Obrazy na stronie

TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL, on ver. 16. 11787 comp. ver. 33; 1. 24; iii. 1 ; xix. 4. Note the paronomasia which evidently aims at an arnixy J7X'are found thus combined only here. Else- tistic sound imitation. where it is always nix3 7177' '278, vers. 23, 21; iii.

On ver. 17. 75X comp. on ix. 13.--hond, “ the 15; xxii. 5, 12, 14, 15; xxviii. 22; Jer. ii. 19; xlvi. 10; fruitful, cultivated garden and field,” is also elsewhere xlix. 5; 1. 25, 31.—Opon are properly “the fat opposed to forest (xxix. 17), while again in other places parts" (comp. Gen. xxvii. 28, 39), then (abstr. pro concr. 7° is mentioned as part of the hond (xxxvii. 24 ; 2 Ps. lxxviii. 31); “the fat men,” by whom Isaiah under- Kings xix. 23). This is no contradiction, the notions stands all that have a share in Assyria's greatness. of the two words occurring sometimes in a broader, Comp. xxvii. 4, where alone the word occurs again in sometimes in a narrower sense. Isaiah. -1977, from 777 attenuare, maciare, Niph. con

On ver. 18. DD), är. dey. Comp. V), Syr. nesiso, voceiv, tabescore (xvii. 4) occurs only here in Isaiah (comp. )

" to be sick." -oop infin. from DDp xiii. 7; xix. 1; xxiv. 16). It means macies, tabies, consumption, phthisis.”—124 verb, comp. axı, 14 ; Ixv. 5, 1p: only here. Exiv, 3 moto pine away.”—1909 like Jer. xliv. 28 ;


EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 2. Therefore--write them.-Vers. 16- | soul are the entire man (Ps. xvi. 9; lxxviii. 26; 19. “Therefore" introduces the consequences lxxxiv. 3.")--KNOBEL. I except to this only that follow the double guilt of Assyria portrayed that the expression is restricted to men. Have above. That necessary consequence is punish- not the beast and the plant a soul too? Comp. ment. The, not personal, glory of Assyria shall Gen. ii. 19. And is it not said in our very be burnt so as if the Lord kindled a fire under passage that forest and field shall be anihilated it. The comparison of the consumption which from the soul to the flesh ? Thus in some sense is not meant literally, and the ? before Tip: show soul and flesh, i. e., body are attributed to plants. that no real fire is meant. It is the fire of God's another figure, and calls Assyria a weakling, who

From his exhaustless store the Prophet produces holy wrath that is the correlative of His love. The latter is the light of Israel in whom God takes

pining dies


Yet a remnant shall remain, but a very feeble pleasure (2 Sam. xxii. 29; Ps. xxvii. 1; Mic.

Of the lordly forest there shall be left only vii. 8), but a consuming fire for all that is against God and His kingdom (Deut. iv. 24; ix. 3; Isa.

a clump that may be counted ; so far from numexxx. 33; xxxiii. 14). Like ix. 17, thorns and rous that a boy can count and write a list of thistles are contrasted with the nobler representa- its destruction may be compared to the little

them. And truly, what was left of Assyria after tives of vegetation. The comparison does not refer to the army of Assyria with its various forest or grove of cedars that the traveller now grades of rank and file, but to the nation with all finds on Lebanon. But I mean not merely the its glory. Thorns and thistles mean all lowly

overthrow of Sennacherib, but Nineveh's de

For and inferior persons, forest and fruitful field those struction by the Babylonians and Medes. of elevation and splendor.

the Prophet's vision comprehends the whole

future both of Israel and of Assyria. The expression “from soul to body” (TYI NDIO

The figure of the boy writing down the trees, is found only here). It is to be compared seems to me remarkable in respect to the history with i. 6, “from the sole of the foot to the head.” of culture. We hear in this place of a boy that As the latter signifies the entire outward, visible can write, the like of which we find even Judg. surface of the body, so the latter the entire or- viii. 14, and that counts the trunks of the trees. ganism generally. Not only the outward, but Is the figure pure invention of the Prophet? or the inward shall be anihilated. “For body and I was he brought to use it from observation ?



WORLD-POWER, CHAP. X. 20-23. 20 And it shall come to pass in that day,

That the remnant of Israel,
And such as are escaped of the house of Jacob,
Shall no more again stay upon him that smote them;
But shall stay upon the LORD,

The Holy One of Israel in truth.
21 The remnant shall return, even the remnant of Jacob,

Unto the mighty God.

22 For though thy people Israel be as the sand of the sea,

Yet a remnant 'of them shall return:

The consumption decreed shall overflow 'with righteousness. 23 For the Lord God of hosts shall make a consumption, even determined,

In the midst of all the land.

Or, in.

1 Heb. in, or among.
Destruction is determined, extending wide righteousness.



is found כְּלָיוֹן

.These words are difieult .כליון וגו' כלְיוֹן

כִּי Therefore .חרוץ to נחרצה כליון corresponds to

TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On vers. 22, 23. 13 after 390, is partitive, as is often can only designate the fate of those Israelites that do the case. Comp. vi. 13; Deut. j. 35; Ps. cxxxix. 16, and

not belong to "the remnant."-But what is

? especially passages where this stands after words Many suppose it signifies the righteous state of the meaning “ to remain over,” Exod. xiv. 28 ; Lev. xxvi. whole community, which they have attained to by rea36; 1 Sam. xi. 11. (Like the Engl. "one in ten").--

son of the judgments (DRECHSLER according to xlviii. 18;

Amos v. 24). But the following verse seems to me to . .

conflict with this, which seems to be wholly an explaagain only Dt. xxviii. 65, in the expression D??'y. ,

nation the words ry soos n pos g. 759 evidently which, after ay hp (Ps. Ixix. 4; cxix. 82, 123; Lam.

, . ? ii. 11) must be rendered oculorum consumtio, “consump- is expletive. The obscure expression ver. 22 b, which is tion, failure of the power of vision.” So we must take probably a citation, for it contrasts strangely with its it here in the sense of “wearing off, consuming, deso- surroundings, is used in a form suited to comroon unlating.” — Mann

is part. pass.

Mon, incidere, deci

derstanding. Thus the word 7752 (in Isa. only again dere, definere, decernere (comp. 1 Kings xx. 40). In Isa. it is found again only as a qualifying adjective to the xxviii.22, where the whole style of address recurs; frethreshing roller (xli. 15) or as name for tne roller itself, quent beside in the combination 757 nigy, especially (xxviii. 27). It is so named because an implement fur- in Jer. iv. 27; v. 10, 18, etc.) “utter ruin” stands for


; ) , . only mean, therefore: “ destruction is limited, deter- out of regard for the word-pair. This latter word, too, mined, concluded.”—In 900 is easily discerned an

is found only xxviii. 22, and also in Dan. ix. 27; xi. 36,

where the words are repeated out of Isaiah.--But we antithesis to pinn: for as in the latter there is the notion of something sharply marked off, so in the former there is the notion of flooding over (viii. 8; xxviii. 2,15

, roe-ho is explanation of 9 900.' Precisely thereby 17, 18; xxx, 28; xliii. 2; xlvi. 12). We thus obtain the

we see that you states nothing more than that wide figure of something determined, sharply defined, but

over all the earth shall be known and manifest what which in a certain sepse extends itself, and withal, too, overflowing with a certain effect, as it were, settling it mon proba is, viz., a proof of the righteousness of (you with the accusat. of abundance). That which is God. Were to mean the conformity of human fixed, determined, is called prho, what is widespread condition to God's righteousness, then this thought

. .

כליון חרוץ .nished with sharp corners and edges


the feta . ending being used ,חרוץ for נחרצה ;כליון

כלח ונח) must take עשה בקרב for ; עשֶׂה as object of

צדקה .עשׂה בכל הא} could not be rendered by the simple | כליון According to the foregoing .צדקה is said to be

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. And it shall come to pass all the entire return to Jehovah, of swearing in His land.–Vers. 20-23. The Prophet turns again name,“ in truth, judgment and righteousness," to his own nation. Assyria's tall is Israel's salva- of reformation that “ breaks up the fallow ground tion. “In that day," i. e., when the destruction and does not sow among thorns,” of circumciof Assyria shall have taken place (vers. 16–19), sion of the heart, and not of the flesh. So here, Israel will indeed still exist, but only as a rem- leaning on the LORD "in truth,” is such wherein nant ("** vii. 3; xi. 11, 16; xxviii. 5), and as

the heart is no longer divided between Jehovah

and the creature, but belongs to Him wholly and those escaped (1999 comp. on iv. 2). But this alone. The expression is found again in Isaiah remnant will at last have learned what ministers xvi. 5; xxxviii. 3; xlviii. 1; lxi. 8; comp. Jer. to their peace. It will no more lean on Assyria xxxii. 40 sq. as Ahaz has done. It is plainly seen from this, That it may not be thought that he has used that the present passage was composed at a the expression “remnant of Israel” with no spe period when the Assyrian alliance (2 Kings xvi. cial significance, the Prophet repeats it in ver. 9 sqq.), was already an historical fact. By the 21, with great emphasis, at the same time definsingle word 1773?, which points back to ver. 5, ing it more exactly. No false support is offered the Prophet indicates how foolish and ruinous in these words, which would ill-agree with the that alliance was. Israel's remnant will rather truth." True, the Israel “ according to the flesh”

promise that Israel shall lean on the LORD "in lean on Jehovah, the holy God (comp. on i. 4), fancied that where Abraham's seed was, there who is Israel's w77?, rock and refuge (viii. 4). salvation and life were guaranteed. But to them What is meant by hox"in truth” may be best apply the words of John Baptist: “ Begin not to seen from Jer. iv. 1-4, who speaks of sincere, and say within yourselves, we have Abraham to our

father; for I say unto you, That God is able of | arises from this, that the Prophet has in mind his these stones to raise up children unto Abraham. words in ix. 5. The return to El-gibbor-Jehovah And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the will, in its time, be possible only in the form of trees: every tree, therefore, which bringeth not the return to El-gibbor-Messiah. Therefore forth good fruit, is hewn down and cast into the Isaiah does not promise an unconditional, unifire.” Luke iii. 8, 9. From this we see that not versal return of all that may be called Israelite, all that remain after the great judgments belong and that descends from Abraham, but he makes to “the remnant,” but only those that bear a most displeasing and threatening restriction. genuine fruits of repentance. Paul confirms this And if in the time to which he points, the time Rom. xi. 4 sq., when, to the question“ hath God when the world-power will be judged, Israel were cast away his people ?" he replies by referring numerous as the sand by the sea-a condition to the seven thousand that did not bow the knee which is even a fulfilment of promise and a theoto Baal (1 Kings xix. 18), and then continues : cratic state of blessedness (comp., on ix. 2; Gen. “even so then at this present time also, there is xxii. 17)-Jehovah still can bring Himself not a remnant according to the election of grace.” to make all these Israelites according to the flesh We may say, therefore; Isaiah's remnant is the partakers of the promised blessing. This is the "election" (erhorn) of Paul. “The election hath thought that Paul carries out in Rom. ix., and in obtained it, and the rest were blinded.” Rom. this sense he cites our passage in vers. 27, 28. xi. 7. This is confirmed, too, by the way that They are not all Israel, which are of Israel,” Isaiah defines the aim of the return. Jer, says he says ver. 6. “Nefther, because they are the iv. 1: “If thou wilt return, O Israel, return to seed of Abraham, are they all children: but in me.A false returning, therefore, is possible Isaac shall thy seed be called. That is: They (rid. my com. on Jer. iv. 1 sqq.). Precisely on which are the children of the flesh, these are not this account Isaiah says in, our passage the rem- the children of God, but the children of the nant will return to 1102 58, God Almighty." promise are counted for the seed,” vers. 7, 8. It is not the fleshly descent from Abraham that Therefore the LORD prepares an election of which is the criterion of belonging to "the remnant,” the criterion is birth from God, regeneration, but the return to God Almighty. It is plain that faith. As proof the Apostle cites, as already Jehovah the God of Israel is meant. But that said, our passage among other Old Testament Isaiah should call Him here just by this name, I statements.


PRESENT. CHAPTER X. 24-27. 24 THEREFORE thus saith the Lord God of hosts,

O my people that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrian :
He shall smite thee with a rod,

"And shall lift up his staff against thee, after the manner of Egypt. 25 For yet a very little while, and the indignation shall cease,

And mine anger 'in their destruction.
26 And the LORD. of hosts shall stir up a scourge for him

According to the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb :
And as his rod was upon the sea,

So shall he lift it up after the manner of Egypt. 27 And it shall come to pass in that day,

That his burden 'shall be taken away from off thy shoulder,
And his yoke from off thy neck,
And the yoke shall be "destroyed because of the anointing.

1 Or, But he shall lift up his staff for thee. • Lord Jehovah of hosts.

. Heb. shall remove.
e unlaced because of fat.

(turns) to.

.Gen . xix) מצער another form for מזעָר .25

.On ver

-triturn , con בָּלָה from) תַּכְלִית


TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. . (. nant sense“ directs, turns itself."-Sy is employed 20; Isa. Ixiii. 18, etc.) parvitas, paucitas, beside here is then just as ver. 3. ( found only xxix. 17; xvi. 14 ; xxiv. 6. It is thus a word sumtum esse) is ärr. dey. It means consumtio, i. e., of the peculiar to the first part of Isaiah.—The expression Assyrians. Thus the words form a fitting transitiou to dy ho occurs only here and Dan. xi. 36, which is taken from our passage. Comp. Dyr 13 Y.* xxvi. 20. It On ver. 26. 771y used of "wielding” a scourge only is needless to change the reading 921 08). Supply here: it is used 2 Sam. xxiii. 18; 1 Chr. xi. 11, 20 of 79) after 'ONT (comp.e. g. iz. 20) and construe in a preg- brandishing a spear. Notice the paronomasia ndiy

ver. 26.

and 2719.--ui again in Isaiah only xxviii. 15, K'ri or cord. Delitzsch represents, on the authority of --17001 must be conceived as dependent on 7718.

statements of SCHEGG, that to this day in the Orient the

yoke is fastened to the pole by a cord about the neck. On ver. 27. The last clause is obscure. It defines the

Thus the Prophet would evidently say that, because of manner of releasing from the yoke. san Pual occurs the fat ('97 causal as it often is, ii. 10; vii, 2, etc.) which only here and Job xvii. 1. The original meaning of

grows on the well-fed Israel, the rope breaks, and thus

the yoke apparatus falls off. On this account it seems ban is " to twist" (thence 5217 “a rope”) “ to bind”

to me probable that 5277

, (though otherwise han ligare, pignore obligare. Piel, cum tormentis eniti

, parere, comes from 1297 and not ihe reverse), is still here to but also "to twist round and round, to turn the bottom

be regarded as a Pual denominativum and priratinum most to the topmost ” (French bouleverser); xiii. 5; liv. coined ad hoc (comp. on 16; Mic. ii. 10 ; Song of Sol. ii. 15; Eccl. v. 5. In Isa. 1620 10° is drawn from beasts of burden. In ix. 3,

Jo ver. 33).---The figure in xxxii. 7 there seems beside to lie in the word the meaning of ensnaring.” So there seems here, beside the inap by the two words are combined; but separated notion of destruction, to be that of a reference to a rope

here as xiv. 25.

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. Therefore thus saitb -of the anoint- | clause of ver. 26 contains a magnificent figure full ing (fat).- Verz. 24–27. . If all that is true that of art. First from Assyria's hand is taken the the Prophet, from ver. 5 on, has said of Assyria staff that he is to raise over Israel and put into as the momentary instrument of God's chasten- the hand of Jehovah. This appears from the reing, -and how shall God's word not be sure ?- lation of ver. 26 b. to the last clause of ver. 24. then Israel need not fear Assyria even in present Then this staff in the hand of Jehovah is transimpending danger. Assyria will, indeed, execute formed to the likeness of the rod with which chastisement on Israel, but only a discipline with Moses in Egypt prepared the Red Sea for a way a staff and rods (ver. 5), not with the sword, i. e. of escape for Israel (xi. 16). The sea here is that only a transitory one, not such as ends in destruc- which spreads out before Israel in the distress tion. The Prophet intimates that the captivity occasioned by Assyria. The raising up of the rod by the northern world-power will be, as it were, here (180)) corresponds to that raising it over a continuation of that suffered from the southern: Israel (NB" ver. 24) for which Assyria used it. A Assyria therefore will tread in the footsteps of Egypt. He will raise the staff over Israel in the twofold raising of the rod took place in Egypt: way (ver. 26, Amos iv. 10), i. e. in the manner

one over Israel, the other over the sea. Both of Egypt. For as Egypt could not attain his are repeated now. Neither the rod flourished object of extirpating the Israelite by killing the over Israel for chastisement shall be wanting, male children that were born and by hard labor, nor the rod of God, which, as there, shall open a just as little should Assyria succeed. For only a way through the deep sea of trouble. As is very little, and the wrath would cease. The familiarly known, the passage through the Red Prophet, therefore, conceives of the wrath as in Sea is often mentioned and turned to account in progress, but presents its speedy end in prospect. a variety of ways: comp: xliii. 16; 1. 2; li. 10;

The Lord will brandish the scourge over Assy- Ixiii. .11 ; Ps. Ixvi. 6; lxxiv. 13; lxxvii. 20 ria as He smote Midian at the rock of Oreb lxxvii. 13; cxiv. 3, etc. (comp. ix. 3). That was one of the most glorious At the time referred to Israel shall be freed victories of the Israelites; but the glory of it be- from the yoke of Assyria (ix. 3 ; xiv. 25), which longed neither to Gideon nor to his army, but to is signified first by the figure of the load of a beast the Lord (Jud. vii. 2 sqq., 25). The second l of burden, second by that of the yoke.


LIGHT OF ITS FINAL RUIN. CHAP. X. 28–34. 28 He is come to Aiath, he is passed to Migron;

At Michmash he hath laid up his carriages : 29 They are gone over the passage:

They have taken up their lodging at Geba;
Ramah is afraid ;

Gibeah of Saul is fled.
30 'Lift up thy voice, O daughter of Gallim:

"Cause it to be heard unto Laish,

O poor Anathoth. 31 Madmenah is removed ;

The inhabitants of Gebim gather themselves to flee. 32 «As yet shall he remain at Nob that day:

He shall shake his hand against the mount of the daughter of Zion,

The hill of Jerusalem.
33 Behold, the Lord, the LORD of hosts,

Shall lop the bough with terror :
And the 'high ones of stature shall be hewn down,

And the haughty shall be humbled.
34 And he shall cut down the thickets of the forest with iron,

And Lebanon 6shall fall 'by a mighty one.

1 Heb. Cry shrill with thy voice. • baggage.

b Hark Laish.

o takes flight. leafy coronal.

f the giants of the standing wood are felled.

2 Or, mightily.
d yet to-day in Nob to halt.
8 he fells.

TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On ver. 28. x3 with Sy like Jud. xviii. 27, it means tail,” Josh. x. 19; 0903 “ to eradicate," Ps. lii. 7; Spo "the falling over on."--T"pon, commisit, mandavit, de

"to remove stoneg," v. 2. (As in English one says

to stone,” i. e., take the stones out). This wo is år. posuit, Jer. xxxvi. 20; xl. 7; xl. 10. On ver. 32. 793' Pilel, only here ; Hiph. with similar dey.--77X9 an. dey., as regards meaning is certainly

identical with 17785, Ezek. xvii. 6; xxxi. 5, 6, 8, 12, 13. meaning, xi. 15 ; xiii. 2; xix. 16; 2 Kings v. 11. The swinging of the hand is the gesture of one threatening. It appears to be a poetic expression for the grand, lax-1977 stands in accus. localis ; K'thibh has 793-793, nal meaning splendere, nitere, comp. 789, 77X0A.

urious branch and leafy growth of the tree (739 origiwhich is found nowhere else, and probably results from a ' .

1737yn, är. dey. is “terror" in an active gense - perterrefactio.-,731P

"that which is standing, the trunks, On ver. 33. Wo (comp. 7VD xvii. 6; xxvii. 10), Pi.

the standing timber" (comp. xxxvii. 24). denominatirum and privativum like the German aesten from Asi, Koepjen from Kopf (comp. 2:1 “to cut off the

On ver. 24. 72 only here in Isaiah may be either Niph. or Piel.

הר בית יהוה a confounding with

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The foregoing disposes the reader to look | a valley North of the city. [Concerning the lofor an immediate portrayal of the destruction of cation of all the places named in the text conAssyria. But to his surprise the Prophet trans- sult "ROBINSON and Smith's Bib. Res. in Palates him back into the commencement of the lestine, Vol. II.]. hostilities of Assyria, against Israel (vers. 28-32). Migron, which is mentioned beside only 1 This first onslaught of Assyria was so impetuous, Sam. xiv. 2 but in all probability this passage that it seemed as if Jerusalem could not resist. is corrupt: ARNOLD in HERZ. R. Encycl. XIỹ. But it only appeared so. How little dangerous p. 755) appears to have been quite insignificant. that onslaught was appears from the brief de- DELITZSCH regards it as identical with Burgfeription of the inevitable, impending ruin of Magran, a cluster of ruins eight minutes from the world-power, that immediately follows (vers. Bethel. But, then, would they not have marched 33, 34). A contrast is hereby presented that backwards ? Michmash, a city of Benjamin as gives a most striking effect, which is still more all the rest named here, plays an important part enhanced by the masterly, dramatic representa in the history of Saul and Jonathan, í Sam. xiii., tion of the march of the Assyrians against Jeru- xiv. It still exists as a small deserted village salem. So that this little passage proves to be a with the name Muchmas one hour North of master-piece of Art, both by its arrangement as Geba (now Dscheba), three hours and a half a whole and its execution in detail.

North of Jerusalem (ROBINSON and S. II. comp. 2. He comes -the bill of Jerusalem.- RUETSCHI, HERZ. R. Encycl. IX. p. 526). There Vers. 28–32. These verses describe the last part the Assyrians left their baggage in order to press of the march to Jerusalem. For, no doubt, Aiath on quicker. “The passage of Michmash” is is the same as Ai that lay North-east of Jeru- mentioned 1 Sam. xiii. and xiv. It is the Wadysalem (Y' or 'yon? “the stone heap,” Josh. vii. 2 es-Suweinit (according to others es-Suweikeh sqq., x*y Neh. xi. 31, 79 [false reading 17); forty-eight minutes wide, immediately below

comp. RUETSCHI, l. c.)-a deep, rough ravine, 1 Chr. vii. 28), which is probably identical with Michmash. As it runs from East to West, they Day (Josh. xviii. 23) comp. Fay in loc.). Finn, must cross it obliquely to approach Jerusalem. VAN DE VELDE, ARNOLD, KNOBEL, identify The ravine is difficult to traverse. It is hardly Aiath in Tell-el-Hadschar that lies less than an credible that the proper highway from Shechem hour South-east of Beitin (Bethel). On the other or Nabulus (comp. ARNOLD in Herz. R. Encycl. hand DELITZSCH, following SCHEgg who per- XV. p. 163 sq. Art. “ Strassen in Palaestina,”) sonally investigated the spot, locates Aiath about passed through it. The Prophet's description is six hours north of Jerusalem in Tejjibe, that is ideal. He depicts not what is past but what is situated on a hill with an extended prospect, in future, and that, not in the manner of historical whose neighborhood there is still found a small accuracy, but as became his prophetic interests, village, Churbet Ai. It will perhaps depend on He would depict how the enemy presses forward whether the locality of Tejjibe corresponds with with utmost speed, by the shortest way, deterred Josh. viii. 11, 13, according to which there was I by no obstacles. On the arduous way they

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