdom. That house of David will be reduced to a stunted and inconsiderable root-stock, when the world-power shall be at the summit of its prosperity. Put from this root-stock, that is regarded as dead, a sprout shall still go forth (ver. 1). On it the Spirit of the Lord shall rest in the fulness of His manifold powers (ver. 2). This sprout will take delight in the fear of Jehovah; He will practise justice not after the deceptive sight of the eyes {. 3); on the contrary He will so do it that the poor and humble shall be helped, but the wicked not merely outwardly, but also inwardly subdued (ver. 4). For IIe shall stand firm in righteousnesss and truth (ver. 5). Thus His kingdom shall be one of peace in such a degree that even the impersonal creatures shall be filled with this spirit of peace (vers. 6 7), 8. For even the wildest beasts shall be no more wild, and no longer do harm on Jehovah's holy mountain. The whole shall be full of the liveliest and deepest knowledge of Jehovah, like the bottom of the sea is covered with water (ver. 9).

2. And there shall come—his roots.Ver. 1. Without a hint as to the time when, the Prophet announced that a revirescence of David's house shall be the correlative of destruction of the world-power that was compared to the forest of Lebanon. He says stock of Jesse, not stock of David, for he would intimate that David's stock will be reduced to its rank previous to David, when it was only the stock of the obscure citizen of Bethlehem. This explanation seems to me more correct than the other that understands that by this term is intimated that the Messiah shall be the second David, for He is such not alongside of, but after and out of the first David. The

Messiah is in fact the Son of David (2 Sam. vii.).

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mountain of Israel (Isa. ii.) to show how He is able “to bring down the high tree, exalt the low tree, dry up the green tree, and make flourish the dry tree.” 3. And the spirit—fear of the Lord – Ver. 2. The Prophet immediately forsakes the figurative language. He speaks of the sprout as of a person. For on Him shall settle down (vii. 2, 19; Num. xi. 25; 2 Kings ii. 15) the spirit of Jehovah. This is a generic designation. For in what follows a threefold species of this genus is named, each of which is represented in two modifications. The candlestick of the sanctuary has rightly been regarded as symbol of the spirit of Jehovah. The stem corresponds to what we have called the genus, the six branches to what we have called the species (Exod. xxv. 31 sqq.; xxxvii. 17 sqq.). The first species comprehends (mp3m and m)"B) “wisdom and understanding.” It is not easy to determine wherein consists the difference between these. In not a few passages they are placed opposite to one another in the parallelism of the clauses: Prov. ii. 2 sqq.; iv. 5, 7; ix. 10; Job xxviii. 12, 20, 28; 2 Chr. ii. 12, etc. In all these passages is observed, first of all, a formal distinction, a certain distinction of rank. “Wisdom” is the great all-comprehending chief name of all right knowledge. As the notion wisdom rises to personality, in fact to the dignity of divine personality (Prov. viii. 32 sqq.) the word becomes almost a proper name. “Understanding” (mri with mon, nyl, etc.) takes up a subordinate position. It signifies always only an element, although a very essential one of “wisdom” (comp. Prov. viii. 14). Many find in npon the fundamental meaning of firmitas solida, of Two oro, though the word is rather allied to in plaqtum, and i. as in sapientia, copia “sapor, “taste” (comp. DJ't)) is the fundamental notion. In any case mons “wisdom” has more a positive meaning, whereas Tīr; “understanding” (comp. i`i; and the meaning of the root-words in the dialects) carries more the negative notion of drákotato, the art of distinguishing between true and false, good and bad.—msy and Tinlill “counsel ” and “might” (xxxvi. 5) are easily distinguished as roofs of practical wisdom in forming and executing good counsel. A third pair is (njo, stat. const. and "no") “knowledge and fear of the Lord :” for the first two pairs comprise those effects of the spirit that relate to the earthly life. The third pair appear to reach out beyond this earthly life. It names a knowledge and a fear whose object is Jehovah Himself. If the fear of God is named last here, whereas according to Prov. i. 7; ix. 10; Ps. cxi. 10 it is the beginning of all wisdom, that has its reason herein, that what is the deepest foundation may at the same time be designated as the loftiest height, like the great mountains form the inmost nucleus and the highest summits of the earth's body. The entire enumeration progresses therefore from the bottom upwards. Moreover the view of the seven spirits of God, that is found Rev. i. 4; iii. 1; iv. 5; v. 6, rests on our text. On the anointing of the Messiah with the Spirit of God, comp. xlii. 1; lxi. 1; Matth. xii. 18; Luke iv. 18; Jno. 4. And shall make—his reins.—Vers. 3–5. On TTT see Text. and Gram. He has not only received the spirit from without; He receives it also within Him, so that He continually breathes in this spiritual air of life—this alone and no other. He has received (objectively) the spirit in absolute fulness. There appears to me to lie in these words, too, an allusion to Gen. ii. 7. There it is said that God breathed in men His spirit as the principle of life. But this principle of life performs its functions no master in §. element the man may find himself. Even in the godless it is constantly active. Yet how unsatisfying, how mournful is that breathing of the spirit in a sphere infected by sin. The Messiah lives wholly in “the fear of God.” He therefore breathes in an atmosphere homogeneous to Him. He therefore brings into use for mankind the right breathing by bringing them back into the pure element of spirit. He is the second Adam. As king, the Messiah must display the divinity of His disposition pre-eminently in the perfectly adequate administration of justice. He will therefore never let His judgment depend on outward appearance, never on that which pleases the outward sense, but He will only suffer that to pass for right that is right. He will not, therefore, look on the person, but help the poor and lowly to their rights (comp. i. 26 .; iii. 13 sqq.). But the unjust He o poi"Hi, is the meaning of ver. 4 b. For the earth (Yos) that He

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can only be regarded as the territory of the world that is hostile to God. “The wicked” yg) is

by the CHALDEE, and since that by many expositors, construed not only as a collective – Dorton, but at the same time, (or even exclusively e. g. DELITZSCH) in the sense of 2 Thess. ii. 8, as designation of an eschatological person, in whom enmity against God shall reach its climax. The staff of His mouth is the word that forth out of His mouth, and the breath of is lips is the same. For His word is in fact what #. lips (spiritually) breathe out. Thus He proves Himself to be the one that can destroy in the same way as He created. By His word were things made; by His word they pass away. Comp. Ps. civ. 29. In this righteousness, however, consists His proper strength, and the guaranty for the eternal continuance of His kingdom. The powers of the world must pass away on account of unrighteousness (Prov. xiv. 34).

The girdle is the symbol of vigorous, unimpeded development of strength, because the ancients could run, wrestle, and work only when the girdle confined their wide garments (comp. Job xii. 18; xxxviii. 3; xl. 2; Jer. i. 17; Eph. vi. 14; 1 Pet. i. 13). Let the loins be girt with righteousness and truth, and the girded man stands strong and firm in righteousness and truth. He is strong by both. Therefore He does not further His cause by unrighteousness and lies, but by the contrary.

5. The wolf also—the sea.—Vers, 6–9. The Prophet's vision penetrates to the remotest time: he comprises the near and far in one look. The Assyria of the present, with its destruction in the near future, the Messiah in the inception of His appearance, and the latest fruits of His work of H. . this he sees at once in a grand F. efore him. When the Redeemer, as rince of Peace (ix, 5) shall have done away with all violence, and put justice on the throne, then will peace be in the earth, and that, not only among men, but also among beasts. The Prophet, it is true, does not explain how the beasts are to be made accessible to this peaceful disposition. But it seems to me certain that only stupendous changes in nature, violent revolutions world-ruin and resurrection, thus the slaying of the old Adam, and the regeneration of nature can bring forth these effects, (Rev. xx. sq.). “Behold I make all things new,” (Rev. xxi. 5) says He, that sits upon the throne. But we see from assages like xxxv.; xliii. 18 sqq., that Isaiah imself had a presentiment of this grand, and all-comprehending world-renewal. I do not mean by this to defend a literal fulfilment of the word which the church fathers rejected as Judaizing, but only themselves to fall into the opposite extreme of spiritualizing and allegorizing. (Jerome appeals to Eph. i. 3). The point is to find the happy medium. That, however, is not found by saying that Isaiah meant what he said in a real sense, only he deceived himself, but by recognizing that Isaiah, as organ of the Spirit of God, beheld stupendous, spirit-corporeal reality, but paints this reality with human, earthly, even national and temporal colors. In short there will be “a new creation,” (2 Cor. v. 17) and this new creation will be at the same time a restitution of that oldest creation, that original one of Paradise, but on a higher plane. But how in the picture of the Prophet, to draw the boundary between absolute and relative reality, i.e., whether to exclude only single traits as not literal, cr whether to divest the whole of its local and temporal construction, is difficult to say. Yet I decide for the latter. For all the traits of the picture painted by Isaiah bear the stamp of the existing earthly corporality. But in this sphere the prophecy cannot be realized. We must suppose a new i. of spiritual, glorified corporality made for this fulfilment. On this basis then the Prophet's word will, mutatis mutandis, certainly be fulfilled. The young lion (h"D5 v. 29) will lie quietly between the calf and the fattened ox, hitherto his favorite food; and a small boy will suffice to keep this entire, extraordinary, mixed up herd. Cow and bear graze, and their young rest by one

another, while the old male-lion will devour chopped straw. Poisonous serpents will change their nature; the sucking child will play at the hole (vid. Text, and Gram.) of the adder. The holy mountain of Jehovah (comp. on ii. 2 sqq.), '...} not indeed physically comprise the earth, but it will rule the earth, and so far the Prophet can say, there shall no more harm be done, nor destruction devised on the holy mountain. The whole earth, in fact, is only the slope of the mount of God. But the reason why there is no more harm, is that the whole earth (notice how in the second clause “earth” is substituted for

“holy mountain’’) will be full of the knowledge of the LoRD. No doubt the Prophet means here, not merely a dead knowing, which even the devils have (Jas. ii. 17); he means a living, experimental, practical knowledge of God, as is possible also to the impersonal creature. Therefore the whole earth, not merely man, shall know God living, and thus on the holy mountain shall no harm or destruction be devised. By the glorious picture of that knowledge filling the earth like the water the bottom of the sea, the Prophet signifies that he conceives of all creatures as filled with this living knowledge of God.

2. THE RETURN OF ISRAEL TAKES PLACE ONLY WHEN THE MESSIAH HAS APPEARED AND THE HEATHEN HAVE GATHERED TO HIM,

CHAPTER XI. 10–16.

AND in that day there shall be a root of Jesse,
Which shall stand for an ensign of the people;
To it shall the Gentiles seek:
And his rest shall be 'glorious.
11 And it shall come to pass in that day,
That the LoRD shall set his hand again the second time
To "recover the remnant of his people,
Which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt,
And from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam,
And from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea.
12 And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, -
And shall assemble the outcasts of Israel,
And gather together the dispersed of Judah
From the four *corners of the earth.
13 The envy also "of Ephraim shall depart,
And the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off:
Ephraim shall not envy Judah,
And Judah shall not vex Ephraim.
14 But they shall fly upon the shoulders "of the Philistines toward the west;
They shall spoil 'them of the east together:
“They shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab;
*And the children of Ammon “shall obey them. -
15 And the LoRD shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea;
And “with his mighty wind shall he shake his hand over the river,
And shall smite it "in the seven stroams,
And make men go over "dry-shod.
16 And there shall be an highway for the remnant of his people,
Which shall be left, from Assyria;
Like as it was to Israel
In the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt.

10

1 Heb. glory.

* Heb, the children of the east.
* Heb. The chudren of Ammon their obedience.
acquire. b borders.
* viz., the Philistines, Seaward. their subjects.
s with the glowing puff of his breath. * into seven brooklets.

* Heb. wings.
* Heb. Edom and Moab shall be the laying on of their hand.
* Heb. in shoes.

* against.
f banish.

TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On ver. 10. ‘’s th" comp. on viii. 19, but it has more | connect in with what follows as accus, instr. But the emphasis than there. position coilicts with that. Others supply riboo. but On ver, 11. "I" Ton is only found here. Many would that is not something that may be left to be understood.

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